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■ Verily Holy, verily Blessed, is our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, through Whom Thou hast destined for us true salvation, that man, deceived by the fraud of the serpent, might by His Resurrection escape death, and renew the life which he had lost. The devil had done deceitfully, that he might slay man at unawares; but the Lord cured him of his wound, while He poured forth His precious blood. Of old time he received his death-wound: but now, by the blood of the Cross, he hath acquired perpetual joys. The woman, herself seduced, had deceived the man: but he hath been redeemed by the fixture of the venerable nails. For God hath delivered us from hell, and hath set us free from the hand of death: who sitteth at the right hand of the Father, Christ the Lord, and the Eternal Redeemer.
That for Pentecost:—
Verily Holy is God the Father, Holy the Only-begotten Son, Holy also the one Spirit of both; for by His inestimable power the chariot of the Gospels rushes with its flaming wheels through the whole world: and its axle, glittering with the splendour of their fiery rays, is carried every way by the bodies, instinct with eyes, of the living creatures. In the Charioteer of those wheels the Spirit of Life Himself abiding, hath, by the empire of His own power, subjected the whole world to the feet of Christ: by divine powers bearing the testimony of the Father to the Onlybegotten Word, that He was made flesh and dwelt among us. This is that gilt, promised by, and like to, the paternal pledge, that the Son had engaged to send; when, returning to the Father, He said that His own should in nowise be left orphans; teaching thereby that, in the presence of the Spirit, His own and His Father's Majesty subsisted. This is that ointment wherewith Christ was anointed above His fellows by the Father: the verity of this anointing, that ancient divines set forth with transitory figures, by which priests and prophets and kings were constituted, keeping aforchand the image of the One True King and Prophet and Priest, Jesu Christ the Lord and eternal Redeemer.
The Ambroslan Office has no Post Sanctus: that of the Gallican is precisely similar to the Mozarabic. We give that of Mone's Mass, No. 5:—
He, I say, Christ our Lord and our God, who made, of His own will, like to mortals through all the course of life, presented to Thee an immaculate body; and, the sufficient expiator of ancient guilt, exhibited a soul incorrupt and inviolate by sin:' . . . . which blood should again cleanse from its pollution; and, having abrogated the Law of Death, should raise man's lost body to Heaven, and to the right hand of the Father. Through our Lord Jesus Christ; who, the day before He suffered, Sec.
The conclusion of this prayer introduces us to the great blemish of the Ximeiiian books. The Mozarabic Liturgy, which always ends the Post Sanctus with the words ' Christ the Lord and eternal Kedeemer,' originally proceeded, like the Gallican, •• Who, the day before He suffered,' so introducing the Consecration. But now the Post Sanctus ends abruptly with 'Bedeemer? and a new introduction commences, Adesto, adesto Jem bone Pontifix in medio nostri: the word Pridie nowhere now occurring, though the prayer that follows the Canon is still called the Pout Pridie. This violent disjunctnre is undoubtedly a great reflection on the skill of the Ximenian revisers. The formula of consecration is:—* This Is My Body, Which
1 A clause in the original appears to have been lost.
* SHALL BE GIVEN FOB YOU: THIS IS THE CCP OF THE New
'Testament In My Blood, Which Fob Yotj And Fob Many
'SHALL BE POURED FOBTH FOB THE REMISSION OF SINS.' Although
these words are given in the text, the Roman form is really employed.
This is neither the time nor place to dwell on the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, after the words of Institution, which the Eastern Church considers of co-ordinate necessity with the latter for the change of the elements. It will be sufficient to remind the reader that the formula in the Liturgy of S. Cbrysostom is as follows:—
Send down Thy Holy Ghost on us, and on these proposed gifts, and make this bread the precious Body of Thy Chiust: and that which is in this cup the precious Blood of Tby Christ: changing them by Thy Holy Ghost:
and that in all the Eastern Liturgies, as well as in the Scotch Communion Office, there is a prayer to the like effect. We shall only remark here that the Gotho-Hispanic and Gallican Kites clearly contained this invocation in the prayer Post Pridie. It has, for the most part, disappeared from the present Mozarabic Offices: but sufficient traces of it remain. The Masses of Spanish Saints especially retain it.
