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Julian Pe- 16 But be it so, I did not burden you ; nevertheless, Philippi. riod, 4771. being crafty, I caught you with guile. Margardra, 17. Did I make a gain of you by any of them whom I 58.

sent unto you?

18 I desired Titus, and with him I sent a brother : Did Titus make a gain of you ? walked we not in the same spirit ? walked we not in the same steps ?

19 Again, think ye that we excuse ourselves unto you? we speak before God in Christ: but we do all things, dearly beloved, for your edifying

20 For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and that I shall be found unto you such as ye would not : lest there be debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults:

21 And lest, when I come again, my God will humble
me among you, and that I shall bewail many which have
sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness,
and fornication, and lasciviousness which they have com-
mitted.

$33. 2 Cor. xiii. 1–4.
St. Paul proceeds by assuring the Corinthians, that when he

next visits them they shall be judged after the Law and
the Gospel by the Testimony of two or three Witnesses,
He reminds them of his former Threat and Punishment of
the incestuous Person, and assures all those who have
already sinned, and those who continue in Sin, that they
likewise will not be spared by him ; more particularly as
they require a Proof of Christ speaking by him, who
already has shewn himself not in Weakness, but in
Strength, by the mighty Works he hath enabled him to
accomplishChrist, though crucified in the Weakness of
his human Nature, still lives by the power of God-We
also are Weak in Body with him, but the Apostle will
shew that they live with him by the power of God, mani-
fested in their Punishment.

1 This is the third time I am coming to you as. In the
mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be esta-
blished.

25 Do not these words, says Dr. Paley, import that the writer had been at Corinth twice before? Yet if they import this, they overset every congruity we have been endeavouring to establish. The Acts of the Apostles record only two journies of St. Paul to Corinth. We have all along supposed, what every mark of time except this expression indicates, that the epistle was written between the first and second of these journies. If St. Paul had been already twice at Corintb, this supposition must be given up; and every argument, or observation, which depends upon it falls to the ground. Again, the Acls of the Apostles not only record no more than two journies of St. Paul to Corinth, but do not allow us to suppose that more than two such journies

Julian Pe. 2 I told you before, and foretel you, as if I were pre- Philippi. .
riod, 4771. sent, the second time; and being absent now I write to
Vulgar Æra,
58.

could be made or intended by him within the period which the
history comprises; for, from his first journey into Greece to bis
first imprisonment al Rome, with which the history concludes,
the apostle's time is accounted for. If, therefore, the epistle
were written after the second journey to Corinth, and upon the
view and expectation of a third, it must have been written
after his first imprisonment at Rome, i.e. after the time to
which the history extends. When I first read over this epistle,
with the particular view of compariog it with the history, which
I chose to do without consulting any commentary whatever, I
own that I felt myself confounded by the text. It appeared to
contradict the opinion wbich I bad been led, by a great variety
of circumstances, to form, concerning the date and occasion of
the epistle. At length, however, it occurred to my thoughts to
inquire, whetber the passage did necessarily imply that St.
Paul had been at Corinth twice, or whether, when he says,
“ This is the third time I am coming to you,” he might mean
only that this was the third time that he was ready, that he was
prepared, that he intended to set out upon his journey to Co-
rinth. I recollected that he had once before this parposed to
visit Corinth, and had been disappointed in this purpose; wbich
disappointment forms the subject of much apology and protes-
tation in the first and second chapters of the epistle. Now, if
the journey in which he had been disappointed was reckoned by
him one oi the times in which “ he was coming to them,” then
the present would be the third time, i. e. of his being ready and
prepared to come; although he had been actually at Corinth
only once before. This conjecture being taken up, a farther exa-
mination of the passage and the Epistlo, produced proofs which
placed it beyond doubt. " This is the third time I am coming
to you.” In the verse following thesc words he adds, “ I told
you before, and foretel you, as if I were present the second
time; and being absent, now I write to them which heretofore
have sinned, and to all other, that, if I come again, I will not
spare.” In this verse the apostle is declaring beforehand what
he wonld do in his intended visit: his expression, therefore,
“ as if I were prosent the second time," relates to tbat visit.
But, if his future visit would only make him present among them
a second time, it follows that he had been already there but
once. Again, in the fifteenth verse of the first chapter, he tells
them, “ In this contidence I was minded to come unto you
before, that ye might have a second benefit.” Why a second,
and not a third benefit ! why δευτέραν, and not τρίτην χάριν, if
the rpitov ēpxopal, in the thirteenth chapter, meant a third
visit for, though the visit in the first chapter be that visit in
which he was disappointed, yct, as it is evident from the Epistle,
that he had never been at Corinth from the time of the disap-
pointment to the time of writing the Epistle, it follows, that if
it were only a second visit in which he was disappointed then,
it could only be a visit which he proposed now. But the text,
which I think is decisive of the question, if any question remain
upon the subject, is the fourteenth verse of the twelfth chapter
-“ Behold the third time I am ready to come to you"-'looù
Tpírov ETOWUWS EXW EXDev. It is very clear that the spirov èTouws
έχω ελθείν of the twelfth chapter, and the τρίτον τούτο έρχομαι of
the thirteenth chapter, are equivalent expressions, wore in-
tended to convey the same meaning, and to relate to the same
journey. The comparison of these phrases gives us St. Paul's
own explanation of his own words; and it is that very explana-

