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FIG. 44.

zn

whirls from east, through south, to west, on the south side of the equator. The sketch at figures 4 and 5, will make this plain to the eye.

The points of the arrow-heads, in fig. 4, show the direction in

N wbich the hurricane revolves in the northern hemisphere. The same in fig. 5, show how it goes in the southern hemisphere. W

E If any one were standing in the centre of the whirl, the motion would be round him from right to left in the first case, and from left to right in the

N second case. The hurricane revolves in the same

direction with the hands of a watch, in the southern hemisphere; and in a di- w

FIG.5.

E rection opposite to that of the hands of a watch, in the northern hemisphere. This is a very important distinction, because by attending

S to it, and shaping his course the right way, on first falling in with the storm, the sailor now knows how to keep himself clear of its fury, and to sail out of its path, instead of allowing himself to be drawn quite through its centre, as otherwise he would have been almost sure to have done.

No one yet knows exactly how the hurricane is

are

caused. It is not so easy to unravel its secret mysteries as it has proved to be with other winds. It, however, is obviously formed in strict accordance with some fixed and unfailing law. This is proved by its whirl always pursuing a determinate direction. It has been remarked, too, that it likes to have its feet in hot water. It is only produced where there

warm ocean-streams immediately beneath, and where, accordingly, abundance of vapour is steamed up into the atmosphere. Another thing, too, is clear. It is not a steady fire which sets going the draught of the whirlwind. It is no simple sun-furnace which invites its giddy and impetuous rush

It is an instantaneous and momentary burst, more of the nature of an explosion, which puts its reeling eddies in movement. In all probability, some large void space is created for a moment, either by intense electrical excitement, or by an extensive and rapid condensation of

vapour

into water, or by some analogous proceeding, and the entire depth of the atmosphere immediately becomes concerned in filling up the gap, and effacing the void. The elastic aerial substance, pressed forward by the superincumbent weight of nearly a ton upon every square foot, rushes in from all sides; and having filled up the empty space, then whirls away, spinning off for hundreds of miles, under the exuberant force brought into play. The centre of the eddy is a calm, because the air tends to fly outward from it in all directions, as sparks fly off from a revolving firework, or as waterspray is thrown off from a revolving grindstone. It is the extreme elasticity of the thin aerial substance which leads to all the violence and convulsion experienced in the movements of the winds.

When once a small measure of disturbance has been produced, the disturbed particles rush back, and then sway to and fro in a wild, mad way, before they can again settle down into a state of equipoise and rest.

It is the irritable and highly-stretched temper of the invisible air which leads to the “inconstancy of the wind.”

romances,

LESSON 55.-PATRIOTISM. Sir WALTER Scott, a voluminous and powerful writer, was born at Edinburgh, 1771. He is celebrated for his romantic poems, "The Lay of the Last Minstrel,” Marmion,” “The Lady of the Lake,” &c., and for his prose

“ The Waverley Novels.” He was a man of high honour and strict integrity, and he died universally regretted, 1832.

BREATHES there the man, with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,

This is my own, my native land !
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned,

From wandering on a foreign strand !-
If such there breathe, go, mark him well;
For him no minstrel raptures swell ;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim;
Despite those titles, power, and pelf,
The wretch, concentred all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung,
Unwept, unhonoured, and unsung. .

O Caledonia ! stern and wild,
Meet nurse for a poetic child !
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,
Land of the mountain and the flood,
Land of my sires ! what mortal hand
Can e'er untie the filial band,
That knits me to thy rugged strand !
Still, as I view each well-known scene,
Think what is now, and what hath been,
Seems as, to me, of all bereft,
Sole friends thy woods and streams were left;
And thus I love them better still,
Even in extremity of ill.

By Yarrow's stream still let me stray,
Though none should guide my feeble way;
Still feel the breeze down Ettricke break,
Although it chill my withered cheek;
Still lay my head by Teviot stone,
Though there, forgotten and alone,
The Bard may draw his parting groan.—Sir W. Scott.

LESSON 56.-LOCHINVAR.
O, YOUNG Lochinvar is come out of the west,
Through all the wide Border his steed was the best,
And save his good broad-sword he weapons

had

none;
He rode all unarmed, and he rode all alone.
So faithful in love, and so dauntless in war,
There never was knight like the young Lochinvar.
He stayed not for brake, and he stopped not for stone,
He swam the Eske river where ford there was none;
But, ere he alighted at Netherby gate,
The bride had consented, the galla:t came late :
For a laggard in love, and a dastard in war,
Was to wed the fair Ellen of brave Lochinvar.
So boldly he entered the Netherby hall,
Among bride's-men and kinsmen, and brothers and all:
Then spoke the bride's father, his hand on his sword,

(For the poor craven bridegroom said never a word,) O come ye in peace here, or come ye in war,

Or to dance at our bridal, young Lord Lochinvar?“I long wooed your daughter, my suit you denied ;

Love swells like the Solway, but ebbs like its tide-
And now I am come, with this lost love of mine,
To lead but one measure, drink one cup of wine.
There are maidens in Scotland more lovely by far,
That would gladly be bride to the young Lochinvar."
The bride kissed the goblet; the knight took it up,
He quaffed off the wine, and he threw down the cup,
She looked down to blush, and she looked up to sigh,
With a smile on her lips and a tear in her eye.

He took her soft hand, ere her mother could bar,“Now tread we a measure !” said

young

Lochinvar. So stately his form, and so lovely her face, That never a hall such a galliard did grace ; While her mother did fret, and her father did fume, And the bridegroom stood dangling his bonnet and plume ; And the bride-maidens whispered, ' 'Twere better by far To have matched our fair cousin with

young

Lochinvar.” One touch to her hand, and one word in her ear, When they reached the hall door and the charger stood near; So light to the croupe the fair lady he swung, So light to the saddle before her he sprung !“She is won! we are gone, over bank, bush, and scaur ; They'll have fleet steeds that follow," quoth young Lochinvar, There was mounting ʼmong Græmes of the Netherby clan; Forsters, Fenwicks, and Musgraves, they rode and they ran; There was racing, and chasing, on Cannobie Lee, But the lost bride of Netherby ne'er did they see. So daring in love, and so dauntless in war, Have ye e'er heard of gallant like young Lochinvar ?

Sir W. Scott.

LESSON 57.-FITZJAMES & RODERICK DHU.

The Chief in silence strode before,
And reached that torrent's sounding shore,
Which, daughter of three mighty lakes,
From Vennachar in silver breaks,
Sweeps through the plain, and ceaseless mines
On Bochastle the mouldering lines,
Where Rome, the Empress of the world,
Of yore her eagle wings unfurled.
And here his course the Chieftain stayed,
Threw down his target and his plaid,

And to the Lowland warrior said :-
“Bold Saxon! to his promise just,

Vinch-Alpine bas discharged his trust.
This murderous chief, this ruthless man,
This head of a rebellious clan,

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