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TEXT. 22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise,

by faith of Jesus Christ, might be given to them that believe. 23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up

unto the faith, which should afterwards be revealed. 24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster, to bring us unto

Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

24 Wherefore ith, which shou were kepremde the

PARAPHRASE. could have put us in a state of life *, certainly 22 righteousness should have been by law f. But

we find the quite contrary by the scripture, which makes no distinction betwixt jew and gentile, in this respect, but has shut up together all mankind I, jews and gentiles, under sin and guilt, that the blessing || which was promised, to that which is

Abraham's true and intended seed, by faith in Christ, 23 might be given to those who believe. But, before »

Christ, and the doctrine of justification by faith
in him, came, we jews were shut up as a company
of prisoners together, under the custody and inflexi-
ble rigour of the law, unto the coming of the Mes-

siah, when the doctrine of justification by faith ** 24 in him should be revealed. So that the law, by its

severity, served as a schoolmaster to bring us to


21 * Zworroiñoal, “ Put into a state of life.” The Greek word signifies to make alive. St. Paul considers all men here, as in a mortal state, and to be put out of that mortal state, into a state of life, he calls being made alive, This, he says, the law could not do, because it could not confer righteousness.

t "Ex vous, by law, i.e. by works, or obedience to that law, which tended towards righteousness, as well as the promise, but was not able to reach, or cunfer it. See Rom. viii. 3, i.e. frail men were not able to attain righteousness by an exact conforniity of their actions to the law of righteousness.

22 † Tà aásla, All, is used here for all men. The apostle, Rom. iii. 9, and 19, expresses the same thing by wkslas, all men; and wās ó xóguos, all the world. But speaking in the text here of the jews, in particular, he says, We, meaning those of his own nation, as is evident from ver. 24, 25.

$ Under sin, i. e. rank them all together, as one guilty race of sinners: see this proved, Rom, iii. 9. I, 18, &c. To the same purpose of putting both jews and gentiles into one state, St. Paul uses ouvexMEboe dávlas, “ hath shut them up “ all together,” Rom. xi. 32.

|| The thing promised in this chapter, sometimes called Blessing, ver, 9, 14; sometimes Inheritance, ver. 18; sometimes Justification, ver. 11, 24; sometimes Righteousness, ver, 21; and sometimes Life, ver. 11, 2).

23 I By faith, see ver. 14.
** Justification by faith, see ver. 24.

TEXT. 25 But, after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.

PARAPHRASE. 25 Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But

Christ being come, and with him the doctrine of justification by faith, we are set free from this school. master, there is no longer any need of him.


CHAP. III. 26–29.

CONTENTS. As a further argument to dissuade them from circumcision, he tells the galatians, that by faith in Christ, all, whether jews or gentiles, are made the children of God; and so they stood in no need of circumcision.

TEXT. 26 For ye are all the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus. 27 For as many of you, as have been baptized into Christ, have put

on Christ. 28 There is neither jew nor greek, there is neither bond nor free,


26 For ye are * all the children of God, by faith in 27 Christ Jesus. For as many of you, as have been 28 baptized in Christ, have put on † Christ. There

NOTES. 26 * All, i. e. both jews and gentiles.

27 + Put on Christ. This, which, at first sight, may seem a very bold meta. phor, if we consider what St. Paul has said, ver, ló, and 26, is admirably adapted to express his thoughts in a few words, and has a great grace in it. He says, ver, 16, that “ the sced to which the promise was made, was but one, and " that one was Christ.” And ver. 26, he declares, “ that by faith in Christ, “ they all became the sons of God.” To lead them into an easy conception how this is done, be here tells them, that, by taking on them the profession of

TEXT. there is neither male nor female : for ye are all one in Christ

Jesus. 29 And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.

PARAPHRASE. is no distinction of jew or gentile, or bond or free,

of male or female. For ye are all one body, making 29 up one person in Christ Jesus. And if ye are all

one in Christ Jesus, * ye are the true ones, seed of Abraham, and heirs according to the propose.

NOTES. t he gospel, they have, as it were, put on Christ; so that to God, now looking on them, there appears nothing but Christ. They are, as it were, covered all over with him, as a man is with the cloaths he hath put on. And hence he says, in the next vers, that “they are all one in Christ Jesus," as if there were but that one person.

29 # The Clermont copy reads ei dè Úpeīs els és è év Xpusý'Incê, “ And if ye “ are one in Christ Jesus,” more suitable as it seems, to the apostle's argument. For, ver. 28, he says, “ They are all one in Christ Jesus ; ” from whence the inference in the following words of the Clermont copy, is natural : “ And if " ye be one in Christ Jesus, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according “ to promise."


CHAP. IV. 1-11.


