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gréat merits of Mr. Scrivener's accurate collation, and the great importance of many of the points which he has brought forward, we are still forced to express our dissent from some of the principles which seem to animate this work. We have not unfortunately opportunity now to do more than record our conviction that Mr. Scrivener has scarcely formed a just estimate of what constitutes the critical value of a manuscript. Too often a MS. which presents a great number of unique readings finds a favour in the eyes of Mr. Scrivener, which other questionable characteristics should preclude it from enjoying. For instance, it is scarcely possible to consider the various readings of the miserable scrawl marked C. in Mr. Scrivener's list as worth much serious attention, Abounding as it does in unprecedented barbarisms, unequally dispersed itacisms, and other indisputable marks of carelessness, must not a vast number of its unique readings resolve themselves into the errors of an ignorant scribe? The same remark applies with greater force to the Evangelisterium y, in which, beside more than the usual crop of barbarisms and itacisms, the halves of many words are found omitted, clauses are lost by similarity of ending, and every possible evidence of its untrustworthy character is made glaringly patent. Who can wonder that Mr. Scrivener remarks that it is more full of various readings than any he has ever collated ? and who can doubt that the greater portion of these are only instances of what the astronomers call the large personal equation of the writer. In fact Mr. Scrivener's definition of valuable' MSS. is scarcely fixed, or rather he strives to include under it two things wholly disparate, high approximations to the probable text on the one hand, and unusual divergencies of Palæographical interest on the other.

Again, we think that Mr. Scrivener wholly over-estimates the value of these cursive MSS., and in consequence somewhat undervalues the great uncial authorities. While we may agree with him in censuring the narrow limits to which Lachmann has confined himself, and may deplore a onesided criticism that would ignore or only partially notice the great body of cursive MSS., we are still decided in our opinion that the ancient uncial MSS. must ever be considered the first authorities for settling the text; then let us cheerfully take in the cursive MSS., but ever remember the sensible remark of Dr. Tischendorf, that the large number of witnesses of a later date must never be unduly pressed against the fewness of those of an earlier date. With these two protests we can heartily recommend this volume to our readers, and express our satisfaction that we have some antidote provided against the tentative criticism which has rendered the text of Mr. Alford's edition of the Holy Gospels even worse than useless.

Sermons, preached in Village Churches,' by Mr. Jackson, of Warbleton. (Mozley.) If it were not that there is so great a difficulty in getting Sermons to be read at all, these Sermons would be very much read, and they would be felt to have distinguishing points of excellence which may well recommend them for a variety of purposes. It would be hard to say whether they are best fitted for private reading, for families, or for preaching,--for the topics being well chosen, and treated by one who seems to have chosen them for the satisfaction and amendment of his own mind as much as for anything else,—there is not only truth in what he says, but truth that almost everybody wants to have said to him; and an earnest sensible man, let him be of what rank he may, could hardly read one of these Sermons without being glad when the time came for reading another. Let any one try for himself by reading “Peace in Christ the Christian's Present Portion,' and see whether he is content with that only, or whether of his own accord be does not read further.

Voyage Religieux en Orient,' par M. L'Abbé J. H. Michon. Tom. i. (Paris, Comon, 1853.)-The Abbé Michon is already favourably known by bis Sermons, entitled · La Femme et la Famille dans le Catholicisme;' and the present work, of which we have only at present received the first volume, will add to his reputation. It appears that, for many years, the reconciliation of the Eastern and Western Churches has been the object of his deepest interest. An opportunity being afforded him of visiting the East, he left France in the September of 1850, and the present volume relates his travels in Greece and his visit to Constantinople, and brings him to the borders of the Holy Land. He gives a good deal of information on the present condition of the Eastern Church, which could scarcely be found elsewhere; but the main value of the book consists in the truly liberal character of his views, which it is as surprising as it is pleasant to meet in the midst of Gallican Ultramontanism. The three following extracts are surely remarkable:

L'image de la Vierge est très répandue dans les églises. Elle tient constamment l'Enfant Jésus. La Vierge représentée seule, ne se comprend

pas en Orient. Ce mot, MÈRE DE Dieu, écrit en Grec et en monogramme • près de la tête de la Vierge, et qui est son plus beau titre de gloire, lui 'serait ravi, dans la pensée des Orientaux, si elle était représentée sans • l'Enfant Dieu.

• Un idéalisme, selon nous assez peu orthodoxe, substitue d'un jour à l'autre, dans l'Occident, la Vierge considérée abstractivement, à la Vierge

honorée de la maternité Divine. Un faisceau lumineux, appelé rayons, * est suspendu à ses mains comme deux larges palettes, au lieu du doux

Sauveur des hommes porté amoureusement à son bras. Cela s'appelle • UNE (MMACULÉE. Nos pieuses mères disaient, UNE NOTRE DAME. Qu'on i nous laisse aimer la Vierge comme l'aimaient nos mères. Nous avons en • France des communautés d'hommes et de femmes où la statue de la ! Vierge se rencontre partout, et dans lesquelles il serait difficile, sauf à

quelque recoin, de trouver une Notre Dame avec l'Enfant Jésus. Cela se • fait sans malice aucune; mais on pensait autrement au Concile d'Ephèse.' -P. 181.

