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peace of mind. If you believe in one God, you do well : but if you believe in him, and at the same time dishonour him—you have reason to believe and tremble too: not because you belong to one persuasion, or because you do not belong to another persuasion ; but because you belong to that numerous class of wicked men who shall be turned into hell, with all the nations that forget God.

Destroy if you can the authority of Moses and of Christ,--the veracity of the Bible, and the claim of Christians to sound wisdom-yet the heavens, the work of God's fingers, you could not destroy; and the fact of your existence and preservation, you could not destroy ;-—and the obligations of the creature to the Creator, which existed anteriorly to the Bible itself, you could not destroy: therefore every glittering star, and every wave, and every storm, and every beating pulse, and every good gift, and every perfect gift which cometh from above, would be a swift witness against you and condemn you : for the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and godhead, so that they are without excuse who worship an idol, or, who in any way worship and serve the creature more than the Creator, who is God over all blessed for ever.

But how can I have to do with him, or how can my mind and your mind come into profitable contact with the Father of our spirits. When I think of his mysterious existence, of his amazing power—when I consider the heavens the work of his fingers, and the moon and the stars which he hath ordained, I am ready to ask, what is man: I am ready to sink under a consciousness of of my own weakness and insignificance: I am made to feel like one who earnestly desires an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest, and the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.

Now there is one God, and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus. This is the distinguishing doctrine of Christianity; and must ever give a tone and a character to all the consistent followers of the Lamb. Moses was the Mediator between God and the Jews, but Christ is the Mediator between God and man,-in all the varieties of the human race-in all the conditions of social life, and of all the kindreds, and nations, and people, and tongues upon the face of the earth. So exalted, and so well qualified is he to sustain this office, that his promise is, “Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, I will do it." Come then and prove the promise true. In his name come to God: even to his mercy seat-come with intense earnestness, and with holy importunity of soul. “But will God indeed dwell upon the earth? Behold the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee ?” But thus saith the Lord, heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

Beware of false perceptions of religion, for as the light of heaven may be viewed through a medium that will give it a colour, and a character, and a direction which it does not really and naturally possess, so the rays of divine benevolence intercepted by the bad passions of the human heart, may appear to lose their celestial nature :--and religion itself may seem unlovely and morose, because it is seen through the distorting medium of prejudice, or through the infirmities and even the criminalities of those professing to be connected with it. But viewed as an emanation from the Father of lights, it is a beautiful thing, and a blessed thing after all. Learn it then from the flowers of the field-learn it from the stars of heaven, and learn it from the Word of God—these are sources of information, and of consolation too, puro and undefiled, and wells of living water, springing up into everlasting life.

Diversities of religious character, as affected or modified by youth or age,by learning or ignorance,-by riches or poverty,-by the manners and customs of rude, or civilized life, there certainly are : and illustrations of religious subjects, like the stars in the sky for multitude, and as the sand which is upon

the sea shore innumerable there may be ; but after all, the christian character is built up on the practical acknowledgment of those truths which are commonly reported and most assuredly believed among us.

The existence of many, alas ! of too many mistakes and disputes about christianity cannot be denied ; but it cannot be denied also, that there are mistakes and disputes upon almost every subject; and this state of things is inseparable from the present imperfection of the human mind. But would any one neglect the study of astronomy, or geology, or medicine, because there are disputes about it? Why then should religion, the most momentous thing of all, be neglected or set at nought, merely because all men are not yet perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment about it?

It is said that many profess christianity, and teach it, not from any love they have to it; but from a desire to buy and sell and get gain: this I fear is an assertion that admits of no dispute ; and that such a practice, especially in its more glaring forms, is favourable to infidelity cannot be denied. But is not the love of money the root of all evil ? Does it not make men sacrifice honesty and truth at the shrine of secular interest and worldly advantage ? Does it not make men swear one thing while they believe another thing, and preach what is good, and practise what is evil; and does it not inspire them with loud praises, not of religion, but of certain modifications of it, or establishments of it, for the very same reason, that Pagan idolaters in ancient times, cried out, and cried out full of wrath, and cried out for the space of two hours, “Great is Diana the goddess of the Ephesians.”

