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that resistance should be aroused by a minor ecclesiastical authority, attempting to impose a test which the Church of England would appear not to have intended. And under such circumstances, the terms of the test would be sure not to obtain that calm consideration and favourable construction, which we give to all expressions that come to us under a competent sanction. It must rest with the body of living authority in our Church, whether any new test is to be imposed. And the logical precision of a test is not always a sufficient proof of its serviceableness and safety. Tests ought to be such as men can be brought to understand, and there is no time-serving, but only the wisdom of true and faithful charity, in taking some pains to adapt them to the prevailing infirmities of the times, and to avoid cutting off at a blow members that might be healed by judicious treatment.
As to the charge of 'unsound doctrine,' that is another question; and as there is no ground for maintaining that his is 'not the doctrine of the Church of England,' in the full sense of contrariety, so neither is it easy to answer fairly and directly the arguments by which even the lower sense of that censure is disproved, and by which it is shown that the Church of England holds by implication a real presence toward all receivers. But real logic is a rarity, and even when men have an apprehension of it they commonly use it within very confined limits. It takes the full powers of a schoolmaster to enforce it upon his class,. starvation will scarce avail to inflict it upon a jury, or invasion upon a prince. And while the proofs in the present case are sufficient to command the assent of any qualified judge, they may still be insufficient to enlighten an ignorant multitude, or to satisfy the scrupulous conscience of a young Divinity student, brought up in Calvinistic opinions. Even fair scholars in Divinity will evade the strongest arguments, and raise fresh issues, in order to throw the proof into a new line on their own side, and satisfy themselves that they have proved their own caso, though they may not have really disposed of that of their opponents. And it needs something besides mere logic to compel them to accept a given issue, and argue the whole question on a given basis.
An individual may or may not be right in pressing a test as such. The Church has no such absolute general rule, as that every error is to be at once brought to a test, and exterminated. And if she had, it would not follow that error which has been tolerated, and confusion which has subsisted for centuries, can be at once cleared away by the adoption even of the most perfect test by a few persons. A test must have authority in order to answer its purpose, and if a ringle officer cannot give it its due force even with respect to those who come under the jurisdiction of his own office, much less has he the right of putting it to the Church herself, and making it a test of her faith and purity, not only whether she holds it, but whether she will make it a.test obligatory upon all her ministers. It must be considered not only whether the thing is true, but whether the way of putting it is intelligible, and the point involved in it so necessary as to require an immediate settlement. The point in this case is important, but the test, however correct, is not well chosen for general apprehension. To a straightforward logical mind, beginning with the true, general doctrine, it appears perfectly natural and unquestionably proved; but it has a forbidding side, and those who approach it on that side will evade its proofs, and are very likely to contradict it formally while they really hold it implicitly. Meanwhile, there are those who will think it no less an exercise of faith to wait God's time, than to dash forward without consideration of the state and capabilities of other minds. It is under the severest pressure that God expects His people to wait.
Art. II.—A Spring in the Canterbury Settlement. By C. Warren Adams, Esq. London: Longman & Co. 1853.
During the early part of the summer of 1851 there left England, under circumstances of unusual hope, and with anticipations far more brilliant than had hitherto been wont to attach themselves to emigration, a small fleet of six ships, filled not only with so many individual souls, each expecting to fight his way in another world, like some solitary beast of the forest, but with the supposed elements of a civil and religious community, which on landing in New Zealand, might at once assume the habits and the constitution of a civilized people; might even succeed in leaving behind them many sources of discomfort, many evils that pertain to an old country, many heartburnings and divisions, without also quitting the benefits of Christian civilization. It was hoped that, in the Canterbury settlement, those various orders and degrees of men, civil and religious; which are associated with our experience of English life in its most cheerful aspects, if not in all its dignity; might take root, without loss of order and unity, and yet fully enjoying the advantages of an unburdened territory, where land might become freehold on payment of a year's English rent, and where the incubus of our national debt and our consequent taxation might be avoided. Great stress was laid upon the distinction between emigration and colonization; the latter being thought far more calculated for the settlement in new countries of educated and Christian people, or, in short, of all who wish to enjoy, in whatever position they may be, the benefits of civilized life. This scheme was a great effort to give dignity to the very act of seeking one's fortune in other lands; it arose from the desire to plant new countries and people, which might truly be the offspring of England as a whole, which might tempt a higher class of society to leave their homes than had hitherto been the case, and might thus supply a useful vent to much unemployed energy of mind and body in the overburdened middle classes, to the great advantage also of the poorer emigrants with whom they might go, and the future benefit of the colony.