A conference which the author had with the Abbé Marinelli, Latin Archbishop designate of Naxos, is full of interest :

Il me donna le chiffre des Catholiques Grecs du continent et des îles. Il s'élève à environ seize milles. En 1666 le P. Richard, missionnaire à • Négropont, en portait le nombre à plus de quatre-vingt-milles. L'Abbé • Marinelli attribue la décadence du Catholicisme en Grèce aux ordres reli•gieux qui, depuis le dix-septième siècle, étaient presque exclusivement

chargés du soin pastoral des églises. Tant qu'une nation n'a pas un clergé « indigène qui tienne à elle par le sang, qui appartienne aux familles du

'pays, auquel, par conséquent, se rattachent les affections de parenté et de

patrie, elle fait bon marché dans l'occasion de ses croyances réligieuses.. • C'était aux Capuchins surtout qu'étaient confiées les paroisses Catholiques * de la Grèce. Quand les commotions politiques arrivèrent, que le lien de * la communauté fut brisé pour les religieux, les pauvres églises furent

abandonnées. On a trouvé récemment encore des églises Catholiques ' en Grèce, où le dernier ornement qui a servi à la célébration des mystères 'est plié dans un coin, et n'a pas été touché depuis le départ des religieux. · Les paroisses délaissées ont faibli peu à peu dans l'orthodoxie, et sont

allées demander à l'Eglise Officielle les secours religieux que ne pouvait plus leur donner le Catholicisme. On a fait là une expérience décisive. Il 'n'y a qu'un Clergé indigène, qui ait une puissance incontestable de perpé*tuité. Rome le comprend aujourd'hui, et récemment, grâce au zèle d'un · Evêque Français, homme de pensée et de cour, M. Lugul, Evêque d'Hésebon, la Propagande a adopté pour les Missions étrangères, le principe des Clergés indigènes, au moyen d'un Episcopat qui doive trouver dans le pays même les éléments de l'apostolat évangélique. L'Evêque d'Hése• bon triompha, dans cette circonstance, de l'opposition toute puissante d'une • société religieuse, qui a toujours professé le système opposé. Rome s'est heureusement rendue à l'évidence des raisons apportées en faveur de cette mesure, par les savants Evêques Français.'-P. 197.

It is thus that he speaks with reference to the Encyclical Letter of Pius IX., which excited such indignation in the East :

*La Mission confiée au Nonce de Sa Sainteté auprès des patriarches de l'Orient, aurait eu plus de succès, si l'ont eût appris que le pieux Pontife 'se proposait d'offrir à l'Eglise d'Orient ses majesteuses assises de la repré'sentation Catholique, où les Evêques du monde entier viendraient traiter

avec elle la grande affaire de la réconciliation. Les Orientaux, surtout · dans le Clergé du premier ordre, voient toujours dans le Pape le patriarche

d'Occident. Il leur semble qu'ils ont à traiter d'égal. La question de • rivalité des sièges se présente trop à eux : ils ont le malheur de regarder 'comme une humiliation personnelle, une cession de leurs droits, un re

noncement au glorieux priviléges des patriarchats qu'ils occupent, l'accep• tation de la suprémacie de juridiction du Pape.

Dans un Concile Ecuménique, au milieu de leurs frères dans l'Episcopat, réunis de toutes les parties de la Chrétienté, où la Papauté, représentée par ses légats, ne paraîtrait plus se poser seule comme l'Eglise, mais se montrant ce qu'elle est dans l'institution divine, la tête du corps dont • l'Episcopat compose les membres, les Evêques d'Orient n'éprouveraient • aucun froissement dans les discussions religieuses auxquelles ils pren. draient part. Ils seraient là, au rang hiérarchique, que leur donnent les canons. On se rappelle l'heureux effet produit sur les Orientaux par les 'honneurs rendus à Ferrare au patriarche de Constantinople.'—P. 236.

We shall probably recur to the travels of the Abbé Michon when we shall have had an opportunity of perusing the second volume.

Mr. Francis Newman has translated the Odes of Horace into unrhymed metres, with Introductions and Notes.' (Chapman.) of the last we can

NEWMAN

speak with respect; the former shall introduce themselves. We select at random, only choosing a short ode Æli vetusto, &c.

