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had been so little practised in England before his time that the law, if it existed, was almost a dead letter.

But there are other countries, such as Piedmont and France, and some parts of Germany, where any deviation from the established religion would, indeed, expose those who should adopt it to the most trying circumstances, but where it can hardly be said that such a course would be impracticable. We do not mean to recommend any particular course, such as that of itinerant preaching, and the like, which must be left to the discretion of those with whom must rest the final responsibility of carrying out their views in practice. But we contend very earnestly that it is our duty, as members of the Reformed Catholic Church in England, to exhort them not to quit the Church of their country, but by their prayers, their writings, their sermons, and, if possible, by still more positive and open acts of reformation, to endeavour to restore it to a greater approximation towards a primitive and scriptural model.

Nor is it only in regard to foreign Churches that the inferences apply which, we think, may be drawn from the times we have been considering.

In speaking of the system of itinerant preaching adopted by the Lollards, M. Merle d'Aubigne* very justly observes, that ' This * kind of preaching always re-appears in England in the grand 'epochs of the Church,' (p. 103.) It did so in the time of Wycliffe; it did so during the Reformation, when preachers were licensed for the purpose; it did so in the last century, under Wesley and Whitfield. When shall it again re-appear, and to what direction shall the movement tend?

There are not wanting some marked points of similarity between the present system of the Wesleyan Methodists and that of the mendicant friars. The 'friar limitour,' described by Chaucer, was one of a class whose office or privilege it was to preach and collect alms within certain limits or bounds, as the 'circuit preachers' now. Whether the system of collecting money adopted by these preachers be truly represented as having something of the same kind, we would be careful of asserting, lest we should be guilty of judging those whom wo arc not set to judge. But that there is on one point a great similarity in doctrine between them and the earlier Franciscans will hardly be disputed, if we can believe the following extract to have been written, not by a modern Wesleyan, but by a devotee of the sect of S. Francis, in describing the life of his founder:—' Being one day in prayer at this her4 mitage, and calling to mind all his years in the bitterness of 'his soul, he became assured, by means of a new effusion of the 'Holy Spirit, by which he felt himself filled with joy, that his 'sins were pardoned. It cannot be doubted but that he had 'already received the remission of his sins by means of a lively

* grief, and of the sacrament of penance, when he was converted. 'But in this happy moment he knew it for certain by revela'tion, and at the same time understood that the remission was

* total, that is, that all the punishments due to his sins were

* remitted him.''

Those who are conversant with the practical working of Wesleyanism, and, perhaps, of some other systems among ourselves, uniformly testify to this very same self-delusion as lying at the root of the whole superstructure. Believing beforehand that they must expect some sensible assurance of the pardon of their sins, they give way to profligate habits, as if to magnify the future gift of grace; and when they think they have received it, they despise all ordinary means of grace, and often, alas! end by being hypocrites, when they began only as enthusiasts. Far be it from us to say that this is always the case. Far be it from us to deny that there are many good, and humble, and pious Christians among them; but we are describing the system as it affects the sinful and unreclaimed portion of the community, and if it sometimes stops them in a career of vice, we fear it often leads them into spiritual pride, and sometimes to a very dangerous downfall.

And what is the remedy? It will not be denied, that if we call ourselves the Catholic Church in England, we oblige ourselves by that title to attempt a remedy for those whose souls we claim as a portion of the heritage of our Church. We believe it has been a practice pretty common among the clergy, where railway works have been going on through their parishes or in their neighbourhood, to hire Scripture Readers to read to, and instruct the men upon the works. We have heard, too, of railway chaplains in holy orders being sometimes engaged; but can the clergy delegate such functions as these? Are not these precisely those occasions on which they themselves are bound by their ordination vows to preach the Gospel, and, if need be, in the open air? And if on such occasions, why not on others of a similar kind? We well remember, on that memorable 10th of April, when the Chartist-gathering took place on Kennington Common, to have been haunted all the day with a sort of vision of some white-robed bishop, with his assistant priests, advancing towards them in venerable order, and placing his life in their hands, while he preached to them of One, his Master and theirs, in whose sight all are equal, and who alone can right the wrongs and inequalities of life! And it is not 430 England and France under the House of Lancaster.

1 Vita di San Francisco, ut supra, p. 32. (a.d. 1209.)

without consideration that we say this, nor without being prepared, if need be, or occasion arise, to point out the system on which we think such preaching might be successfully conducted.

