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departed Protestant masters or friends; his evidently habitual sense of the nothingness of time, as against eternity :—' I take
* it, Sir, that this time that we're livin' now, is jtist a hanft
* turn; and the grate matter is to be ready again that day ;'—his constant submissive reference of all things to the Divine disposal (a trait of his countrymen, of which Sir Francis Head has given some striking instances); and last, not least, his conscientious abandonment of the ' dhry-salting' trade,' 'for 'fraid he'd break the pledge;' against these, in their line, we can have nothing to say. But he proceeded to give us some idea of the kind of knowledge and religious fact which this earnest heart of his was in the habit of feeding upon. We can select but two or three, out of a very host of marvels, which were familiar to his every-day experience. One of the most notable was of a fisherman of Dunmore, in those parts, who had been wont to ply his craft to the neglect of the due observance of S. John the Baptist's day, (following herein, it will be remarked, the use of Glendalough,) and who on that day, in the present year of grace 1853, captured and sold a large draught of fish, reserving but one 'for himself and the childre.' 'And when the fish came out of the pot,' said our informant,'there, as plain as ever ye see, was writ the words, "The Gospel of the day."' This was the whole matter. But the fish so inscribed had been seen, he averred, by vast numbers of Romanists and Protestants alike, and may be seen at this moment, in a bottle, at the house of the titular bishop. • Wasn't that a merracle, Sir?' was the triumphant conclusion. Another instance must be told in his own words. 'I knoo a man, Sir, that had been a very bad livin' man;
* and then all at onst he turned and made a great change, and was
* very regular at his djooties, [duties, i. e. confession and commu'nion.] "Ye're very much for your sowl," says I. "'Deed I 'am," says he. And so he went on for three years, very regular 'at his djooties. And at the end of that time the blessed Virgin 'salooted him.' This was explained to mean, made an inclination of her head to him three times. 'Wasn't that a merracle, Sir?' We were constrained to admit that it was, if it took place. 'And now, Sir, we're comin' to a place in the road where it happened, what I'm goin' to tell you.' This anecdote was adduced in solution of a question which had often occurred to him, viz. whether the lost could ever be recovered. 'There was 'a very bad livin' woman that died; and she was lost; and she 'got no rest, but appeared to a great many people in this spot. 'So the priest put his word upon her, and sent her off to the
* Black Say—the Black Say, I think it was, but I'm not sure of 'the place. Well, when her time was up, she com back again, 'and was seen again, till somebody said to her, "Bless the poor 'sowl;" and after that she was never seen any more. And so
• I'm apt to think, Sir, it may be as I've said.' It was natural to try to ascertain whether this intense faith and love of miracle had anything truer, of a kindred sort, to live upon. • Had he
* ever heard that S Peter had once taken a miraculous draught 'of fishes?' 'Indade, no, Sir.' 'Or that he was a fisherman at 'all?' 'Ah! thin, sakeso'mine! and he a fisherman! think o'that!' One more question we asked him, the answer to which needs no comment of ours. * Did he know that our Lord had wrought miracles?' Never shall we forget the mixture of amazed and delighted bewilderment of his countenance, as so novel a conception dawned npon him. 'Is it merracles f Would ye be pleased, Sir, to tell me about it?'
We could draw, from the simple case we have thus put before our readers, inferences not a lew. One thing is plain, that here is a right noble soil, which rightly worked, might yield the fruits of a noble Christianity. Ireland was, in early days, the first among nations in the reception and propagation of the truth —doubtless on the ground of that fine and trustful, though easily perverted, native character, which hns been handed down, in undying vigour and animation, as the one inalienable possession of her sons. Whether she shall as a nation find once more, in the records of truth and in the unfeigned marvels of divine grace, fit objects for that spirit of loving admiration and unquestioning belief in the existence here below of mighty powers and gracious influences, which is so eminently hers, is a question— and a deeply responsible one—for those in whose hands the shaping of her future is placed.
We seem to detect, on the one hand, the probable cause of that remarkable fact, which stands admitted by Komanists themselves, viz. the slight hold which their creed is found to have upon such of the population as have emigrated. No longer plied with wonders and legends, and having no great stock of truth to fall back upon, they are a prey to the first form of Protestantism which chances to present itself. And if, on the other, there are indications of the old spell, which bound the Irish peasant to what he has been taught to consider as exclusively 'the old persuasion,' having in some degree lost its power, even on Irish ground, it then becomes a matter of the deepest importance that, the faith and the practice which are to supersede it, be of a kind to absorb healthfully and effectually all the finer elements of Irish character. There must be something better offered to the acceptance of converts, than that meagre solifidianism which is shouted Sunday after Sunday from Irish pulpits. The Irish Church must catch somewhat more of that spirit of primitive and Catholic belief and practice which has been working now for some years in the bosom of her English sister, ere she is qualified to call upon the Romanist population to recognise her claims on their allegiance, and to worship at her altars. The Irish peasantry need to be told of the answer which genuine Christianity contains, to the craving which they feel within thein, after beauty, and power, and wondrousness. They need to have exhibited to them the comeliness of the Christian sanctuary, and the present might of' outward and visible signs' for the conveying of' inward,' wonder-working 'grace.'
