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TEXT. 14 Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over
PARAPHRASE. world by all men, all the time before the positive law of God delivered by Moses : but it is as true * that
there is no certain, determined punishment affixed 14 to sin, without a positive law + declaring it. Ne
proof, when it is evidently contrary to St. Paul's design here, which is to show, that all men, from Adam to Moses, died solely, in consequence of Adam's transgressions, see ver. 17.
3 * Oůx idoyeītes, * is not imputed," so our translation, but possibly not exactly to the sense of the apostle; ’Emoyeīv signifies to reckon, but cannot be interpreted reckon to, which is the meaning of impute, without a person assigned, to whom it is imputed. And so we see, when the word is used in that sense, the dative case of the person is subjoined. And therefore it is well translated, Philem. 18. if he owes thee any thing, fuod &amóyel, put it to iny account, reckon, or impute it to me. Besides St. Paul here tells us, the sin, here spoken of, as not reckoned, was in the world, and bad actually existence, during the time between Adam and Moses ; but the sin, which is supposed to be imputed, is Adam's siu, which he cominitted in paradise, and was not in the world, during the time from Adam till Moses, and therefore hoyeitas cannot here signify imputed. Sins in sacred scripture are called debts, but nothing can be brought to account, as a debt, till a value be set upon it. Now sins can no way be taxed, or a rate set upon them, but by the positive declaratiou and sanction of the law-maker. Mankind, without the positive law of God, knew, by the light of nature, that they transgressed the rule of their nature, reason, which dictated to them what they ought to do. But, without a positive declaration of God, their sovereign, they could not tell at what rate God taxed their trespasses against this rule; till he pronounced that life should be the price of sin, that could not be ascertained, and consequently sin could not be brought to account: and, therefore, we see that where there was no positive law, affixing death to sin, men did not look on death as the wages, or retribution for their sin; they did not account, that they paid their lives as a debt and forfeit for their transgression. This is the more to be considered, because St. Paul, in this epistle, treats of sin, punishment, and forgiveness, by way of an account, as it were, of debtor and creditor.
He will be farther confirmed in this sense of these worils, who will be at the pains to compare chap. iv. 15, and v. 13, 20, and vii. 8, 9, together. St. Paul, chap. iv. 15, says, the law worketh wrath, i. e. carriesh punishment with it. For where there is no law there is no transgression. Whereby is not meant, that there is no sin, where there is no positive law, (ihe contrary whereof he says in this verse, viz. that sin was in the world all the time, before the law) but that there is no transgression, with a penalty annexed to it, without a positive law. And hence he tells the romans, chap. i. 32, that they kuew not that those things deserved death, [vid. note, chap. i. 32] but it was by the positive law of God only, that men knew that death was certainly annexed to sin, as its certain and unavoidable punishment; and so St. Paul argues, chap. vii. 8, 9, ..
+ Nóns,“ law." Whether St. Paul by somos here means law in general, as for the most part he does, where he omits the article; or whether he means TEXT them that had not sinned, after the similitude of Adam's trans
gression, who is the figure of him that was to come. 15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if, through
the offence of one, many be dead, much more the grace of God. and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
PARAPHRASE. vertheless, we see that, in all that space of time, which was before the positive law of God by Moses, men from the beginning of the world, died, all as well as their father Adam ; though none of them, but he alone, had eaten of the forbidden fruit * ; and thereby, as he had committed that sin, to which sin alone the punishment of death was annexed, by the positive sanction of God, denounced to Adam,
who was the figure and type of Christ, who was to 15 come. But yet though he were the type of Christ,
yet the gift, or benefit, received by Christ, is not exactly conformed and confined to the dimensions of the damage, received by Adam's fall. For if, by the lapse of one man, the multitude t, i. e. all men diedt, much more did the favour of God, and the free gift by the bounty or good-will which is in Jesus Christ, exceed to the multitude t, i.e. to all men.
NOTES. the law of Moses is particular, in which sense he commonly joins the article to róuos; this is plain, that St. Paul's notion of a law was conformable to that given by Moses, and so he uses the word vócos, in English, law, for the positive command of God, with a sanction of a penalty annexed to it; of which kind there never having been any one given to any people, but that by Moses to the children of Israel, till the revelation of the will of God by Jesus Christ to all mankind, which, for several reasons, is always called the gospel, in contradistinction to the law of Moses; when St. Paul speaks of law, in general, it reduces itself, in matter of fact, to the law of Moses.
