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TEXT. 10 And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to
be unto death, · 11 For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and
by it slew me. 12 Wherefore the law is holy; and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
PARAPHRASE. 10 And that very law, which was given me for the
attaining of life *, was found to produce death † to 11 me. For my mortal enemy, sin, taking the oppor.
tunity of my being under † the law, slew me by the law, which it inveigled me to disobey, i. e. the frailty and vicious inclinations of nature remaining in me under the law, as they were before, able stiil to bring me into transgressions, each whereof was
mortal, sin had, by my being under the law, a sure 12 opportunity of bringing death upon me. So that ||
the law is holy, just, and good, such as the eternal, immutable rule of right and good required it to be.
NOTES. under the terms of the gospel. In the following part of this chapter, he show them, that it is necessary for them so to do; since the law was not able to de. liver them from the power, sin had to destroy them, but subjected them to it. This part of the chapter showing at large what he says, ch. viii. 3, and so may be looked on as an explication and proof of it.
10 That the commandments of the law were given to the israelites, that they might have life by them ; see Lev. xviii. 5, Matt. xix. 17.
† The law, which was just, and such as it ought to be, in having the penalty of death annexed to every transgression of it, Gal. iii. 10, came to produce death, by not being able so to remove the frailty of human nature, and subdue carnal appetites, as to keep men entirely free from all trespasses against it, the least whereof, by the law, brought death. See chap. viii. 3, Gal. iii. 21."
11 The sense wherein I understand Beà rõ róue, “ by the law,” ver. 5, is very much confirmed by Soà tñs švloañs, in this and ver. 8, by which interpretation the whole discourse is made plain, easy, and consonant to the apostle's purpose.
f« Inveigled.” St. Paul seems here to allude to what Eve said in a like case, Gen. iii. 13, and uses the word “ deceived," in the same sense she did, i. e. drew me in.
12 || 25€," so that.” Ver. 7, he laid down this position, that the law was not sin; ver. 8, 9, 10, 11, he proves it, by showing, that the law was very strict in forbidding of sin, so far as to reach the very mind and the internal acts of concupiscence, and that it was sin, that remaining under the law (which annexed death to every traosgression) brought death on the israelites; he here iufers, that the law was not sinful, but righteous, just, and good, just such as by the eternal rule of right it ought to be.
TEXT. 13 Was then that, which is good, made death unto me? God for
bid ! but sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me, by that which is good ; that şin, by the commandment, might be
come exceeding sinful. 14 For we know that the law is spiritual ; but I am carnal, sold under sin.
PARANRASE. 13 Was then the law, that in itself was good, made
death to me? No *, by no means: but it was sin, that by the law was made death unto me, to the end that the power † of sin might appear, by its being able to bring death upon me, by that very law, that was intended for my good, that so, by the command.
ment, the power ț of sin and corruption in me might 14 be shown to be exceeding great; For we know that
the law is spiritual, requiring actions quite opposite to our carnal affections. But I am so carnal, as to be enslaved to them, and forced against my will to
NOTES. 13 * “ No.” In the five foregoing verses the apostle had proved, that the Jaw was not sin. In this, and the teu following verses, he proves the law not to be made death; but that it was given to show the power of sin, which remained in those, under the law, so strong, notwithstanding the law, that it could prevail og them to trangress the law, notwithstanding all its prohibitions, with the penalty of death annexed to every transgression. Of what use, this showing the power of sin, hy the law, was, we may sec, Gal, iii, 24.
† That åpiaptía xa un spboarin auapiwios, “ sin exceeding sinful,” is put here to signify, the great power of sin, or lust, is evident from the following discourse, which only tends to show, that let a man under the law be right in his mind and purpose; yet the law in his members, i.e, his carpal appetites, would carry him to the committing of sin, though his judgment and endeavours were averse to it. He that remembers that sin, in this chapter, is all along represented as a person, whose very nature it was to seek and endeavour his ruin, will not find it hard to understand, that the apostle here, by “ sin exceeding 66 sinful,” means sin strenuously exerting its sinful, i. e, destructive nature, with mighty force.
I'lve yeyrto., “ that sin might become,” i. e. might appear to be. It is of appearance he speaks in the former part of this verse, and so it must be understood here, to conform to the sense of the words, not only to what immediately precedes in this verse, but to the apostle's design in this chapter, where he takes pains to prove, that the law was not intended any way to promote sin ; and to understand, by these words, that it was, is an interpretation that neither boly scripture nor good sense will allow : though the sacred scripture should pot, as it does, give many instances of putting “ being," for " appearing.” Vid. ch. jii, 19. · 14 $ Mreunaloxos, “ spiritual," is used here to signify the opposition of the law to our carnal appetites. The antithesis in the following words makes it clear.
TEXT. 15 For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, that do !
not; but what I hate, that I do. 16 If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law, that
it is good. 17 Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in
18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good
thing: for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not.
15 enemy for that which in to, that I do.
PARAPHRASE. do the drudgery of sin, as if I were a slave, that had
been sold into the hands of that my domineering 15 enemy. For what I do, is not of my own contriv
ance*; for that which I have a mind to, I do not ; 16 and what I have an aversion to, that I do. If then
my transgressing the law be what I, in my mind, am
against, it is plain, the consent of my mind goes 17 with the law that it is good. If so, then it is not I, a
willing agent of my own free purpose, that do what is contrary to the law, but as a poor slave in captivity, not able to follow my own understanding and choice, forced by the prevalency of my own sinful
affections, and sin that remains still in me notwith18 standing the law. For I know, by woeful experi
ence, that in me, viz. in my flesh f, that part, which is the seat of carnal appetites, there inhabits no good. For, in the judgment and purpose of my TEXT. 19 For the good, that I would, I do not : but the evil, which I
NOTES. 15 * Oủ you wouw, “ I do not know," i. e. it is not from my own under. standing, or forecast of mind; the following words, which are a reason brought to prove this saying, give it this sense. But if yovvoxw, bę interpreted, « I « do not approve," what in the next words is brought for a reason, will be but tautology.