Infidelity can see all this; but it cannot see, or it cannot acknowledge that it is only the development of a principle, common to human nature; or of an incident common to all the affairs of human life. Let the old and exploded system of astronomy be revived, and let it be revived with great honours and emoluments connected with the profession of it, and the teaching of it, and let the rulers believe in it, then away would go all sound reasoning, and all incontrovertible evidence to make room for authoritative decisions on the subject. In that case, if a man were to teach the system of Sir Isaac Newton, and even to teach it with all the wisdom of that distinguished philosopher, he would be stigmatized as unauthorized or schismatical, and even pains and penalties might be inflicted on account of his errors in astronomy similar to those which are, and which have been inflicted on account of errors in religion.

But why should I think myself relieved from the responsibility of the crea. ture to the Creator, and of the awful wickedness and awful consequences of forgetting God, on account of the false pretences, the vain assumptions, and the interested motives of a certain part of mankind ? What if some men are hypocrites, (and, “think'st thou religion only has her mask),” can their hy. pocrisy make christianity of none effect? or dispruve it, or lessen its importance ? Can we deny that there is scarcely a blessing of creation or Providence that has not, through the perversity of man's mind, been abused, and prostituted to purposes for which it was never designed; and yet the blessings of creation and Providence are good things after all, and on no account to be despised or set at nought.

But the greatest obstacle to the progress of religion is the innate desire of the human heart to indulge in the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life : hence it is, that all systems, institutions, or teachers, whose design it is to pander to these appetites or unlawful propensities, find such a welcome in those quarters where the truths of the Bible, or the wonders of the heavens are appealed to in vain.

But brethren, of some of you we hope better things, and things that accompany salvation though we thus speak. * Think not that there is any real antipathy in science to religion,--or any thing really contradictory to the Bible in the natural world : go then, like David, to the volume of creation : try to read it, and try to understand it: if possible, make yourself acquainted with the living and the dead, who have had better eyes, and better instruments, and better minds for observing and understanding the wonders of the heavens than you have; but neglect not your own observations, however rude or uncultivated, they will be of most signal advantage in your attainment of astronomical science :-go, like David, in the spirit of meditation and of prayerascend, like him, from nature up to nature's God ;-cultivate a manly piety-long after that elevation of soul which will not unfit you for the duties of life, but which will enable you to rise above the passions—the sensualities and the groveling and degrading pursuits of mankind. Aspire to the character of noblemen in the liberal, in the intellectual, and in the religious sense of the term;

As man was made for glory, and for bliss,
All littleness is an approach to woe;
Open thy bosom, set thy wishes wide,
And let in manhood: let in happiness;
Admit the boundless theatre of thought,
From nothing, up to God: which makes a man.

Green's Second Book for Children. This is one of those books for which the children of the present generation ought to be particularly grateful, as the recipients of knowledge, and for which all parents who value the intellectual excellence of their offspring, will be grateful. It is an educational work altogether of an improved standard, and calculated to be of great service, not only to children, but to mothers. The author has a remarkable felicity of adapting his definitions to the capacities of the young-he does not assume that they know more than they can be expected to know, and therefore his language is simple but expressive; and he has called to his aid a profusion of appropriate and pretty wood-cuts, which render comprehension inevitable. The work is deserving of a large sale, and we doubt not it will meet it.

A New Mode or Method of more Speedily and Effectually Tanning Hides

and Skins. By ALEXANDER TURNBULL, M.D. DR. TURNBULL, of Russell Square, has long and deservedly enjoyed the reputation of being one of the first physicians of the day. In diseases of the eye and ear, he has no superior-a fact which has been abundantly attested by many of the most popular periodicals and journals of the day. To him humanity is indebted for the discovery of aconitina, and various other powerful agents now in general and successful use among the medical profession. The genius which has raised Dr. Turnbull to distinction in the medical world, has lately led to an important discovery in the art of tanning leather. Dr. Turnbull has taken out a patent for his discovery; and its nature and advantages are described in detail in the pamphlet before us. A good deal of the pamphlet is necessarily occupied with technical matter, and consequently is not suited for transfer into our pages. Among the recommendations of this new discovery, are these : the process of tanning will be performed in a fourth-part of the time required by the mode at present in use. It will also be done at considerably less

expense, while the leather will be very greatly superior to any which can be prepared by the present process. Another and very great benefit which will be derived from Dr. Turnbull's mode of tanning, will be, that it gives a greatly increased weight to the leather.