Ælius! sprung of Lamus old,

Whence the earliest Lamiæ
Their name deduc'd, and all the offspring

Signal in the recording Tablets ;-
* Him dost thou as noble source

Claim, who first the walls (they say)
Of Formiæ, and Liris floating

Soft against Maríca's sandbanks,
• Widely sway'd, To-morrow's blasts,

Rising East, will grove and shore
With many a leaf and useless seaweed

Strew, unless th' old raven cheats me,
• Rain-foreboder. While 'tis dry,

Store the logs. To-morrow thou,
By wine and two-months' pig, thy Genius

Shált with festive household foster.'
Mr. Newman is not a Columbus in these seas of Horatian metre. Among
Milton's early prolusions is a famous unrhymed metrical translation of
a single ode; we will venture to contrast Milton and Newman in the famous
Quis multa gracilis.

MILTON. What slender youth, bedew'd with liquid Who's the stripling slim with liquid odours,

scents Courts thee on roses in some pleasant Drench’d, on plenteous roses, that sues cave,

thee hard, Pyrrba ? ' For whom bind'st thou

In pleasant grot? For whóm In wreaths thy golden hair,

Tiest thou, Pyrrha, thy auburu hair, Plain in thy neatness ? O, how oft Simple in grace? How oft, alas ! will he shall we

Faith and changed Gods lament, and On faith and changed Gods complain, soon and seas

In strange surprise behold Rough with black winds, and storms Black winds sweep on a ruffled sea! Unwonted shall admire i

Now he joys to eye thee golden-bright Who now enjoys thee credulous, all gold, Hopes thee alway vacant, alway kind Who always vacant, always amiable

Fond fool! of shifting breeze Hopes thee, of flattering gales

Thoughtless. Woe for the hearts, to Unmindful. Hopeless they

which To whom thou untried seem'st fair. New thou glitt'rest. Me the sacred Me, in vow'd

wall Picture, the sacred wall declares to have Shows on votive board, when high hung

I hung My dank and dripping weeds

My dripping weeds; a gift To the stern God of Sea.

Gladly paid to the Seagod's might. From Milton's sinewy and sounding lines, we only learn in despair that the thing attempted is not to be done; from Mr. Newman, even with Milton's grand failure by way of beacon before his eyes, we discover that the unsuccessful attempt can be made very ugly. Mr. Newman's reproduction is as correct and grim as a daguerreotype portrait; a likeness, indeed a truth--but with every pleasant feature obliterated. Translations of the classics are in the highest sense unattainable; but the attempt to reproduce classic metres in corresponding English forms, except in the very rarest and so to say accidental instances, has always failed. Pope's Homer may not give an adequate representation of Homer, but it is not a failure ; which English unrhymed hexameters are ; while Chapman or Maginn's ballad metres most faithfully convey the general impression to the English reader. Horace done into equivalent metres is to the scholar superfluous; and to one who cannot read the original, unjust. English Alcaics and Sapphics have neither flow, melody, nor sweetness. And the parallel plan which Mr. Newman has adopted, simply to copy the Latin idioms, has produced a wonderfully crabbed, inverted, amphisbænic dialect, which is no more English than is the language of Nineveh. Here is a sentence for the English reader :

Thou the rivers turnest, Thou

Seas barbaric; Thou bedewd
On secret ridge in knot of vipers

Harmless tanglest Biston tresses.'
Or this,

· Frankincense and harp, with calf
Duly slain, befit to soothe the gods,

Heavenly guards of Numida;
Whó,from farthest Western region now

Safe restor'd, to messmates lov’d,
Many a kiss awards, but, mindful, none

More than Lamia cherishes,
Dear partaker of his schoolboy-hours,

Dear for gown together chang'd.' In a word, Mr. Newman has at infinite pains and care, and with consummate scholarship, produced a version of Horace which is utterly and totally unreadable ; and being as far as the form goes the most faitbful, is in spirit the most unfaithful translation conceivable. In addition to his other labours, Mr. Newman has constructed a chronological arrangement of the odes, which resting on very slender foundations, would be somewhat useless could its certainty be established. At present its main use is to perplex those who are familiar with Horace.

This translation reminds us of another. “The Book of Psalms :' trans. lated into English verse. By a Layman. (Rivingtons.) We should be disposed to contest every assumption contained in the title. They are neither Psalms, nor a translation, nor verse. If, as the writer intimates, this is the sixty-sixth entire metrical English version of the Psalter, although our experience in this unhappy lore is considerable, we must say that the last experiment quite surpasses all which we remember in badness. As in the previous criticism, we will let the translator speak for himself:

PSALM Cxxv.
• They, in the LORD that put their trust,

Are ev'n as Sion hill !
Immoveable and firmly bas'd,

It stand for ever will.
• Jerusalem, the hills her gird!

Ev'n so the Lord's great pow'r
His people doth encircle round,

Henceforth for evermore.
NO. LXXXI.--N.s.

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