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headed “Address to the Nightingale," and is credited to Richard Barnfield, “about 1610.” (Encyc. of Poetry, No. 121.) In 1598 it is said that the first twenty-six lines of this idyl appeared in an appendix to Barnfield's “Encomium ;" in 1599 it reappeared enlarged to twice the length and was credited to Shakspere ; in 1600 the first twenty-eight lines were republished in “England's Helicon " and subscribed “Ignoto.”
We now transcribe from the “ Helicon,” No. xx of “ The Passionate Pilgrim ” much amended and enlarged:
The Passionate Shepherd to his love.
* The grammar of this verse is shocking both here and in the version of 1599. And there are considerable variations in the two versions. In that of 1599 the first word“ Come" is omitted, without which the song could hardly be sung. Other slight defects of measure appear in both. But the editor of Marlowe's Works has carefully corrected the grammar and the measure.
And if these pleasures may thee move,
in 1600, seven years after his death, Is there
other evidence that he wrote it? A single line at the close of a ditty in his “ Jew of Malta” parallels with the first line of this, except the first word:
“ Shall live with me and be my love."
many verbal amendments, and omitting the last stanza, is inserted in his “Works,” 1826.
In the “ Merry Wives of Windsor” act iii, scene 1, Sir Hugh Evans sings the following four lines:
“ To shallow rivers, to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals ;
And a thousand fragrant posies.” This play was written in the latter part of 1599. In the earliest form of it Sir Hugh transposes and varies the lines thus:
" And then she made him beds of roses,
And a thousand fragrant posies."
" To shallow rivers, and to falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals.” It would seem as if the song wils familiar to the public in 1599.
We now add from the “ Helicon” the rest of No. xx of “The Passionate Pilgrim," enlarged from one stanza to six :
The Nymph's reply to the Shepherd.
Ignoto. The editor of the third edition of the “ Helicon" 1812, says in regard to “Ignoto:”
“This signature appears to have been generally, though not exclusively, subscribed to the pieces of Sir Walter Raleigh. It is also subscribed to one piece since appropriated to Shakspere, [No. xviii,] and to one which, according to Ellis, belongs to Richard Barnfield (No. xxi.] The celebrated answer to Marlowe's, Come live with me,' here subscribed Ignoto, is given expressly to Raleigh by Isaac Walton in his . Complete Angler,' first published in 1653.”
What could Walton know about it fifty years after the publication of the song and answer as above ? On such worthless testimony the Nymph's Answer is credited to Raleigh. And we have in the “Encyclopedia of Poetry,” 1873, first the song by Marlowe, “about 1590," and then the Nymph's Reply by Raleigh “ about 1610." Strange that the Nymph should wait about twenty years to reply, and should then repeat the lines credited to Shakspere in 1599 and to “ Ignoto” in 1600! The song perhaps existed before the death of Marlowe in 1593, but was probably composed by “Ignoto,” who also wrote “ The Nymph's Reply” and numerous other poetical pieces that were published in the “ Helicon” in 1600.
“ Ignoto" was undoubtedly a concealed poet. Marlowe, Raleigh and Barnfield were not. As early as January 1590, if not a little sooner, “Ignoto” contributed to Spenser's first publication of the “Faery Queen” the following lines : “ To look upon a work of rare devise
The which a workman setteth out to view,
That unto such a workmanship is due,
Or else doth show a mind with envy fraught.
Which no man goes about to discommend,
Some secret doubt whereto the praise did tend :
'Tis needless for the host to have a sign.
As can discorn of colors black and white,
That never gives to any man his right:
I here pronounce this workmanship is such
As that no pen can set it forth too much. “ And thus I hang a garland at the door ;
(Not for to show the goodness of the ware ;
And customs very hardly broken are ;)
Then look you give your host his utmost due.” In No. viii of “The Passionate Pilgrim” the writer says : “ Dowland to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch
Upon the lute doth ravish human sense ;
As, passing all conceit, needs no defense.” Is not this praise of Spenser a substantial repetition of the sentiments expressed by “Ignoto”? Again, in Shakspere's Sonnet lxxx we read: " O how I faint when I of you do write,
Knowing a better spirit doth use your name,
To make me tongue-tied, speaking of your fame !" Spenser praises Essex in one of the Sonnets prefixed to his “Faery Queen," which antedates the Sonnets of Shakspere.
Once more. In No. xviii of - The Passionate Pilgrim” we read:
“ Poor Corydon must live alone,
Other help for him I see that there is none." Compare this with the following lines from Spenser's “Colin Clout,” dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh, December 27, 1591, and published in 1595:
“ And there is Corydon, though meanly waged,
Yet ablest wit of most I know this day." Was not Bacon the ablest wit of that time? Was