But not in religious matters only, but in secular, is the careful study of Irish character and its hidden springs most important. It has been observed by a contemporary journal that—
'According to the accounts furnished from the Irish Exhibition, Irish industry has manifested a decided turn for the ornamental and artistic, the absence of which is but too perceptible amongst our own manufacturers. If this be so, then in this, as in so many other particulars, we and our fellowsubjects have been playing at cross-purposes. Here and in the United States it has hitherto been the fate of the Irishman to be employed almost exclusively in the rudest and most unskilled labour; his natural fancy and taste for the beautiful, in which he would appear to bear some resemblance to the Frenchman, have been altogether passed over. It would be remarkable, indeed, if Ireland—poor and despised Ireland—should some day soon be able to boast of having become indispensable to the manufacturing preeminence of her proud neighbour.'—Guardian.
So, too, it will doubtless be found, in the matter of education, that the people are capable of being interested in the higher and more imaginative walks of literature, to a degree which cannot be said of the same classes in this country.
Art. VIII.—1. Lateinitche und Grieehische Messen, aits dem zweiten bis sechsten Jahrhundert. Herausgegeben von Franz Joseph Mone, Archivdirector in Karlsruhe. Frankfort am Main. 1850. [Latin and Greek Liturgies, from the second to the sixth century. Edited by F. J. Mone, Librarian at Karlsruhe.]
2. Vida e Opusculos de S. Martinho Bracarense, impressos, pela primeira tez, neste reino, por cuidado e ordem do ExcTM- e Rev"0- Senhor D. Fr. Caetano Brandao, Arcebispo Primaz. [Life and Works of S. Martin of Braga, now first printed in this kingdom, by the care and at the order of Fr. Caetano Brandao, Archbishop-Primate.] Lisbon.
8. Dissertation Historico-Chronelogica de la Missa Antigua de h'xpana, Concilios y Successos sobre su Establecimento y Mutation, 8u autor el P. M. Fr. Henrique Florez. [A Historical and Chronological Dissertation on the Ancient Liturgy of Spain: the Councils and Occurrences connected with its Establishment and Alteration. By Fr. Henrique Florez.] Madrid.
4. Tetralogia Litnrgica. Edidit Joannes M. Neale, A.M. London: Leslie.
5. The Practical Working of the Church in Spain. By the Ret. 'Fred. Meyrick, M.A. Oxford: J. H. Parker.
6. Historia de Portugal. Por A. Hehcolano. Tom. i.—iv. Lisbon: 1846—1850.
Amid8t all the branches of the Catholic Church, the Spanish is that of which the history is the least intelligible. In other nations, the brighter or obscurer phases of religion seem to be in connexion with each other; there is a sequence in the progress of their ecclesiastical annals;—one part explains the other, and we may obtain a practical lesson from the whole. But in Spain all seems out ot joint. The five great epochs of the Church,—her annals before the Arian invasion—under the Arians—her restoration—the Mahometan conquest—her final victory,—bear no mutual reference; they are rather separate pieces of history, which have a forced and accidental connexion, but no essential unity. There are, indeed, two keynotes, which, unhappily, characterise the whole history of the Peninsular Church—laxity of morals, and violence in the propagation of the faith. She never appears as the uncorrupted Bride of Christ in the midst of an adulterous and sinful generation; she never appears as the tender, loving mother, the winner of Arian heretics or apostates. Her faith is too often made to serve instead of purity;—and fire and sword arc the means of propagating that faith.
Flow it was that Spain and Aquitaine were plunged into such an excess of licentiousness at the time of the Visigothic invasion, is one of those mysteries of ecclesiastical history that cannot be solved. The testimony of Salvian is no less fearful than decisive. He imputes to his fellow Catholics, as open, as undenied, as notorious, as abounding in every city, crimes of which it is impossible to think without shuddering; and with these he contrasts the purity, the devotion, the high morals of the Arian conquerors. Vandals in Africa, Suevi in Portugal," Visigoths in Spain, all found the same corruption, all won for themselves the same praise;-—but Spain is the country that is branded with the deepest imputation of vice.1 One of the few victories which Roman troops gained over the invaders, was won by a surprise on Sunday, when the heretics were at their devotions. Doubtless, the Arian domination purified the lives of the Catholics. The scum of the old, drifted off into the new, establishment: pollution changed places, and God gave His Church another time of probation. The preaching of S. Martin of Dume, and the splendid career of S. Martin of Tours, touched the heart of Charraric, King of the Suevi: Gallicia returned to the faith. About twenty-five years later, the martyrdom of S. Hennenigild won his father, King Levigild, to an acknowledgment, if not to the profession, of the truth; and Recared, the brother and successor of the martyr, confessed the Consubstantial iu the Third Council of Toledo. It is worth while to notice, that neither in this Synod, nor in that of Braga (a.d. .561), which reconciled Gallicia, is any hint given that immorality had widely spread among the laity: a melancholy contrast with the Canons afterwards passed when the establishment was Catholic.
A hundred and forty years brought back all, and more than, its old corruptions to the Church of Spain. The Moslems passed the strait. The empire of the Visigoths was dashed to pieces on the banks of the Guadalete. Emerging from a tumultuous conflict of civil war, Abderrahman-ben-Moaviah establishes an independent emirate at Cordova. Six of his descendants succeed him in his title and in his power:—the seventh, Abderrahinan III., takes the name of Khalif. Follow the long and weary struggles of the Ommiadae and the Edrisites; till Spain falls into independent emirates, and the entry of the Almoravides in the eleventh century raises, for a while, the sinking fortunes of the Mussulmans, and gives them a further existence of four hundred years.
1 'Quid? Hispania« nonne vel cadem vel majora foreitan crimina penlideruut •' is Salvian's expression.