Take for example the Post Pridie of S. Torquatus and his companions (May 1):—
Almighty God, who for the salvation of the people in these parts didst send seven mirrors of priests, at the intercession of the same, whose most sacred memories are recited at Thine altar, send Thy Holy Ghost from Thy holy seat, whereby Thou mayest impart sanctification to the offered sacrifices, and fulness of sanctity to our doctors.
Of S. Martiana (a Mauritanian martyr), July 12:—
Thee, Almighty God, we beseech and supplicate, that Thou wouldst vouchsafe of Thy mercy to accept this oblation, which we offer to Thee with faithful and humble devotion, and wouldest Thyself make the offerings of our service acceptable to thee; that Thou wouldst1 make them accepted and sanctified here by the ministry of the Holy Ghost, and wouldst receive the requests of our service for a sweet-smelling savour.
There are twelve other Masses in which the same thing occurs: the most remarkable is that for the fifth Sunday in Lent:—
1 Arcvalus would read, without sufficient reason, ministerium for mysteritm.
Having recited, O Lord, the precepts of the Sacraments of Thine Onlybegotten Son, and making mention at the same time of His excellent Passion, and Resurrection, and Ascension into Heaven, we humbly beseech and pray Thy Majesty that the plenitude of Thy benedictions may descend on these sacrifices; and that Thou wouldst pour on them the shower of Thy Holy Ghost from heaven. That this sacrifice may become after the order of Melchisedech; that this sacrifice may become after the order of Thy patriarchs and prophets; that as Thy Majesty did vouchsafe to accept that which they did in types, signifying the Advent of Thine Only-begotten Son, So Thou wouldst vouchsafe to look upon and to sanctify this sacrifice, which is the true Body and Blood of Thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ; Who for us all was made Priest and Sacrifice. Thus therefore, most merciful Father, sanctify this sacrifice by looking upon it with Thy Glory; that they who receive it may obtain from Thee pardon of sins here, and eternal life in heaven.
Who does not see that the original expression, in place of the two words we have italicised, must have been that it may become, or, and make it?
Eight, at least, of Thomasius's Gallican Masses have the Invocation: that which contains it most remarkably is the Office for the Assumption. We give it in the original, for a reason that will presently be evident:—
Descendat, Domine, in his Sacrificiis tuae benedictionis coeternus et cooperator ParaclytusSpiritus,ut quae tibi de tua terrafructificante porrigimu?, coelesti permuneratione, te sanctificante, sumamus. Ut translata fruge in corpore, calice in cruore, proficiat meritis, quod obtulimus pro delictis.
Now, undoubtedly, this may mean 'the bread having been changed,' i.e. by the words of Institution: but the whole tenor of the passage, joined to what we know of the character of this prayer from other sources, shows that the true meaning is, 'the bread, being by this invocation changed.' And so Mabillon saw that permuneratione is merely an error for permutatione. In Mone's Third Mass still more strikingly:—
Dcprecamus, Pater Omnipotens, ut his creaturis altario tuo superpositis Spiritus (/. Spiritum) sanctincationis infundas, ut per transfusione ccelestis et invisibilis sacramenti, panis hie mutatur (/. mutatus) in carne, et calix translatus in sanguine, sit totius gratia, sit sumentibus medicina. p. d.
So the Fourth Mass:—
Descendat . . . super hunc panem, et super hunc calicem, ut fiat nobis legitima eucharistia in transformatione Corporis et Sanguinis Domini.
And this prayer for a legitima eucharistia occurs many times both in the Gallican and Mozarabic books. The Post Pridie always ends thus:—
Amen. Priest. Through Thy gift, holy Lord: for Thou createst all these things very good, for us Thine unworthy servants; saiicti*tiest, quickcnest, * bless * est, * and grantest to us; that they may be blessed by Thee our God for ever and ever. Amen.
