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And he puts the particle called the Kingdom into the chalice. A relic of the ancient rite was in use in the mediaeval Missal of Angers, where the commixture of our Lord's Body and Blood was accompanied with these words: 'Sanctum cum Sanctis: haec sacrosancta commixtio,' &c.
After the exclamation, 'Bow down yourselves for the benediction,' the Priest pronounces one that varies with the day, and is almost always contained in three different clauses; very rarely in four or five. For example, on Easter-day:—
The Lord Jesus Christ, who, dying for the salvation of the whole world, rose again to-day from the dead, He by His resurrection mortify you from crime. R. Amen. And lie that by the Cross destroyed the empire of death, bestow on you a participation in the blessed life. R Amen. That you who in the present world celebrate the day of His resurrection with joy, may merit the companionship of the Saints in the heavenly land. R. A in n Which He vouchsafe to grant through Thy mercy, O our God, who art blessed, and livest, and goveruest all things for ever ftnd ever. R. Amen.
For the first Sunday in Lent:— .
Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, who vouchsafed to thirst for the faith of the woman of Samaria, He kindle in you the thirst of His love. R. Amen. The same Redeemer who worked in her that which He might call unto his kingdom, work in you that which He may crown with eternal remuneration. R. Amen. And He that gave to the disciples precepts of praying, He vouchsafe to hear you in whatever place ye call upon Him. R. Amen. Through Thy mercy, &c.
On the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul :—
The Almighty God, who giveth to the miserable every remedy of mercy, grant to you to be cleansed with the tears of Peter from all foolishness of crime. R. Amen. Vouchsafe to you to receive the wisdom of the word by the teaching of Paul. R. Amen. That the one by prudence, the other by doctrine, may cause you to attain to everlasting life. R. Amen. He granting and helping, who, in perfect unity, liveth and reigneth one God for ever and ever. R. Amen. .
The Gallican Use was the same. Mone's Masses contain no Benedictions. There are several in those published by Thomasius. The triple form, however, is not so constantly observed. The following is for S. Andrew's-day :—
Almighty Lord God, who, sitting in Thy glory above the stars, hast left to us a propitious star, the blessed Apostles, whose fair cohort, powerful in blessed splendour, Thou didst first prcelect in merit, that Thou mightest predestinate them in the kingdom. R. Amen. Grant of Thy mercy to the surrounding congregation to be fortified by the sign of the Cross, that it may overcome every assault of adverse power. R. Amen. Pour into their senses the Apostolic doctrines, that they may contemplate Thee with unclouded minds. R. Amen. That in the tremendous hour of judgment they may be defended by the protection of those whose precepts they followed. R. Amen. Which Thyself vouchsafe to grant, who with the Father and the Holy Ghost, &c.
After the Benediction, the Choir, in the Mozarabic Rite, says the Anliphona ad accedenles. This answers to the Koinan Communio, and to the Greek tcoivcoviKav. In the Spanish Office, however, there are but a few of these Antiphons. That in usual employment is:—
0 teste and see how gracious the Lord is.1 All. All. All. V. I will bless the Lord at all times: His praise shall ever be in my mouth. All. All. All. V. The Lord shall redeem the souls of His servants, and He shall not forsake any that put their trust in Him. All. All. All. V. Glory and honour, &c. All. All. All.
Each Sunday in Lent has its proper Antiphona: so has Maundy Thursday. From Easter-eve till Pentecost, it is this:—
Rejoice, O people, and be glad: an Angel sat on the stone of the Lord: he himself gave you the glad tidings. Christ hath arisen from the dead, the Saviour of the world: and hath filled all with sweetness: rejoice, O people, and be glad. V. Now his face was as the lightning, and his garments as snow: and he said: P. Christ hath arisen from the dead. V. And the women went quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy, and did run to tell His disciples that He had arisen. P. Christ hath, &c. V. Glory and honour, &c. P. Rejoice, O people, and be glad, &c.
The use would seem to have been the same in the Gallican Missal. A remarkable metrical example, of the seventh or eighth century, has been preserved, commencing, Sancti venite, corpus Christi sumite.
