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A copy of most of the above works, and of the pamphlets named in the preceding Appendix, will be placed in each of the “Libraries of Education," and will be accessible to teachers, committees and others, subject to such regulations only as may be necessary to preserve the books.
In addition to the above volumes, the following are worthy a place in every “ Library of Education.”
LECTURES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION from 1830 to 1845. Sixteen volumes.
These volumes embrace more than 150 Lectures and Essays, on a great variety of important topics, by some of the ablest scholars and most successful teachers in the country.
TRANSACTIONS OF THE WESTERN LITERARY INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE OF PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS, from 1834 to 1840. Eight volumes.
THE SCHOOLMASTER's FRIEND, with the Committee-man's Guide, by Theodore Dwight, Jr., pp. 360. New York, Roe Lockwood, 415, Broadway. 1835.
THE TEACHER, or Moral Influences in the Instruction and Government of the Young, by Jacob Abbott. Boston, Whipple & Damrell, No. 9, Cornhill. pp. 314. Price 75 cents.
This excellent work is out of market, or it would have been placed in the “ Library of Education."
THEORY OF TEACHING, with a few Practical Illustrations, by a Teacher. Boston, E. P. Peabody, 1841. pp. 128.
Cousin's REPORT ON PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN PRUSSIA, translated by Sarah Austin. New York, Wiley & Long, 1835.
DISTRICT School, by J. Orville Taylor. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1834.
PRACTICAL EDUCATION, by Maria Edgeworth. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1835.
LOCKE AND MILTON ON EDUCATION. Boston, Gray & Brown, 1830.
REPORT ON EDUCATION IN EUROPE, by Alexander Dallas Bache. Philadelphia : Lydia R. Bailey, 1839. pp. 666.
THE EDUCATION OF MOTHERS, by L. Aimé-Martin. Philadelphia, Lee & Blanchard, 1843.
EDUCATION AND HEALTH, by Amariah Brigham. Boston, Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1833.
SchooL KEEPING, by an Experienced Teacher. Philadelphia, John Grigg, 1831.
EDUCATIONAL PERIODICALS. The following notice of the various Educational Journals which have been published in this country, may be useful to those who are investigating the history of education.
THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Boston. Published monthly in numbers of sixty-four pages octavo. Commenced in 1826, and merged in the Annals of Education in 1831. The set consists of five volumes.
AMERICAN ANNALS OF EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION, Boston. Com. menced in 1831, and discontinued at the close of 1839. The set embraces nine volumes. It was edited at different periods by William Russell, W. C. Woodbridge, Dr. Alcott, and other able writers on Éducation.
The above works were the able pioneers in the cause of Educational im. provement. Nearly all of that has been accomplished within the last fifteen years, was first suggested through the columns of the Journal and Annals of Education. The above fourteen volumes constitute now a valuable series, which all who are interested in school improvement, can read with great advantage to themselves.
THE SCHOOLMASTER AND ADVOCATE OF EDUCATION, published by W. Marshall & Co., Philadelphia, and edited by J. Frost. Commenced in January, 1836, and discontinued at the close of the year.
THE MONTHLY JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Philadelphia, 1835, edited by E. C. Wines. Commenced January, 1835, and was discontinued in the course of the year.
THE COMMON SCHOOL Assistant, Albany and New York, Edited by J. Orville Taylor. Commenced in 1836, and discontinued in 1840.
This cheap periodical was widely and powerfully instrumental in waking up a lively interest in the subject of common school improvement.
The EDUCATOR, Easton, Pennsylvania, Edited by Robert Cunningham; then a Professor in Lafayette College, Easton, and now the Principal or Rector of the Normal School of Glasgow, Scotland.
Prof. Cunningham came to this country with the view of establishing a Normal School on a liberal scale, but he found after years of trial, that his views were greatly in advance of public opinion and liberality on this subject.
The Educator was commenced in April, and discontinued in August 1839.
The Ohio COMMON SCHOOL DIRECTOR, Columbus, Ohio, Published by authority of the General Assembly of Ohio, and Edited by Samuel Lewis, Superintendent of Common Schools.
The Director was commenced in March, 1838, and was discontinued in November, 1838.
It was the first periodical established under State authority, and was highly useful in organizing the new system of Common Schools established in the winter of 1838.
THE MICHIGAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. Detroit, Michigan, Edited by John D. Pierce, Superintendent of Public Instruction. "Commenced in March, 1838, and discontinued in February, 1840.