14 * In this verse St. Paul prores, that all men became mortal, by Adam's eating the forbidden fruit, and by that alone, because no man can incur a penalty, without the sanction of a positive law, declaring and establishing that penalty ; but death was annexed, by no positive law, to any sin, but the eating the forbidden fruit; and therefore nien's dying, before the law of Moses, was purely in consequence of Adam's sin, in eating the forbidden fruit; and the positive sanction of death annexed to it, an'evident proof of man's mortality coming from thence.
15 + oi worked, and th's wodnes, I suppose may be understood to stand here
TEXT. 16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judg.
PARAPHRASE. 16 Furthermore, neither is the gift, as was the lapse,
by one sin *. For the judgment or sentence was for one * offence, to condemnation : but the gift of favour reaches, notwithstanding many * sins, to
NOTES. for the multitude, or collective body of mankind. For the apostle, in express words, assures us, I Cor. xv. 22, “That in Adam all died, and in Christ all “ are made alive:” and so bere, ver, 18, All men fell under the condemnation of death, and all men were restored unto justification of life, which all men, in the very next words, ver. 19, are called oi waand, the many. So that the many in the former part of this verse, and the many at the end of it, compre hending all mankind, must be equal. The comparison, therefore, and the inequality of the things compared, lies not, here, between the numbers of those that died, and the numbers of those that shall be restored to life; but the comparison lies between the persons by whom this general death, and this general restoration to life came, Adam the type, and Jesus Christ the antitype ; and it seems to lie in this, that Adam's lapse came barely for the satisfaction of his own appetite, and desire of good to himself; but the restoration was from the exuberant bounty and good-will of Christ towards men, who at the cost of his own painful death, purchased life for them. The want of taking the comparison here right, and the placing it amiss, in a greater pumber restored to life by Jesus Christ, than those brought into death by Adam's sin, bath led some men so far out of the way, as to allege, that men, in the deluge, died for their own sins. It is true they did so, and so did the men of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the philistines cut off by the israelites, and multitudes of others; but it is as true, that, by their own sins, they were not made mortal : they were so be. fore, by their father Adam's eating the forbidden fruit; so that, what they paid for their own sins, was not immortality, which they had not, but a few years of their own finite lives, which having been let alone, would every one of them in a short time have come to an end. It cannot be denied, therefore, but that it is as true of these as any of the rest of mankind, before Moses, that they died solely in Adam, as St. Paul has proved in the three preceding verses. And it is as true of them, as if any of the rest of mankind in general, that they died in Adam. For this St. Paul expressly asserts of all, “ thal in Adam all “ died," I Cor. xv. 22, and in this very chapter, ver. 18, in other words. It is then a fat contradiction to St. Paul to say, that those, whom the flood swept away, did not die in Adam.
16 * Ai čvos euapth uctos, “by one sin," so the Alexandrine copy reads it, more conformable to the apostle's sense. For if &vos, " one,” in this verse, be to be taken for the person of Adam, and not for his own sin, of eating the forbidden fruit, there will be nothing to answer wordür TapaTTWMÁTWY, “ many “ offences" here, and so the comparison, St. Paul is spon, will be lost; whereas, it is plain, that in this verse be shows another disproportion in the casc, wherein Adam, the type, comes short of Christ, the antitype ; and that is, that it was but for one only transgression, that death came upon all men : but Christ restores life unto all, notwithstanding multitudes of sins. These two excesses both of the good-will of the donor, and the greatness of the gift, are both seckoned up together, in th- following verse, and are there plainly expressed in περισσείαν της χάριτος και της δωρεάς; the excess of the favour, in the greater good-will and cost of the donor; and the inequality of the gift itself, which exceeds, as many exceeds one; or the deliverance from the guilt of many sins, does exceed the deliverance from the guilt of one,
TEXT. ment was by one, to condemnation; but the free gift is of many
offences, unto justification. 17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more
they wlich receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righ
teousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ. 18 Therefore as, by the offence of one, judgment came upon all
PARAPHRASE. 17 justification of life *. For if, by one lapse, death
reigned, by reason of one offence, much more shall they who receiving the surplusage † of favour, and
of the gift of righteousness, reign in life by one, even 18. Jesus Christ. Therefore | as, by one offence, (viz.)