Draw nigh, and take the Body of the Lord,
Saved by that Body, hallow'd by that Blood,
Salvation's Giver, Christ the Only Son,
By that His Cross and Blood the victory won.
Offer'd was He for greatest and for least:
Victims were offer'd bv the Law of old,
He, Ransomer from death, and Light from shade,
Approach ye, then, with faithful hearts sincere,
He that in this world rules His saints, and shields,
To all believers Life Eternal yields:
i With Heavenly Bread makes them that hunger whole, , Gives Living Waters to the thirsty soul.
Alpha and Omega, to whom shall bow
1 The Apost. Constitutions order the 34th Psalm to be said during Communion (viii. 13); the Catechesis of S. Cyril seems to imply that only tho Oustate et videte was said by the Church of Jerusalem in his time; and so docs S. Ambrose—* Unde ct Ecclesia videns tantam gratiam, hortatur— Qustate et videte, Ac.'
The prayers said by the Priest after and before reception, call for no particular notice; and the rite is moJernised. The Choir at the conclusion sings the Communio, which is briefly this, and is invariable, except in Lent; and therefore does not answer to the Roman Communio:—'Refecti Christi Corpore et Sanguine, te laudamus, Domine, All. All. AIL' In Lent: 'Repletum est gaudio os nostrum, et lingua nostra in exultatione.'
The Gallican Rite had two varying prayers, the Post Euchiristiam and the final Collectio, which are not found in the Mozarabic. The original conclusion' of the • Spanish Office was thus: the Priest standing at the Gospel side of the altar:—
The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which we have received, and His holy Blood, which we have drunk, adhere to us, eternal Almighty God, that it may not be to us to judgment, nor to condemnation, but may profit to our salvation, and to the remedy of our souls for eternal life. R. Amen. Priest. Through Thy mercy, O our God, who art blessed, and livest, and governest all things for ages of ages. R. Amen. Priest. The Lord be ever with you. R. And with thy spirit. Priest. Our solemnity is accomplished in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ: let our prayer be received with peace. R. Amen.
Thus, as fully as our space allowed, we have endeavoured to go through the Gotho-Hispanic Rite: the richest, the fullest, the most varied of all known Liturgies.1 We have shown that it could not be derived from the Roman Liturgy, differing from it as it does in the Prophecy, in the position of the Kiss of Peace, and in the Invocation,—while, though bearing a closer affinity to the Eastern Rites, neither can it be deduced from them, because of its varying Prefaces, its varying Collects, and the position of its Creed. Its perfected structure we owe to such saints as S. Leander, S. Isidore, S. Ildefonso; its explanation and intelligibility to scholars like Alexander Leslie, Faustinus Arevalus, and Lorenzana: but its existence as a living rite is due to one man only, and is but a part of the debt that the Western Church owes to Francis Ximenes de- Cisneros, Archbishop of Toledo.
1 A strange medley of eight collects, to be said by the Priest, now follows this.
* We have not taken any notice of the Chevalier Bunsen's lucubrations on the Gallican Liturgy, as neither sufficiently important to interest scholars, nor sufficiently amusing to engage the attention of the common reader.
A Letter from the author of ' Villette,' which claims at once our respect and sympathy, complains of a passage in our recent review of that work, (April, 1853,) which she says has been interpreted by some persons—not by herself, for this was not her own unbiassed impression—in a sense the remotest possible from our thoughts. We wrote in entire ignorance of the author's private history, and with no wish to pry into it. But her keen and vivid style, and her original and somewhat warped mode of viewing things, must excite speculation in her readers as to the circumstances of education and position which have formed both mind and style. Some grave faults in her earliest work we thought most easily accounted for by the supposition of a mind of remarkable power and great capabilities for happiness exposed to early and long trial of some kind, and in some degree embittered by the want of congenial enjoyment. We refer our readers to the article in question, where not only is there no insinuation of ' a disadvantageous occult motive for a retired life,' but such a supposition is at variance with the whole line of suggestion, which tends to attribute what we must differ from in her writings, to adverse circumstances, not to conduct. We will, however, distinctly state that we had no idea in our mind, and therefore could not desire to express any suspicion, of an unfavourable cause for a life of seclusion. We now learn with pleasure, but not with surprise, that the main motive for this seclusion is devotion to the purest and most sacred of domestic ties.