THE DISTRICT School JouRNAL FOR THE STATE OF New.YORK, is published monthly under the patronage of the State, at Albany, and edited by Francis Dwight, Superintendent of Common Schools for the county of Albany:-Price, fifty cents a year.
This Journal was commenced by Mr. Dwight, at Geneva, in March, 1840. Under the authority of An Act, passed in May, 1841, the Superintendent of Common Schools subscribed for a sufficient number of copies (ten thousand and eight hundred) to supply each organized school districi in the State, and made it his official organ of communication with the officers and inhabitants of the several districts. The publication office was removed from Geneva to Alba. ny in June, 1841, where it is now printed by C. Van Benthuysen.
THE CONNECTICOT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL. Hartford, Connecticut. Published under the direction of the Board of Commissioners of Common Schools, and Edited by Henry BARNARD, 2d, Secretary of the Eoard.
This Journal was commenced in August, 1838, and discontinued in September, 1842.
THE COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL is published semi-monthly by Fowle and Capen, 184 Washington street, Boston, and edited by Horace Mann, Secretary of the Board of Education for Massachusetts ; price, $1,00, payable in ad
Each number contains sixteen pages octavo. This Journal was commenced in November, 1838, and embraces all the offi. cial documents of the Board of Education, and their Secretary.
ILLINOIS COMMON School. AdvocaTE, Springfield, Illinois. Commenced May, 1841, and discontinued with the sixth number.
THE TEACHER'S ADVOCATE. E. Cooper, editor, and L. W. Hall, publisher. Syracuse, New York. Price $2 per annum.
The Advocate was started under the auspices of the State Convention of Teachers, in September, 1845, and is issued weekly.
Documents referred to in the Report of the Commissioner of Public Schools,
submitted November 1, 1845.
HISTORY AND CONDITION
LEGISLATION OF RHODE ISLAND RESPECTING PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
In the original polity of Rhode Island, there was no provision for education. Like religion, it seems to have been considered not the concern of the public, but matter for individual conscience and parental duty. The first movement towards the introduction of a different policy was made by the Provi. dence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers. In October, 1798, a committee of that body was appointed“ to inquire into the most desirable method for the establishment of Free Schools.” This committee, after “frequent consultations on the subject,” reported in January, 1799, that “an immediate application be made to the General Assembly, to provide for the establishment of Free Schools throughout the State." This report was accepted, and at the February session, 1799, the subject was brought to the attention of the Legislature, in the following admirable document drawn up by John Howland, Esq. of Providence.
The Memorial and Petition of the Providence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers, respectfully represents:
That the means of Education which are enjoyed in this State, are very inadequate to a purpose so highly important:
That numbers of the rising generation, whom nature has liberally endowed, are suffered to grow up in ignorance, when a common education would qualify them to act their parts in life with advantage to the public, and reputation to themselves : That in consequence of there being no legal provision for the establishment of schools, and for want of public attention and encouragement, this so essential a part of our social duty is left to the partial patronage of individuals, whose cares do not extend beyond the limits of their own families, while numbers in every part of the State are deprived of a privilege which it is the common right of every child to enjoy :
That when to that respect, which, as individuals we feel ourselves bound to render to the representatives of the people, we add our public declaration of gratitude for the privileges we enjoy as a corporate body, we at the same time solicit this Honorable Assembly to make legal provision for the establishment of Free Schools sufficient to educate all the children in the several towns throughout the State; with great confidence, we bring this our earnest solicitation before this Honorable Assembly, from the interest we feel in the public welfare, and from the consideration that our society is composed of members, not originally of any one particular town, but assembled mostly in our early years from almost every town in the State.
That we feel as individuals, the want of that education which we now ask to be bestowed on those who are to succeed us in life, and which is so essential, in directe ing its common concerns. That we feel a still greater degree of confidence from the consideration that while we pray this Honorable Assembly to establish Free Schools, we are at the same time, advocating the cause of the great majority of children throughout the State, and in particular, of those who are poor and destitute-the son of the widow, and the child of distress.
Trusting that our occupation as mechanics and manufacturers ought not to prevent us from adding to these reasons an argument which cannot fail to onerate on those to whom is committed the guardianship of the public welfare, and that is, that liberty and security, under a republican form of government, depend on a general diffusion of knowledge among the people.
In confiding this petition and the reasons which have dictated it, to the wisdom of the Legislature, we assure ourselves that their decision will be such, as will reflect on this Honorable Assembly the praise and the gratitude, not only of the youth of the present generation, but of thousands, the date of whose existence has not commenced.
The subject was referred to a committee, who reported in June, a bill which was ordered to be printed, and referred to the freemen of the several towns for instructions. The following extracts are taken from the instructions of Providence to their representatives.
