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ARTS AND sciences,
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BY WILLIAM JNICHOLSON.
Author and Proprietor of the Philosophical Journal, and various other Chemical, Philosophical, and
UBROMA, in botany, a genus of the Polyadelphia Decandria class and order. Nat, order Columniferae. Malvaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx three-leaved; petals five, arched, semibifid ; anthers on each filament three; stigma simple; capsule muricate, ending in a five-rayed star punched with holes, five-celled, valveless, not opening. There is but one species, viz. B. guazuma, elmleaved bubroma or theobroma, or bastard cedar. This tree rises to the height of forty or fifty feet in the West Indies, having a trunk as large as the size of a man’s body, covered with a dark brown bark, sending out many branches towards the top, which extend wide every way; leaves oblong, heart-shaped, alternate, nearly four inches long, and two broad near the base, ending in acute points; the branches have a nap scattered over them; they have no buds; the flowers are in corymbs. In Jamaica it is known by the name of bastard cedar, and is peculiar to the low lands there, forming an agreeable shade for the cattle, and supplying them with food in dry weather, when all the herbage is burned up or exhausted. The wood is light and so easily wrought, that it is generally used by coachmakers in all the side pieces; it is also cut into staves for casks BUCCANEERS, those who dry and smoke flesh or fish after the manner of the Americans. This name is particularly given to the French inhabitants of the island of St. Domingo, whose whole employment is to hunt bulls or wild boars, in order to sell the hides of the former and the flesh of the latter.
The buccaneers are of two sorts ; the buccaneers ox-hunters, or rather hunters of bulls and cows; and the buccaneers boar-hunters, who are simply called hunters: though it seems that such a name be less proper to them than to the former; since the latter smoke and dry the flesh of wild boars, which is properly called buccaneering, whereas the former prepare only the hides, which is done without buccaneering. Buccaneering is a term taken from Buccan, the place where they smoke their flesh or fish, after the manner of the savages, on a grate or hurdle made of Brasil wood, placed in the smoke a considerable distance from the fire; this place is a hut of about twenty-five or thirty feet . in circumference, all surrounded and covered with palmetto leaves. BUCCINATOR, in anatomy; a muscle on each side of the face, common to the lips and cheeks. See ANATOMY. BUCCINUM, in natural history, a genus of the Vermes Testacea. Animal a limax; shell univalve, spiral, gibbous; aperture ovate, terminating in a short canal leaning to the right, with a retuse beak or projection; pillar-lip, expanded. There are between two and three hundred species, separated into eight divisions; viz. A. inflated, rounded, thin, subdiaphonous, and brittle. B. with a short exserted beak; lip unarmed outwardly. C. lip prickly outwardly on the hind part; in other respects resembling division B. D. pillar-lip, dilated and thickened E. pillar-lip appearing as if worn flat . F. smooth, and not among the former divisions. G. angular, and not included among