Adam's eating the forbidden fruit, all men fell under
NOTES. * Zwñs, “ of life,” is found in the Alexandrine copy. And he that read ver. 18, will scarce incline to the leaving of it out here.
17 † “ Surplusage," so weprocela signifies. The surplusage of gápitos, favour, was the painful death of Christ, whereas the fall cost Adam no more pains, but eating the fruit. The surplusage of swpeãs, the gift, or benefit received, was a justification to life from a multitude of sins, whereas the loss of life came upon all men, only for one sin ; but all men, how guilty soever of many sins, are restored to life.
18 I " Therefore," here, is not used as an illative, introducing an inference from the immediately preceding verses, but is the same “ therefore,” which began, ver. 12, repeated here again, with part of the inference, that was there begun and left incomplete, the continuation of it being interrupted, by the intervention of the proofs of the first part of it. The particle, “as,” immediately following “therefore,” ver. 12, is a convincing proof of this having there, or in the following verses, nothing to answer it, and go leaves the sense imperfect and suspended, till you come to this verse, where the same reasoning is taken up again, and the same protasis, or the first part of the comparison repeated: and then the apodosis, or latter part, is added to it; and the whole sentence made complete : which, to take right, one must read thus, ver. 12, “ Therefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and “ death by sin, and so death passed upon all men, &c.” ver. 18, I say, therefore, “ as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemna“ tion, even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men, to “ justification of life.” A like interruption of what he began to say, may be seen, 2 Cor. xii. 14, and the same discourse, after the interposition of eight verses, began again chap. xiii, 1, not to mention others, that I think may be found in St. Paul's epistles.
§ That évòs WapaTTWMatos ought to be rendered “ one offence ;” and not the “ offence of 'une inan:” and so śvos 8sxanumatos, “ one act of righteous“ ness,” and not the "righteousness of one;” is reasonable to think: because, in the vext verse, St. Paul compares one man to one man, and therefore it is fit to understand him here (the construction also favouring it) of one fact, compared with one fact, unless we will make him here (where he seems to study conciseness) guilty of a tautology. But taken as I think they should be understood, one may see a harmony, beauty, and fullness in this discourse, which at first sight
TEXT. men to condemnation : Even so by the righteousness of one, the
free gift came upon all men, unto justification of life. 19 For, as by one man's disobedience, many were made sinners: su,
by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous.
PARAPHRASE. the condemnation of death : so, by one act of righte
ousness, viz. Christ's obedience to death upon the 19 cross *, all men are restored to life f. For as, by one
man's disobedience, many were brought into a state of mortality, which is the state of sinners †; so, by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous, i. e. be restored to life again, as if they were not sinners.
NOTES. seems somewhat obscure and perplexed. For thus, in these two verses, 18, 19, he shows the correspondence of Adam the type, with Christ the antitype, as we may see, ver. 14, he designed, as he had shown the disparity between them, ver. 15, 16, 17.
* That this is the meaning of 8i &vos Orzasónatos, is plain by the following verse. St. Paul every one may observe to be a lover of antithesis. In this verse it is évès w ApaT TWMATOS, « one perverse act of transgression,” and évès Sexowumasos, “ one right act of submission : " in the next verse, it is rapaxos, " disobedience,” and útaxon, “ obedience,”-the same thing being meant in both verses. And that this Pixxiwua, this act of obedience, whereby he pro. cured life to all mankind, was his death upon the cross, I think no-body ques. tions, see ver. 7-9, Heb. ii. 10, 14, Phil. jj. 8, and that Orxan Mata, when applied to men, signifies actions conformable to the will of God, see Rev. xix. 8.
+ By Sexaiwors guiñs“justification of life,” which are the words of the text, is not meant that righteousness by faith, which is to eternal life. For eternal life is no-where, in sacred scripture, mentioned, as the portion of all men, but only of the saints. But the “ justification of life," here spoken of, is what all men partake in, by the benefit of Christ's death, by which they are justified from all that was brought upon them by Adam's sin, i. e. they are discharged from death, the consequence of Adam's transgression ; aud restored to life to stayd, or fall hy that plea of righteousness, wbich they can make, either of their own by works, or of the righteousness of God by faith.
19 $.“ Sinners." Here St. Paul uses the same metonymny as above, ver. 12, putting sinners for mortal, whereby the antithesis to righteous is the more