Civil Calendar and Lunar Calendar in Ancient Egypt
This investigation is concerned with ancient Egyptian calendars. Its specific focus is one of the oldest problems of the study of these calendars: the so-called problem of the month names. This work's main purpose is to suggest an explanation for the Brugsch phenomenon. The Brugsch phenomenon is one of the two main aspects of the problem of the month names. The other is the Gardiner phenomenon. No new theory is presented for the Gardiner phenomenon. As a problem, the Brugsch phenomenon is slightly older than the Gardiner Phenomenon. It has occupied center stage in the study of ancient Egyptian calendars since the early days of this endeavor. In 1870, Heinrich Brugsch, the great pioneer in this subject, wrote about the phenomenon, "Here we encounter all at once the most curious contradiction." Just recently, Rolf Krauss has described the contradiction as still "unsolved". The Brugsch phenomenon concerns the indisputable fact that the last or twelfth month of the Egyptian civil year can be named as if it were the first. Two month names are involved. The first is wp rnpt. Its meaning "opener of the year," refers to a beginning. The second month name is mswt r' "birth of Re" in hieroglyphic Egyptian, Mesore in Aramaic, Greek and Coptic. Both can otherwise also refer to New Year's Day, the quintessential calendrical beginning.
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Theory of the Straddle Month
The Civil Month Names in Ancient Egypt
The Brugsch Phenomenon and the Gardiner Phenomenon
The Sources for the Brugsch Phenomenon
Intervals Reckoned by the Moon in Temple Records and Two Double
The Civilbased Lunar Calendar and Its Relation to the Civil Cal
The Causes of the Brugsch Phenomenon
The Gardiner Phenomenon
according ancient Egypt appears argument associated assumed astronomical beginning Borchardt Brugsch phenomenon called century certain civil calendar civil day civil month civil month name civil-based lunar calendar conclusion conjunction considered contradiction cycle denote derived described discussed distinct documents double dates doubt Ebers Calendar Edfu Egyptian Egyptian calendars event evidence example exhibit existence explanation fact falls feast five follows four Gardiner phenomenon Greek hand ḥb instances interpretation involves IV šmw later lists lunar day lunar month meaning Mesore month names monthly pairing moon mswt nature noted observation occurred Papyrus Parker period pertaining phenomena position possible present probably problem refer regards relation rising rule seasonal seems sense sequence shift single šmw solar sources straddle month structure temple term theophoric civil set theophoric set theory third transfer wp rnpt yearly pairing