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sprang from the bosom of Brahmanism, in the northern region of Behar, in the fifth century before the Christian era, originated this antagonistic system; which was destined after centuries of contest with its powerful adversary to be banished utterly from its original Indian soil, while it is the received religion of the countries south, and north, and east of it. The legendary notices of the great founder occupy a considerable portion of this volume; and from these, though not very critically arranged and digested, much may be learned concerning the genius' of his doctrine. In this, as in the subsequent sections concerning the Ontology and Ethics of the system, some of the most curious extracts are from an ancient book called Melindaprasna, containing the inquiries of a prince, apparently of one of the GrascoBactrian dynasties, into the doctrines of the Sramanas, or Buddhists: and if any one is curious to see the doctrine of Locke, concerning ideas of sensation and reflection, acutely defended by an Indian gymnosophist of ancient days, he may find it in the replies of the Buddhist speaker Nagasfina to the Hellenic querist, in pp. 420—423.

'Lorenzo Benoni; Passages in the Life of an Italian,' (Constable,) is a remarkable work. Whether it is authentic or fictitious is perhaps immaterial; our own judgment would be, that there is but a thin substratum of facts, the love passages especially indicating a very common-place phase of novel writing. But in minute detail there is much that recalls Defoe: the tact with which the politics and history of the day are depicted in an individual life is quite in Defoe's vein. But in character-drawing, especially in the narrative of school life, the Italian—if the author be indeed an Italian, which is very questionable—far exceeds the English writer. The conspiracy and carbonari portions of the work are much more'eommonplace, and scarcely range above the melodrama. These faults, however, are counterbalanced by the easy flow of narration and picturesque accuracy of small touches, in which the artistic merit of the tale, for we cannot call it memoirs, consists.

Mr. D. Hoffmann, an American gentleman of considerable research, has been, we think, more than unfortunate in the vehicle he has chosen for a Universal History. In his ' Chronicles of Cartaphilus,' (Bosworth,) he has selected the wild but hackneyed legend of the Wandering Jew as the basis of a series of contemporaneous sketches, which, calculating from volume the first, will fill a moderate library. If the history of the world for eighteen hundred years is to be written to this scale, judging from the present instalment, which occupies seven hundred pages, with the scanty annals of the first three centuries of the Christian era, we are appalled at the long array of materials which must await the criticism of our grandchildren. Mr. Hoffmann, like his countryman West, seems to consider the size of his canvass a main element of artistic greatness. A series of tedious letters to and from the Wandering Jew, who has of course the advantages of ubiquity, and a total freedom from the accidents of time and space, is at first grotesque, but soon becomes wearisome. History, we must say, is too serious a matter for this inconvenient masquerade: and the incautious way in which Mr. Hoffmann seems to accredit the legend of Cartaphilus, who writes as a real person from 'Austin Friars,' deserves a more formal note of rcpn> NO. LXXXU.—N.S. L L

bation. The legend is a curious instance of impersonating or materializing a sacred prophecy: the Wandering Jew, the Isaac Lakedion or Ahasuerus of the legend, who was to tarry till the second advent, appearing among all people and mixing with a charmed life in all society, is of course only an individualizing of the mysterious existence of the whole Jewish people in, yet separate from, the world. To Mr. Hoffmann, apart from these grave defects, we may award the credit of large reading and painstaking research. His book is handsome, and exhibits some pretty affectations of typography, and some very doubtful ambitiousness in the way of style and orthography. An appendix on the doctrine of Triads, as far as we could understand it, which we own was not very far, looked more than questionable. In the way of scenic embellishment, the narrative of the Jew acquiring a second instalment of life and renewing his perpetual manhood is at least striking.

To challenge, which the writer does not, the author of the * Christian Year' in subject, is an unfortunate test for any poet. Sir Archibald Edmondstone is in this respect to be dealt lightly with, who, in his ' Meditations in Verse,' (Masters,) adapted to the Church's Sundays and Holidays, has produced a modest volume of religious musings of a graceful and level character, which display an amiable temper and great soundness and sobriety of feeling.

Mr. Lathbury's ' History of Convocation' has long been valued for its materials. It appears seasonably and usefully in a second edition, published by Leslie, considerably enlarged and improved. The author's style is not happy, nor his composition very lucid; but he possesses and gives a vast amount of information. Accuracy and diligence are Mr. Lathbury's strong points; and his volume is indispensable at the present moment.