18 + St. Paul considers himself, and in himself other men, as consisting of two parts, which he calls Aesh and mind, see ver. 25, meaning, by the one, the judgment and purpose of his inind, guided by the law, or right reasop ; by the other, his natural inclination, pushing him to the satisfaction of his irregular sinful desires. These he also calls, the one the law of his members, and the other the law of his mind, ver. 23, and Gal. v. 16, 17, a place parallel to the len last verses of this chapter, he calls the one flesh, and the other spirit. These two are the subject of his discourse, in all this part of the chapter, explaining particularly how, by the power and prevalency of the fleshly inclinations, not abated by the law, it comes to pass, which he says, chap, viii. 2, 3, that the law being weak, by reason of the flesh, could got set a map free from the power and dopinion of sio apd deuth.
would not, that I do. 20 Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I, that do it; but
sin, that dwelleth in me. 21 I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present
with me. 22 For I delight in the law of God, after the inward man. 23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law
of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members.
PARAPHRASE. mind, I am readily carried into a conformity and obedience to the law : but, the strength of my carnal affections not being abated by the law, I am not
able to execute what I judge to be right, and 19 intend to perform. For the good, that is my pur
pose and aim, that I do not : but the evil, that is contrary to my intention, that in my practice takes
place, i. e. I purpose and aim at universal obedience, 20 but cannot in fact attain it. Now if I do that, which
is against the full bent and intention of me * myself, it is, as I said before, not I, my true self, who do it, but the true author of it is my old enemy, sin, which
still remains and dwells in me, and I would fain get 21 rid of. I find it, therefore, as by a law settled in me,
that when my intentions aim at good, evil is ready at 22 hand, to make my actions wrong and faulty. For that
which my inward man is delighted with, that, which
with satisfaction my mind would make its rule, is 23 the law of God. But I see in my members another
principle of action, equivalent to a law ț, directly
NOTES. 20 * O Sého cyw, “ I would not." I, in the Greek, is very emphatical, as is obvious, and denotes the man, in that part which is chietly to be counted himself, and therefore with the like emphasis, ver. 25, is called autós éyw, " I my own self.”
23 † St. Paul, here and in the former chapter, uses the word members, for the lower faculties and affections of the animal man, which are as it were the instruments of actions.
I He having, in the foregoing verse, spoken of the law of God, as a principle of action, but yet such as had not a power to rule and influence the whole man, so as to keep him quite clear from sin, he here speaks of natural inclinations, as
TEXT. 24 O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body
of this death? 25 I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then, with
the mind, I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh, the law of sin.
PARAPHRASE. waging war against that law, which my mind would follow, leading me captive into an unwilling subjection to the constant inclination and impulse of my
carnal appetite, which, as steadily as if it were a 24 law, carries me to sin. O miserable man that I am,
who shall deliver me * from this body of death? 25 The grace of God t, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
NOTES. of a law also, a law in the members, and a law of sin in the members, to show that it is a principle of operation in men, even under the law, as steady and constant in its direction and impulse to sin, as the law is to obedience, and failed not, through the frailty of the flesh, often to prevail.
24 * What is it, that St. Paul so pathetically desires to be delivered from ? The state, he had been describing, was that of human weakness, wherein, notwithstanding the law, even those, who were under it, and sincerely endeavoured to obey it, were frequently carried, by their carnal appetites, into the breach of it. The state of frailty, he knew inen, in this world, could not be delivered from. And therefore, if we mind him, it is not that, but the consequence of it, death, or so much of it that brings death, that he inquires after a deliverer from. “ Whu shall deliver me,” says he, “ from this body?” He does not say of frailiy, bit of death: what shall hinder that my carnal appetites, that so often make me fall into sio, shall not briog death upon me, which is awarded ine by the law? And to this he answers, “ the grace of God, ibrough our Lord “ Jesus Christ." It is the favour of God alone, through Jesus Christ, that delivers frail men from death. Those under grace obtain life, upon sincere intentions and endeavours after obedience, and those endeavours a man may attain to, in this state of frailty. But good intentions and sincere endeavours are of no behoof against death, to those under the law, whịch requires complete and punctual obedience, but gives no ability to attain it. And so it is grace alone, through Jesus Christ, that, accepting of what a frail man can do, delivers from the body of death. And thereupon, he concludes with joy, “ so then I, being “ Bow a christian, nor any longer under the law, but under grace, this is the “ state I am in, whereby I shall be delivered from death; I, with my whole “ bent and intention, devote myself to the law of God, in sincere endeavours « after obedience, though my carnal appetites are enslaved to, and have their “ natural propensity towards sio.”
25 + Our translators read tuyapısco tu osu, “ I thank God : " the author of the vulgate, zápis iš @eš, “ the grace or favour of God,” which is the reading of the Clermont, and other Greck manuscripts. Nor can it be doubted, which of these two readings should be followed, by one who considers, not only that the apostle makes it his business to show, that the jews stood in need of grace, for salvation, as much as the gentiles: but also, that the grace of God is a direct and apposite answer to,“ who shall deliver me?” which, if we read it, I thank VOL. VII.