On the question of free schools, gentlemen, all party distinctions are broken down; here there can be no clashing interesis. On this sul ject one section of the State cannot be opposed to another. Before this benevolent idea, every partial, narrow motive of local policy must disappear. As we are confident, that the gen. eral object of the bill can meet with no opposition, the only question which can arise, will be on some of its particular provisions, as 10 the best mode of carrying its general principles into effect. On this point of the subject we would recommend to you to support the adoption of the bill in its present form, as any inconvenience which may arise in particular districts, can, at any time, be removed after the law is in operation, when experience can point out to the legislature the expediency of a different arrangement.
Fully confident of the patriotism of our fellow citizens throughout the State, that they are actualed by the same anxious solicitude for the public good, we doubt not but their representatives and ours will meet at the next session, bringing with them the rich deposit of the public sentiment, and by an unanimous voice, establish Free Schools throughoui the State; then will that glory which attaches itself to purest benevolence, and to the highest acts of public virtue, rest on their heads; and ihe members of the Rhode Island Legislature, having thus before the close of the eighteenth century, provided for the full enjoyment of a right which forms so essential an article in the great system of social order, will be mentioned with high expressions of gratitude and honor, through the ages and generations which are to succeed.
At the October session following, a bill was passed by the House of Representatives, but was postponed in the Senate to the next February session, 1800, when it received the concurrence of that body and became a law, with the following preamble:
" AN ACT to Establish Free Schools. Whereas, the unexampled prosperity, unanimity and liberty, for the enjoyment of which, this nation is eminently distinguished among the nations of the earth, are to be ascribed, next to the blessing of God, to the general diffusion of knowledge and information among the people, whereby they have been enabled to discern their true interests, to distinguish truth from error, to place their con. fidence in the true friends of the country, and to detect the falsehoods and misrepresentations of factious and crafty pretenders to patriotism; and this General Assembly being desirous to secure the continuance of the blessings aforesaid, and moreover to contribute to the greater equality of the people, by the common' and joint instruction and education of the whole :
Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly, and the authorities thereof, and it is hereby enacted , That each and every town in the State shall annually cause to be established and kept, at the expense of such town, one or more free schools, for the instruction of all the white inhabitants of said town, between the ages of six and twenty years, in reading, writing, and common arithmetic, who may stand in need of such instruction, and apply therefor.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the Town Council of every town, to divide said town into so many school districts as they shall judge necessary and convenient.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That each of the towns of Newport and Providence shall cause to be established and kept every year, so many free schools, and for such terms of time, as shall be equivalent to keeping three such schools eight months each; that each of the towns of South Kingstown, Glouces. ter and Smithfield shall cause to be established and kept every year, so many free schools as shall be equivalent to keeping three such schools six months each; 'That each of the towns of Portsmouth, Trenton, Little Compton, Scituate, Cumberland, Cranston, Johnston, Foster, Westerly, North Kingstown, Charleston, Ex. eter, Richmond, Hopkinton, Bristol, Warwick, East Greenwich, West Greenwich and Coventry, shall cause to be established and kept, in every year, so many free schools as shall be equivalent to keeping three such schools four months each ; and that the towns of Middleton, Jamestown, New Shoreham, North Providence, Warren and Barrington, shall cause to be established and kept, in every year, so many free schools as shall be equivalent to keeping one such school four months.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That for the encouragement of institutions so useful, there shall be allowed and paid to the Town Treasurer of each town, or his order, out of the General Treasury, at the end of every year, computing from the first Wednesday in May next, twenty per centum of the amount of the State taxes of the preceding year paid into the General Treasury by said town; provided the said sum or allowance of twenty per cent. shall not exceed, in the whole, the sum of six thousand dollars in any one year.
And the town making application to the General Treasurer for said allowance, shall exhibit and deliver to him a certificate, signed by the Town Council, Town Treasurer, and School Master or School Masters of such town, that a school or schools have been established and kept in said town, according to the provisions of this act, and specifying the number of schools and the term of time for which each school shall have been kept.
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the allowances aforesaid, when paid to the Town Treasurers, shall be, and remain exclusively appropriated to the establishment and support of free schools, and shall be paid out, under the orders of the several Town Councils, for the benefit of the school or schools which shall be kept in the districts established by them, as aforesaid, in proportion to the number of persons in the several districts entitled to instruction in the said schools, by virtue of this act.
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That if any town shall neglect, or refuse to establish and keep free schools, in the manner prescribed in this act, such town