The famous 'Letter to a Convocation Man,' so well known to the students of the history of Convocation, has been republished by Mr. Fraser (Masters). The editor gives substantial reasons for attributing its disputed authorship to Sir Bartholomew Shower ; and he has enriched the pamphlet with foot notes of considerable practical usefulness. The parallelism between the present state of things and that which provoked or produced the learned war of Wake and Atterbury, has struck Mr. Fraser, and he has been diligent in illustrating the past by the present—or is it vice tersd?

Mr. W. B. Flower, long and favourably known for his activity and many services to the literature of the Church, prints a forcible and elegant sermon on the ' Choral Service,' (Masters,) preached at the consecration of Bovey Tracey Church. We regret the existence of any cause so serious as the preacher's impaired health, which may lessen his useful and constant labours.

In a volume styled 'Appendicia et Pertinentise,' (Rivingtons,) Mr. Wood Warter has furnished an ecclesiastical, ecclesiological and parochial monograph of the parish of West Tarring, and certain circumjacent hamlets. Mr. Warter has caught something of the spirit and much of the manner of his father-in-law, Southey. He is desultory, occasionally dull, often in

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structive, and always well-meaning. He has read and extracted much, and as colloquies form a convenient mode of writing or chatting in print about everybody and everything, from Thomas-a-Becket to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, not excluding the wheat-ears of the Downs and the fig-trees of West Tarring, the good vicar is never at a loss for a subject, Etymology, controversy, old poetry, and esoteric quotation, all are poured out in prolific luxury, not always with an appropriate aim, but generally in a genial spirit. Mr. Warter will receive it, as we mean it, as a compliment, when we say that he reminds us of White of Selborne. It is only due to the amiable writer to say that his volume is published in aid of a good parochial work.

Messrs. Longman have published, in a convenient form, under the editorship of Dr. Scoffern, the syllahus of Professor Faraday's important though popular ' Lectures on the non-Metallic Elements.'

From Mr. Wm. Jackson we have received the third volume of his admirable and popular ' Stories and Catechisings in illustration of the Collects' (Mozleys). The variety and suitableness of these little lectures, and the skill with which the narrative balances the didactic portion of the work, is quite a model for this class of school-books.

'Watchfulness the Duty of the Clergy,' (Simpkin,) is the title of a Visitation Sermon preached by Mr. H. W. Phillott at Hereford' grave and serious in subject, and very practical in treatment.

In his 'Sermons on the Creed,' (Masters,) Mr. Tupper has condensed ■with much painstaking and an evident sense of deep responsibility, the dogmatic teaching of the Church. Very properly he has not aimed at that spurious sort of popular treatment which would impair the character of theological statement. Should Mr. Tupper be met with the criticism that the subject was above his evening congregation, we may reply that Pearson delivered the substance of his great work in lectures at one of the City churches.

We cannot say for Mr. Gilson Humphry's 'Treatise on the Book of Common Prayer' (J. W. Parker) that it adds to our stock of standard theological works. It is, however, a useful manual for students, but somewhat too compressed; and it presents, in the form of transcript, much of the labours of Wheatley and Palmer, upon whom we have not observed that Mr. Humphry has offered to innovate. We are not disposed to blame this caution: and remembering the compiler's responsible office in the Diocese of London, we are satisfied that teaching on the whole so level and unexceptionable is prescribed to the candidates for orders. *

A little work by Mr. Dampier, of Coggeshall, ' The Sympathy of Christ,' {Whitaker,) commands our respect by its simple and practical tone.

Mr. Robinson's Maitland Prize Essay, ' Missions urged on the State,' (Macmillan,) far exceeds the ordinary run of such compositions. Still we cannot but regard these exercises in the light of prolusions. It is hopeless with the present tendency of politics to expect that the State can, or at any rate will, undertake directly religious duties even in our heathen empire. What therefore is needed is the warning to individual exertion in the abeyance, too certain, of the duties of a Christian State—a phrase which, as things are, has about as much meaning as the old legendary title of our sovereign, King of England and France.

Everybody acquainted with Oxford has learned to respect Dr. Macbride; but that this most respected because so respectable gentleman should publish a large volume of six hundred pages, ' Lectures on the Articles,' (J. H. Parker,) will cause his numerous friends surprise as large as the work which elicits it. Not even a foot is required by which to measure this Hercules of controversial divinity: a single lock of hair will be enough by which to judge of the whole statue:—' All Protestants agree in the 'common and distinguishing principle, that Scripture is the sole source of 'religious knowledge, and they have in general come to the same con* elusions as to its meaning.'—P. 17. Which position ten lines lower down in the page is illustrated by the observation, ' that the Lutherans maintain consubstantiation,'—which is a vulgar error, by the way,—' while the followers of Zuingli and of Calvin, like our own Church,'—which last clause is something more than vulgar, and a libel as well as an error,—' acknowledge no more than a spiritual presence in the receiver,' &c. We do not expect that this volume will acquire many readers; but its publication will at least effect some, though an indirect, public benefit,—that of relieving the much enduring Society over which the excellent Dr. Macbride presides, of the periodical delivery of the lectures of which it consists.

