Self and Society: Narcissism, Collectivism, and the Development of Morals

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Cambridge University Press, Oct 31, 1985 - Psychology - 438 pages
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The relation between individual and collective processes is central to the social sciences, yet difficult to conceptualize because of the necessity of crossing disciplinary boundaries. The result is that researchers in different disciplines construct their own implicit, and often unsatisfactory, models of either individual or collective phenomena, which in turn influence their theoretical and empirical work. In this book, Drew Westen attempts to cross these boundaries, proposing an interdisciplinary approach to personality, to culture, and to the relation between the two. Part I of the book sets forth a model of personality that integrates psychodynamic analysis with an understanding of cognitively mediated conditioning and social learning. In Part II, Westen offers a view of culture that blends symbolic and materialist modes of discourse, examining the role of both ideals and 'material' needs in motivating symbolic as well as concrete social structural processes. In Part III, he combines these models of personality and culture through an examination of cultural evolution and stasis, identity and historical change, and the impact of technological development on personality. Throughout the book, Westen provides reviews of the state of the art in a variety of fields, including personality theory, moral development, ego development, and culture theory. He also addresses and recasts central issues in psychology, sociology, anthropology, and social theory, such as the relations between emotion and cognition; social learning and psychodynamics; ideals and material forces; and individual and collective action. His book will appeal to students and scholars in all the social sciences, as well as to any reader concerned with understanding the relation between individuals and the world in which they live.
 

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Self and society: narcissism, collectivism, and the development of morals

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Westen proposes to combine the "traditionally distinct'' psychological and sociocultural theories into a more heuristic and congruent schema. Focusing on the theories of behavior and psychic dynamics ... Read full review

Contents

Personality Theory The Three Faces of Psyche
3
Psychoanalysis and Its Discontents
4
Skinnerian Behaviorism and the Response to Its Stimulus
9
Humanistic and Existential Psychology
16
Theories Past and Present
18
Emotion A Missing Link between Psychodynamic and CognitiveBehavioral Psychology?
22
CounterConditioning Behaviorism to Respond to Emotions
24
Defenses Can Be Reinforced
30
The Development of Collectivism and the Culture Ideal
241
Primary Communitarian Collectivism
245
Secondary Communitarian Collectivism
255
Individuated Collectivism
266
Synthetic Collectivism
280
Personality and Culture A Synthesis
283
Culture and Personality Dying Species or Vigorous Hybrid?
285
The Cultural Configuration Approach
288

Systems Theory and the Integration of Two Relatively Closed Systems
33
Where Drive Was There Shall Affect Be
49
Must We Feel What We Think We Feel?
64
A General Model
71
Stress Coping and Affect
91
Conclusion
96
The Structure and Dynamics of Personality
97
SelfNeeds and OtherNeeds
98
Ego Real and Ego Ideal
103
The Development of Personality Narcissism and Moral Judgment
128
Current Perspectives
129
Internal Narcissism
154
External Narcissism
162
Synthetic Narcissism
176
Conclusion
180
A Theory of Culture
187
Social Theory in Sociology and Anthropology
189
Classical Social Theory and the Sociological Tradition
191
Affinity and Consanguinity in Anthropological Theories
194
Prospects and Retrospects
210
Societal Structure and Dynamics
216
Groupneeds and Memberneeds
217
Culture Real and Culture Ideal
219
The Uses and Abuses of Teleology
229
Class as a Multifaceted Phenomenon
234
The Case of the Starving Cow
237
The Personality Mediation Approach
289
Darwin Meets Oedipus
293
Approaches Past and Present
296
Psychic and Sociocultural Structure and Dynamics
299
Stasis and Change
306
Personality and Communitarian Collectivism
310
The Psychodynamics of Modernization
330
Empirical Psychodynamic and Sociological Approaches
333
Self versus Other
346
The Apostasy of Early Internalizations
349
Conclusion
352
Personality and Sociocultural Change
355
Personality and the Breakdown of Meaning
356
A Javanese Example
360
Breakdown and Recovery Paradigmatic Processes in Personal Identity and Cultural Integration
367
Kuhnian Scientific Revolutions
368
Revitalization Movements
371
The Structure of Religious Experience
373
Identity Crisis and Identity Formation
375
Brainwashing as Forced Identity Resynthesis
377
Rites of Passage as Forced Identity Resynthesis
380
Paradigmatic Processes and the Identity of Two Identities
382
Personality and Individuation
386
References
394
Index
431
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