But perhaps it will give a better idea of the advantages of Dr. Turnbull's process, if we quote his own words from the pamphlet before us :

“My method,” says he, "of extracting lime from hides or skins, when the hair has been removed by lime, and my method of removing the hair without the use of lime by the means before described, are such decided improvements, that hides and skins when so prepared may be tanned in the common or ordinary manner by terra japonica purified as above, and by other ordinary tanning matter, with much greater facility than heretofore ; and the leather thus produced is of far greater weight, and much better quality than any heretofore produced."

Dr. Turnbull then proceeds to specify some of the peculiarities of the process. His statement on this point will be read with interest by scientific men, as well as by those more immediately concerned.

“Having thus stated the nature of my improved methods of tanning hides, and the plan of separating or extracting the japovic or catechuic acid or catechin, or other extractive and deleterious matter from the tannic acid, and preventing the formation of gallic or ellagic acid in the tanning liquor, and the manner of carrying them into effect, I Think it essential to state, that I do not claim the principle of tanning hides or skins by sewing them into bags, nor by simply filling them with liquor ; but I do claim, and my invention consists in, the following improvements in the tanning of hides and skins. First-I claim the discovery of the means of extracting the lime with which hides and skins are impregnated in removing the hair, by the application of sugar or other saccharine matter, whether obtained from honey, sawdust, turnips, potatoes, or other substances. Second-1 claim the discovery of the means of removing the hair or epidermis from hides or skins without the use of lime, by the application of sugar or other saccharine matter, whether obtained from potatoes, sawdust, beetroot, turnips, or other substances. Third-I claim the discovery of the means of removing the hair or epidermis from hides and skins without the use of lime, by the application of muriate of soda or common salt. Fourth-I claim the discovery of the means of separating the japonic or catechuic acid, or other extractive or deleterious matter, from the tannic acid in terra japonica. Fifth-1 claim the discovery of the means of obtaining tannic acid froin the refuse or deposit of the terra japonica, in purifying terra japonica. Sixth-I claim the discovery of the means of preventing the forma. tion or generation of gallic and ellagic acid, when oak bark, sumach, divi divi, valonia, and other materials are used. Seventh-I claim the discovery of an improved means of tanning leather by means of endosmosis and exosmosis with the materials and in the manner before described, and without the aid of hydrostatic pressure. Eighth-I claim the discovery of an improved mode of tanning by means of a general and constant agitation and circulation of the tanning liquor, composed of the materials before mentioned, from top to bottom and from bottom to top of the pits. Ninth-1 claim the improved method of tanning hides or skins in pits in the common and ordinary manner, by first extracting the lime from the hide, or removing the hair without the use of lime, and using terra japonica when purified, or other tanning liquor in the manner before described."

AN ESSAY ON PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

BY MRS. LOUDON.

ADDRESSED TO HER MAJESTY'S MINISTERS.

CHAPTER I. A system of public instruction is necessary to moral order. Could we hope to prevail with all parents who are capable of training their own children, or who are in circumstances to give them trained attendants, to adopt just views of moral training, still would our task, inspired by good-will to all, fall short of its accomplishment; for the preponderance of the masses is much too great for any improvement commenced only on the children of the educated classes to penetrate downwards under ages, if ever. Or, even were the ultimate and not very distant completion of the scheme by such means certain, what could justify us in choosing the more tedious process ? What right have we to fling away one generation of children, much less, perhaps, many successive ones ?

Society requires a new base. To give it such, every young child now in existence, whose parents are unable to give it good moral training, should be rescued at once from the corrupting influence of evil training, and placed within the sanctuary of the infant school for the greater part of each day.

This cannot be done effectually by any instrument of less power and consistency than a system of public instruction directed by the concentrated intelligence, and deriving vigour from the concentrated authority, of the nation, as represented by its parliament; and permanently supplied by a rate levied, like the poor rate, on property ; for, as claims of the helpless, 'want of instruction and want of food stand on the same footing. If, on religious and moral grounds, the bodies of the less fortunate members of a Christian community should not be allowed to starve, neither should their minds; while, as a mere selfish consideration, property is even more immediately concerned in the mental than in the physical destitution of its neighbours. Property, in paying a moral training rate, would be assuring itself, not only from occasional violence, but from all the ten thousand every-day petty depredations of unconscientiousness.

A national or public system of instruction, then, should not only be calculated to diffuse throughout all those ranks of the

June, 1845.-VOL. XLIII.—NO. CLXX,

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