Lord Cranborne has printed for the use of his young relatives a triad of historical sketches, under the title of' Great Monarchs ' (Whitaker). The heroes—of various degrees of moral greatness—are Charlemagne, Alfred, and William the Conqueror. We have on another occasion alluded to the specialties which give to any literary work of this author a peculiar grace and value: the style, we may add, is good. It would perhaps be unfair to our successors, to have the wholesome traditions of our youth levelled by the unsparing criticism of recent events. We do not therefore complain, though the alleged facts may be questionable, that Lord Cranborne represents Haroun Al Raschid as the 'ruler of the greatest part of Asia,' or that he repeats how Alfred founded Oxford, and the Conqueror ravaged Hampshire to make the New Forest.

'The Psalter and the Gospel' (J. H. Parker), is a neat and compendions syllabus of the evangelical application of the Psalms, chiefly drawn from patristic sources.

'Fern-Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio,' (Ingram,) is the production of an American lady, Miss Willis: sufficiently clever to make us regret that she has had no real education. The writer only just misses wit and pathos, but she does miss them both. In little exaggerated sketches of character she is frequently happy: but what an awful revelation of American style is contained in this and other popular transatlantic works. To thiuk of a language in which trowsers are ' pants,'—to acquire facility is ' to get the hang,'—and haycocks are ' hayheaps.'

Mr. F. Merewether's pamphlet on Church Rates, 'A Reply to Lord

Stanley,' (Rivingtons,) loses much of its interest since the decision of the House of Lords. As to the fact, that in many or some places the efficiency if not the continuance of the services of the Church will be seriously jeopardized, we cannot doubt it: but against even this trial must be set the relief which must accrue to the Church from the separation of dissenters from our vestries. Not agreeing with Mr. Merewether*s argument, we feel bound to say that it is urged with temperance and some ability: his style, however, is so peculiar, and, we must add, so indescribable, that we present a specimen as a praxis for students of the English languageMr. Merevvetbcr is criticising Mr. Walpole's conduct in the Papal Aggression debates: 'This act or rather non-act was, I believe, the more mortify

* ing to many, because on a similar proposition from the then member for

* Bristol, Mr. Mills, with all the leading men either silent or against him,

* who would have supported Mr. Walpole, the minority Mr. Mills was in 'was of such a nature, that with the accession of support just alluded to as 'refused, the proposition would to all appearance have obtained a majority.' —P. 19.

• The Day of Trial' is an allegorical poem (Kerby). Our copy has a slip of paper pasted in it to the effect, ' that the work abounds in merit there can be no question whatever.—Rev. J. Fisk.' Pace Fisk, we venture to question Fisk's judgment: it is dull and heavy, poor as controversy, poorer as verse. We give a specimen of the author's abounding merit:—

* He scem'd desirous now to take his leave;

And said, " Well, Gratian, since you'll not receive

My friendly invitation, I must go,

And leave you to the fallacies you show;

Farewell: when next we meet, may we be found

On ev'ry point treading on common ground.'"

Archdeacon Kerens' 'Advice to Freshmen,' (J. H. Parker,) is a good sound old-fashioned specimen of letter-writing, pleasantly recalling the age and manner of Jones of Nayland and Bishop Home.

It is enough to announce a second volume of 'Parochial Sermons,' by Dr. Pusey, (J. H. Parker.) In warmth and loving tone we'rank this set above any of the valued writer's publications: and those who talk of the coldness and unevangelical character of ' Tractarian Sermons' we recommend to study it.

'The Warnings of Advent,' (Whitaker,) is aset of Sermons preached last year in a new Church in the city, by various Clergymen. We welcome tbe volume not only for its own merits, but because it is an evidence of a growing feeling that something more systematic and yet more exceptioual must be attempted in dealing with tbe masses. These Sermons were delivered on every night in Advent; and had some of them been delivered in Moorfields instead of a Church in Moor Lane, we think they would have told. As it is, we attempt to preach awakening Sermons, but we only get a congregation of those who already, in various degrees, seem awakened.

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