'A Manual of Budhism in its Modern Development, translated from Singhalese MSS. by R. Spence Hardy,' (Partridge and Oakey,) contains a larger body of information concerning the wonderful religion dominant among the millions of Eastern Asia than the ordinary English reader will readily find elsewhere. The author's familiar acquaintance, as a missionary, with the present practical working of Buddhism, and his study of it in mauy of its literary sources also, (though not in their sacred Pali or Pracrit originals, but in translations of them into the language of Ceylon, where he laboured,) well qualify him to write learnedly as well as amusingly and instructively, on this interesting matter; and he has judged wisely, we think, in making the communication of this useful information the object of his work, rather than the more extended design to which, he tells us, (p. 358,) he is 'tempted by an almost irresistible impulse,"—of entering into a scientific analysis of the religious system established by Gotama Buddha, and comparing the sage of Magadha with the founders of schools, either of doctrine or of ascetic discipline, in other regions. We can, indeed, fully sympathize with the overpowering thoughts he describes; awakened by considering on the one hand this great moral revolution, with its unbroken reign for more than two thousand years in so large a portion of the globe, and on the other, the insufficient attention bestowed on it in the western world, where systems far less influential than this have been minutely investigated. We might point to writers, far more qualified for this kind of analysis than Mr. Hardy, who, in essaying to philosophize on Buddhism in comparison with other religions, have missed its fundamental characteristics altogether: and our author is much better employed in supplying materials from which such ignorance may be removed, and a sounder investigation instituted hereafter, than in attempting rival generalizations of his own. Before theorizing on any given subject-matter, we should have it in all its details accurately before us; and to collect facts is, as we all now know, the first necessary step in every philosophical inquiry. Traces of the more ambitious purpose, however, are apparent in several notes of this volume: where the pains bestowed on collecting analogies, often partial or incorrect, with mutters suggested by the author's Western reading, would have been much more usefully employed in elucidating Eastern matters in his text which to ordinary readers must be obscure or unintelligible: for Mr. Hardy has by no means escaped the grave fault, common among Anglo-Indian writers, and almost peculiar to them, of using native terms, which there is no earthly reason for not translating, as if they had some peculiar expressiveness that made them untranslateable, and were yet so well known as to need no explanation to English readers. Why, for instance, is the word koti used perpetually, as if every one understood it must mean a hundred thousand, or ten myriads, or what in the Anglo-Indian dialect is termed a crore? And why must a sentence in p. 153 be made unintelligible until the reader learn from a Sanscrit scholar of his acquaintance that silpas mean the manual arts? &c. &c. We are disposed to quarrel occasionally with the author's mode of writing these Eastern words, by which their etymology is sometimes obscured; but most of all with his spelling of Buddha and Buddhism, the subject of his work, with the single d: for this, notwithstanding any authority that may be pleaded for it, is as much an innovation on the received Oriental orthography as on that by which the prince of Magadha and his religion have been ordinarily expressed in European writings; and tends to confound him, who is the ninth incarnation of Vishnu in the system of the Brahmanical adversaries, with a very different mythological personage, who in India and Ceylon is constantly designated as Budha, the regent of the planet Mercury. We might also observe instances, though less frequent in this than in the former work of the same author, on ' Eastern Monachism,' in which sectarian prejudices have caused him to misstate the points of divergency between true and false religion. But these blemishes are not such as to impair materially the value of the book; which, as a trustworthy collection of materials respecting one of the most remarkable systems that have swayed mankind, we commend to the notice of our readers. All speculations on 'the natural history of religion' must be imperfect that do not include the strange phenomenon of a severely ascetic religion based on an esoteric atheism: one which, while acknowledging no higher object of veneration in the universe, than the Man who, by self-evoked powers, has perfectly fulfilled its precept, instructs its earnest votaries to seek final refuge from the miseries of existence in annihilation (nirvana). He who is recognised as the last Buddha is the sole historical one; who,