Then Follows, if there be one appointed for the day, the Antiphona ad confractionem pants: for example, on the second Sunday in Lent: 'Let Thy merciful kindness, O Lord, be upon us, like as we have put our trust in Thee.' And the Priest, having saluted the people, proceeds: 'The faith which we believe with the heart, let us say it with the mouth.' And then, and not till then, according to the old rite, he elevates the Host; because then, and not till then,—not till after the Post Pridie, was it a legitima eucharistia, according to the GothoHispanic belief. Now, there are two elevations; one here, and One according to the Roman Use. Having broken the Host into nine parts, the celebrant arranges them thus, in honour of these mysteries:—
The glory and the kingdom being properly no part of the Cross. And it is to this custom, in all probability, that the Canon of the Council of Tours refers: 'Ut Corpus Domini in altari non imaginario ordine, sed sub crucis titulo componatur.' That is, that the particles were not to be disposed in any way which the Priest might fancy, but in the appointed Cross.
The Nicene Creed, which is said while the priest is so arranging the particles, has nothing otherwise remarkable than that it is phrased in the plural. . The Priest1 proceeds to the Collect before the Lord's Prayer, the last of the seven prayers of S. Isidore. The following, for the sixth Sunday after Easter, may serve as an example :—
Raise us up before Thy presence, Almighty God, in whom we live. To whom we are dedicated. To whom we owe our salvation. Whose gift is
* Here, in the present rite, occurs the memento for the living; as afterwards, just before the Priest receives, the memento for the dead: but these are Ximenian alterations; both the one and the other being commemorated in the Gotho-Hispanie I'sc before the Oratio post nomina.
our festivity. Whose reward is the life of them that believe. Whose redemption is the Resurrection of the dead. Be present to the sacrifices, which Thou hast taught. Be present to the joys which Thou hast given; Thou who hast sealed the hope of Resurrection. Preserve in us through all things this Thy gift, that celebrating this day of the Lord's Resurrection with worthy hymns, we may merit to say to Thee from earth,—Our Father, &c.
The Gallican Office varied in the same way. Here is an example from Mone's Sixth Mass:—
We are indeed unworthy of the name of sons, Almighty God: but Thou being our Helper, trembling, yet obeying our Lord Jesus Christ, with humble mind we pray, and say, Our Father, &c.
The Lord's Prayer follows. The people answer Amen to every clause, except to that, 'Give us this day our daily bread,' where they reply, • For Thou art God.'' Immediately after there is a variation from the Gallican, and an agreement with the Ambrosian and Roman form. The Gallican has a varying collect that follows, as well as one that precedes, the Lord's Prayer. As in S. Eulalia's day: 'Free 1 us, eternal piety, and true liberty; and suffer not them, 'Almighty, to be taken by the enemy, who desire to be possessed 'by Thee. Who livest,' &c. This is followed by the Embolismus, a prayer against temptation, never varying: as is also the case in the Eastern Liturgies. After the Embolismus in Easter-tide, the Priest exclaims thrice, ' The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath conquered, Alleluia:' and at each time the people reply, 'Thou that sittest upon the Cherubim, Root of David, Alleluia:' the Priest holding the particle called the Kingdom, over the chalice. At other times he proceeds immediately to the Sancta Sanctis; in which the Mozarabic agrees with the Eastern Liturgies. Every one knows that in the latter, this exclamation is followed by a confession of faith in the Trinity, or of our Lord's Divinity. As, for example, in S. Chrysostom: * One Holy, one Lord, Jesus Christ, the glory of God the Father. Amen.' In S.Mark: 'One Holy Father, one Holy Son, one Holy Ghost, in the unity of God the Father. Amen.' And here, in the Gallican Office, followed the Trecanum, the same confession; it is now not to be found in the Mozarabic Rite,' though undoubtedly it once existed there. The Sancta Sanctis in the Gotho-Hispanic Office runs thus:—
Holy Things for Holy Persons: and the commixture of the Body [and Blood] of our Lord Jesus Christ, be to us that receive and drink it for pardon, and be vouchsafed to the departed faithful for rest. Amen.
1 This fact is a sufficient answer to the Chevalier Bunsen's wild dreams about the derivation of all Liturgies from the Lord's Prayer, considered as the original form of Consecration.
2 Another corruption of the present Mozarabic Office here is, that the Sancta Sanctis is said in a loud voice, instead of as a proclamation.