To return, then, to the sentiment that • this kind of preach• ing always re-appears in England in great epochs of the 'Church;' the only question that remains is, whether such an epoch have now arrived. We believe that it has. We believe that the time only awaits the men; and that the men will be found, when some one—if possible, a Bishop—shall shew the way. Exoriare aliquis.'

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AnT. VII.—1. Tlie Tourist's Illustrated Handbook for Ireland. 1853.

2. A Fortnight in Ireland. By Sir Francis B. Head, Bart. 1852. London: Murray.

3. Four Days in Connemara. By Sir Digby Neave, Bart. 1852.

The questions which are suggested to an English mind by any tolerable acquaintance with Ireland, are neither few, nor, in reality, unimportant. We shall confine ourselves, in the present article, to such as concern the surface of things; in other words, to the more obvious and generally recognised characteristics of the nation. What chiefly engages our interest in these, is not so much the importance of them,—indeed they are for the most part trifles—as their prevailing so universally. The slighter they are, the more curious it is that they should be found impressed on every specimen of the class: just as we think it more singular that the brothers and sisters of a family should resemble each other in voice, than that their features should be similar; or that 'Balaam's mark' should be found on a whole genus, than that the members of that genus should in other respects correspond. It is surely remarkable, that a whole nation should consent together in certain departures, all of them indifferent, and some of them ludicrous, from the type to which, on the whole, they are conformable. Why does an Irishman never say 'yes?' Why does the whole nation, to a man, say 'will' for * shall,' and * would' for * should,' when speaking in the first person? Why did it live for three hundred years on potatoes? Why is the national spade five feet long? Or, to come to more mental peculiarities, What makes the Irish eloquent? What makes them make bulls? How is it that the Irishman—aye, one and the same Irishman,—is the very soul of honour, yet the very embodiment of the spirit of lying? constitutionally the most contented, yet practically the most turbulent, of mortals? the most faithful creature, yet the ' biggest chate' in the universe—so that he shall restore you your property most scrupulously one moment, and pillage you of it without mercy the next? These may seem trifling inquiries, but surely they cannot be deemed, either as a matter of ethnology or of ethics, altogether uninteresting.

In truth, the peculiarities of speech or character, which distinguish the secondary offshoots of the great human genealogical tree from its main branches, deserve to be studied, if we mistake not, in a more painstaking and philosophical spirit than has usually been brought to the investigation of them. Thus, that the Dorians of old spoke the broadest Greek, that the Boeotians were the most stupid, and the Cretans the greatest liars in all Greece, was matter of common observation or opinion. It is to be regretted that it was not made matter of attentive investigation also. It would not have been unworthy of that Socratic philosophy which first proclaimed that 'the proper study of mankind was man,' to have gone a little into the cause of the peculiarities thus attaching to some minor varieties of the species. It is disappointing, for example, to find that the lively and acute Athenians were content to laugh at the broad Scotch of their Dorian cousins, as exhibited to them by Aristophanes, and never dreamt of trying to account for it. We should have liked to know whether any philosophical rationale could have been assigned for the fact which Epimenides declared was of immemorial standing in his day (the sixth century before the Christian era), and which had undergone no change in S. Paul's, viz. that * the Cretans were always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies;' and again, whether Boeotian dulness was really owing, as Horace assumes, to the grossness of the air.

We shall not apologise, then, for instituting a brief inquiry into the causes of some of those traits of the Irish national character which we have alluded to, notwithstanding the nonimportance of some of them; convinced as we are that, in the case of nations as of individuals, trifles are often the truest index to character; and that a good service is done whenever any advance is made towards a correct diagnosis of the peculiar tendencies observable in any considerable portion of the human family.

There are circumstances, too, which render such an inquiry more than commonly interesting at the present moment. Until very lately,—indeed, we are by no means sure that the state of things has altogether passed away even now,—the English, as a nation, were not only profoundly ignorant of Ireland, but thankful for their ignorance. And truly they had much to be thankful for. Beyond a confused general notion of an ungovernable race, alternately mad with whiskey and starving on potatoes; flourishing shillelaghs at fairs, and shooting landlords from behind 'ditches,' {i.e. stone walls,) with silver bullets; we doubt whether a much clearer conception has usually been entertained in this country of the interior life of the Irish, than of the interior of Africa. Nor have the historical and ecclesiastical antecedents of the Sister Kingdom been much less misapprehended or ignored, than its real social condition. You

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