Julian Pe- them which heretofore have sinned, and to all other, that, Philippi. riod, 4771. if I come again, I will not spare: 58. Ara, 3 Since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me, which

to you-ward is not weak, but is mighty in you.

4 For though he was crucified through weakness, yet
he liveth by the power of God. For we also are weak in
him, but we shall live with him by the power of God to-
ward you.

$ 34. 2 Cor. xiii. 5—10.
As the Faction desired a proof of Christ's being with St.

Paul, he now calls upon them to examine themselves, and
see if they possess those spiritual Gifts which are the
proof of Christ's presence-He hopes, that although they
should be without this proof, that he should not be found
wanting in supernatural Powers, were it necessary for him
to use them for their Punishment when he came-He
prays to God that they should conduct themselves pro-
perly, being much more anxious for their Repentance, than
that he should have an opportunity of exercising his
Proofs, and of shewing his StrengthHe affirms that
supernatural Powers can only be exerted in support of
the Truth-For their Perfection, St. Paul writes these
things, that when he is present with them, the miraculous
Powers imparted to him, for the Edification of the Church,
may not be used in severity.

5 Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith ;
prove your own selves. Know ye not your own selves,
how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates ?

6 But I trust that ye shall know that we are not reprobates.

7 Now I pray to God that ye do no evil; not that we

tion which we are contending for, viz. that rpitov ToŰTO čoxoua.
does not mean that he was coming a third time, but that this
was the third time he was in readiness to come, τρίτον έτοιμως
čxw.. Upon the whole, the matter is sufficiently certain ; nor
do I propose it as a new interpretation of the text which con-
tains the difficulty, for the same was given by Grotius long ago,
but I thought it the clearest way of explaining the subject, to
describe the manner in which the difficulty, the solution, and
the proofs of that solution, successively presented themselves
to my inquiries. Now, in historical researches, a reconciled
inconsistency becomes a positive argument. First, because an
impostor generally guards against the appearance of inconsis-
tency; and secondly, because when apparent inconsistencies
aro found, it is seldom that any thing but truth renders them
capable of reconciliation. The existence of the difficulty
proves the want or absence of that caution, which usually ac.
companies the consciousness of fraud; and the solution proves,
that it is not the collusion of fortuitous propositions which we
have to deal with, but that a thread of truth-winds through the
whole, which preserves every circumstance in its lace.

Julian Pe should appear approved, but that ye should do that which Philippi. riod, 4771. is honest. tho

40: is honest, though we be as reprobates. 58.

8 For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.

9 For we are glad, when we are weak, and ye are strong: and this also we wish, even your perfection

10 Therefore I write these things being absent, lest
being present I should use sharpness, according to the
power which the Lord hath given me to edification, and
not to destruction.

$35. 2 Cor. xiü. 11, to the end.
St. Paul having finished his Reproofs to the Faction,

addresses the whole Church, giving them various Direc-
tionsHe concludes with Salutations, and with his apos-
tolic Benediction.