In the first part of this section he further shows, that the law was not against the promise, in that the child is not disinherited, by being under tutors. But the chief design of this section is to show, that though both jews and gentiles were intended to be the children of God, and heirs of the promise by faith in Christ, yet they both of them were left in bondage, the jews to the law, ver. 3, and the gentiles to false gods, ver 8, until Christ in due time came to redeem them both; and, therefore, it was folly in the galatians, being redeemed from one bondage, to go backwards, and put themselves again in a state of bondage, though under a new master.

TEXT. 1 Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth no.

thing from a servant, though he be lord of all ; 2 But he is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of

the father. 3 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the

elements of the world : 4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his

son made of a woman, made under the law; 5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive

the adoption of sons. 6 And, because ye are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of his son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

PARAPHRASE. 1 Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child,

differeth nothing from a bondman, * though he be 2 lord of all; But is under tutors and guardians, until 3 the time prefixed by his father. So we † jews, whilst

we were children, were in bondage under the law. I 4 But when the time appointed for the coming of the

Messias was accomplished, God sent forth his Son, 5 made of a woman, and subjected to the law ; That

he might redeem those who were under the law, and set them free from it, that we, who believe, might be

put out of the state of bondmen, into that of sons. 6 Into which state of sons, it is evident that you, gala

tians, who were heretofore gentiles, are put; forasmuch as God hath sent forth his Spirit $ into your

NOTES. 1 * Bondman; so doữnos signifies; and unless it be so translated, ver 7, 8, Bondage ; ver. 3, 7, will scarce be understood by an English reader ; but St. Paul's sense will be lost to one, who, by Servant, understaods not one in a state of bondage.

3 + We. It is plain, St. Paul speaks here in the name of the jews, or jewish church, which, though God's peculiar people, yet was to pass its nonage (so St. Paul calls it) under the restraint and tutorage of the law, and not to receive the possession of the promised inheritance until Christ came.

I The law, he calls here sory chce xbo us, “ Elements, or rudiments of the “ world.” Because the observances and discipline of the law, which had restraint and bondage enough in it, led them not beyond the things of this world, into the possession, or state, of their spiritual and heavenly inheritance.

6 $ The same argument, of proving their sonship froin their having the Spirit, St. Paul uses to the Romans, Rom. viii, 16. And he that will read 2 Cor. iv,

TEXT. 7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son ; and if a son,

then an heir of God, through Christ. 8 Howbeit, then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them,

which by nature are no gods. 9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of

God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage ?

PARAPHRASE. 7 hearts, which enables you to cry Abba, Father. So

that thou art no longer a bondman, but a son : and if

a son, then an heir * of God, or of the promise of 8 God, though Christ. But then, i. e. before ye were made the sons of God, by faith in Christ, now under

the gospel, ye, not knowing God, were in bondage to 9 those, who were in truth no gods. But now, that ye

know God, yea rather, that ye are known t and taken into favour by him, how can it be that you, who have been put out of a state of bondage, into the freedom

NOTES. 17.1.6, and Eph. i. 11-14, will find, that the Spirit is looked on, as the seal and assurance of the inheritance of life, to those “ who have received the " adoption of sops," as St. Paul speaks here, ver. 5. The force of the argument seems to lie in this, that as he, that has the spirit of a man in him, has an evidence that he is the son of a man, so he, that hath the Spirit of God, has thereby an assurance that he is the Son of God. Copformable hereinto the opinion of the jews was, that the Spirit of God was given to none but themselves, they alone being the people or children of God; for God calls the people of Israel his sons, Exod. iv. 22, 23. And hence, we see, that when, to the astonishment of the jews, the Spirit was given to the gentiles, the jews no longer doubted, that the inheritance of eternal life was also conferred on the gentiles. Compare Acts X. 44---48, with Acts xi. 15-18.

7 * St. Paul from the galatians having received the Spirit, (as appears chap. iii. 2,) argues, that they are the sons of God without the law; and consequently beirs of the promise, without the law; for, says he, ver, 1-6, the jews themselves were fain to be redeemed from the bondage of the law, by Jesus Christ, that, as sons, they might attain to the inheritance. But you, galatians, says he, have, by the Spirit that is given yon by the ministry of the gospel, au evidence that God is your Father; and, being sons, are free from the bondage of the law, and heirs without it. The same sort of reasoning St. Paul uses to the Romans, ch. viii. 14-17.

9 + Known. It has been before observed, how apt St. Paul is to repeat his words, though something varied in their signification. We have here another instance of it: having said, “ Ye have known God,” he subjoins,“ or rather "s are known of him," in the Hebrew latitude of the word known ; in which language, it sometimes signifies knowing, with choice and approbation. See Aunos iii, 2, 1 Cor. viii. 3.

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