It is not at all our object, in noticing the book before us, to make this an occasion of entering upon the wisdom or the practical merits of the Canterbury Association. That association has broken up, and looking upon it as a committee of persons in London who undertook the management of affairs in a distant colony, we have great reason to regret the serious difficulties which were brought on by their total inability to fulfil the terms of agreement on which colonists left this country; but still, for the sake of emigration generally, in its better aspect, we feel that the experiment of the Canterbury settlement should not be deprived of its due, for what it really has accomplished, in any feeling of disappointment for what it has not. We doubt the wisdom of attempting what is called class emigration, as applied to religion. In theory, it is, indeed, unobjectionable to choose for your companions such persons as will agree with you, but when there is also added to this simple view of the case, the attempt to make all who go out with you form themselves by charter into a distinct civil community, you are aiming, to say the least of it, at something quite different from all our present associations of religious freedom; and we cannot but imagine that, with the imperfect understanding that churchmen, especially of different classes, have at the present time of each other's religious views, it is a vain hope to avoid future schism by any primary test of opinion. The whole idea, moreover, that is implied by the attempt, is, we think, contrary to those principles of freedom and independence of civil restraint which are to be much desired for the good of all our colonial churches. On this question, however, we shall say no more; we desire facts rather than views, and wish to discover what is the actual experience of those who, two years ago, embarked themselves and their fortunes on this semicircular voyage that is requisite in order to arrive at the antipodes.
Mr. Adams did not, indeed, embark his fortunes; for his object was to obtain a fresh supply of the first, rather than the last, of the standard blessings—'health, peace, and competence;' but yet having succeeded in this end, and being once more at home in England, he imagines that he is in a position to impart information with regard to those who did truly emigrate. He was not, indeed, long in the island—only -about three months —but acute powers of observation often have to make up for prolonged experience. This was, however, a most severe test by which to try a new colony, and, therefore, we think that much allowance ought to be made for any discomforts which an invalid traveller met with, whilst the bright side of his description ought, under the circumstances of the case, to have credit for greater permanence. We can well imagine that very discouraging accounts would most probably have been sent home by a temporary visitor at some of our great colonies on their first commencement; and, although the Canterbury settlement ought certainly to be judged by a higher standard than others, inasmuch as the object of its promoters was especially to avoid that stage of heathenish barbarism which in most cases has been the infancy of British colonial life ; yet we must not, on account of its first pretensions, overlook the good actually attained, Of forget that in all human affairs it is a virtue to aim high, and that it is a true and meritorious reward of virtue to receive even an imperfect fulfilment of our first ideal.
It is too soon at present to give any very confident opinion of the success which has attended the Canterbury settlers, personally; yet certain advantages belonging to the locality are apparent and undoubted, whilst any original sacrifice which may have formed part of the scheme, having now ceased to be in operation on the demise of the Association, and no longer affecting new emigrants, it is plain that the only legitimate ground of complaint rests with the first settlers, who may, indeed, say with truth that they have not received all the advantages for which they conceived that they were paying. These, however, are not the real accusers of the undertaking; we believe that they are, on the whole, well satisfied with their position and prospects, and are willing to forget the literal forfeiture of certain promises, aware, as they are, that the whole concern was of the nature of a joint-stock speculation, and that subject to some causes of personal regret, 'all's well that ends well.' We see also great reason to hope that the additional outlay which the association required of these emigrants over others, will, in some way or other, meet with its full return. When the 6tate of this colony is really understood it will be seen that a strength and solidity, an order and concentration have been acquired, at an age when others have been an unformed chaos; that public buildings and ports are in civilized working order at an age when, without the same organizing system, men have suffered much from the helplessness of solitude, and from that rapacity which accompanies an uncombined society; and also that the more intellectual character of the emigrants will be a real inducement to others, who may wish to start life away from England, to prefer this colony, and will thus bring to the original settlers good interest for their money, in the shape of well-educated and moneyed adventurers, who every year will improve the standing of the place. We know a remarkable instance in confirmation of what we say. Two young men, sons of a professional man, with a good income and a realized property, went out to the Canterbury Settlement two years ago, and they give such favourable accounts of their pleasant way of life, that their parents are about to join them, and exchange a well-established and comfortable position in an