11 Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good
comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of
love and peace shall be with you.

12 Greet one another with an holy kiss.
13 All the saints salute you.

14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love
of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with
you all. Amen.

SECTION XII.
St. Paul returns from Achaia and Corinth to Macedonia,
sending his Companions forward to Troas.

ACTs xx. part of ver. 3—5.
3 And when the Jews laid wait for him, as he was Corinth.
about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return through
Macedonia.

4. And there accompanied him into Asia, Sopater of Berea ; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timotheus; and of Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus.

5 These going before, tarried for us at Troas.

SECTION XIII.
St. Paul, in his way from Achaia to Macedonia, writes

from Corinth his Epistle to the Jews and Gentiles of
Rome to the Gentiles, to prove to them that neither their
boasted Philosophy, nor their moral Virtue, nor the light
of human Reason--and to the Jews, that neither their
knowledge of, nor obedience to, the Law of Moses could
justify them before God; but that Faith in Christ alone

Julian Pe- was, and always had been, the only way of Salvation to Corinth. riod, 4771.

all Mankind 63... Vulgar Æra, 56.

26 This Epistle is supposed to have been placed first of the apostolical writings, contrary to its chronology, by some on account of the excellency of its doctrines, and by others on account of the pre-eminence of the city to which it was ad. dressed. Various years have been assigned for its date. The most probable is that supported by Bishop Tomline, Lardner, Lord Barrington, and Benson, who refer it to 58. Its interual evidence satisfactorily proves that it was written at Corinth, at the time the Apostle was preparing to take the contributions of the churches to Jerusalem. (Rom. xv. 25.27.) He also mentions to the Romans the name of the man with whom he lodged at the time he wrote to them at Corinth, (Rom. xvi. 23.) as well as that of Erastus, the chamberlain of that city. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) We find it was dictated by St. Paul in the Greek language to his amanuensis Tertius, (Rom. xvi. 22.) and was forwarded to the Church at Rome by Phebe, a deaconess of Cenchrea, which was a port of Corinth. (Rom. xvi. 1.)

It is uncertain at what time the Church of Rome was planted. On the day of Pentecost there were strangers of Rome, Jews and prosclytes, among the witnesses of the miraculous descent of the Holy Ghost. It is probable, we may say certain, that these persons would on their return to Rome, relate both to the Jews, and to those of the Gentiles with whom they had been acquainted, the wonderful events wbich bad taken place. There were many thousands of Jews at Rome at this time. Josepbus informs us (Antiq. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 12.) that their number amounted to eight thousand; and Dio Cassius (lib. xxxvii. c. 17.) that they had obtained the privilege of living there according to their own laws. There was also a continued intercourse between the Jews who remained in their own country and the Jews of the provinces. The tribute money to the temple was regularly paid by the latter, and the messengers, or apostles of the Sanhedrim, were as regularly sent from the latter. The events which occupied the public attention of the Jewish nation, the memory of the miracles of Christ, his crucifixion, and asserted resurrection, with the subsequent firmness and workiog of miracles by his former followers, would become familiar to a large proportion of the Jews and proselytes at Rome, and the manner in wbich the faith of the Romans is represented, (Rom. i. 8.) as being celebrated over the wbole world, as well as the mention of the various eminent members of the Church of Rome, prove to us also that the Gospel of Christ bad been fully éstablished among them, though it is uncertain by what means.

I have endeavoured to shew in a former note the probability that St. Peter visited Rome about the time of the Herodian persecution, after he had escaped by miracle from his prison, and that he was attended by St. Mark. Many arguments concur also to prove that this Evangelist wrole bis Gospel under the inspection of St. Peter, for the use of the newly converted proselytes of the Romans. An opinion prevailed very generally among the Jews, that the Holy Land was to be the exclusive scene of the great events wbich should attend the establishment of the Messiah's kingdom. Of all the apostles St. Peter appears to have been most devotedly attached to the peculiar sentiments of his own people. It was with difficulty he could persuade bimself, even when a vision from heaven commanded him to go to a Gentile—that it was his duty to visit Cornelius. Though he had preached the Gospel to the Samaritans at Lydda, and in

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