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that shines upon the soul as truly as there is one that shines upon the body; there are dew and showers that descend to refresh and fructify the mind at least as real as those that fall upon the earth. In truth there is an analogy between the worlds of matter and of mind; and the powers and laws of the lower are outward, material expressions of those of the higher. The Lord Himself is the sun of the spiritual and moral world, not figuratively but actually. The light of the Divine Sun shines as really upon the human soul as that of the natural sun does upon the body; and our intellectual discernment is as truly derived from that light as our bodily vision is from the solar light of this world. The heat and light of the Divine Sun are love and wisdom ; and every affection that warms the heart, and every perception that enlightens the understanding, are from these alone. This Divine Sun shining from within, and the revealed Word operating from without, are the two powers by which the world is spiritually sustained, and all regeneration, individually and generally, is effected. Equally true and far more important is it that the sunshine and the rain of heaven descend upon the evil and the good, on the just and on the unjust. This is a truth that is more difficult of admission than its relative truth in nature; so at least it would appear. For how else should we ever hear of God withholding his love and his light from men, and cursing them with infatuation and blindness; and on the other hand, of bestowing His light and love on those whom He chooses and at what season He pleases. Is not every season the same to Him who is the same yesterday and for ever, and who knows no variableness neither shadow of turning? He truly is a Sun that kuows no going down, that shines through eternity in its own undiminished brightness. While it was supposed, in accordance with the appearance and with the letter of Scripture, that the natural sun actually rose and set, there was reason to think that the Divine Sun itself was capable of change. Not less appearances of the truth are those Scriptures which declare that the Divine Being hides His face, and turns away from His erring and sinful children ; when yet the real truth is, which is also plainly declared, that it is the sins of men that hide the Divine face from them, and their iniquities that separate between them and their God. It is man that turns away from God; and his sins, like a thick cloud, intercept the rays of that Divine Sun that ever shines, in all its brightness and intensity, into the soul of every buman being, and into all souls without distinction and without partiality. If this were not the case, the universe would return into chaos. The spiritual world is far more extensive, immeasurably grander, and more important than all other worlds united ; that spiritual world into which all the earths in the universe are ever pouring their inhabitants in a mighty living stream that has been flowing without intermission for ages after ages. What are all the inhabited earths in the universe in comparison with this magnificent abode of the countless generations of the children of men! Yet this world has its dark side; but what is the cause—not only the original, but the continued-cause of its partial blackness? Is it not there, as it is here, that night and winter, darkness and cold, are produced by turning away from the Divine Sun, which even there never ceases to send forth its heat and light without change or diminution ? Even the different degrees of light and heat which are received in the heavens are not caused by the source, but by the recipients of life. God is everywhere present, and everywhere the same. If it were not so the universe, spiritual and material, would melt away. If God could be touched with such a feeling as anger;—if the Sun of His love and truth could cease for a moment to shine alike on the evil and on the good in either world, the whole fabric of the universe would be rent to its foundation, and totter to its fall. But, blessed be God! this is impossible; and blessed be that truth which gives the assurance, that He causeth His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust! The worlds were created and are upheld by His infinite love and wisdom, and by the same love and wisdom the world was redeemed; and the same unchangeable attributes are ever active in saving to the uttermost. If there are any who perish for whom Christ died, it is because they will not come unto Him that they may have life. The genuine truths of Scripture place before us the Supreme Object of our love and adoration, as a Being who loves all His creatures with an infinitely intense and unvarying love,whose attributes are constantly operating to raise all to heaven, and where this cannot be done, to mitigate the wretchedness of those who choose death rather than life, hell rather than heaven; for even to these He is the same merciful and tender Being, and only appears to them to be austere because they themselves regard Him with austerity.
But love and adoration are designed to lead to imitation. It is this use of a true knowledge of God that renders such knowledge so desirable and so precious. To know God practically is to be like Him. Without this, speculative knowledge is of no avail. It is our likeness to God that brings us into conjunction with Him. Likeness connects us with Him, unlikeness separates us from Him. Our salvation or condemnation, our happiness or misery, is simply a question of similitude or dissimilitude with God. The image of God is heaven, the destruction of that image is hell.
How is this state of similitude to be obtained ? This is a most momentous question. Happily it is one that is easily answered, and the answer to which lies side by side with the great truth which leads to it. “Ye have heard,” saith our Lord, “that it bath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven : for He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust." Poor frail human nature might well say to this, as the carnal Jews said to another truth delivered from His own acred lips—“This is an hard saying, who can hear it?” The natural mind recoils against it, for one of the sweetest satisfactions of self-love is retaliation. But not only to refrain from persecution or vindictiveness, but to love where our nature so strongly prompts us to hate,—this is a hard duty. The too common practice of mankind shows that they regard it so. But Christianity was given to teach us to overcome our natural impulses, and correct our natural practices; and to have other and better feelings implanted in our hearts, and other and better habits confirmed in our lives.
Nor let us suppose that the Christian religion teaches a duty that we cannot perform. We must not imagine that the Lord teaches us a duty only to convince us that we cannot do it. It appears difficult, indeed, to see how we can love simply in obedience to a command. We can easily see how duty can spring from love, but we find it difficult to see how love can spring from duty. And yet if we reflect, we shall see that the one is not more difficult than the other. Love and duty are parts of the same whole. There is no love without duty, nor is there any duty without love. Duty is the foundation on which love rests. The Christian builder commences his house in heaven by laying the foundation of obedience deep in the ground of humility. Yet the first stone is laid from the promptings of love. For the first act of real obedience is an act of homage to him who commanded the duty; and in that homage there is love, because there is a voluntary subordination of the natural will of the doer to do the will of him who commanded the deed. Every successive stone that is laid, though it may be laid with much labour, raises the sacred edifice higher in the region of the Christian graces, which are added one by one as the living stones of the temple of the Divine presence, till love, the last and crowning stone, is raised with shoutings of “Grace, grace unto it!" For love is the complex of all the graces, of which duty is the first instalment. Duty is the beginning
and it is the ending of our activities in Christian life. It is the first thing by which love is attained, and the last by which it is manifested; and no state of the spiritual or new life can be commenced or completed without it. Hence the words of our Lord—“He that hath my commandments, he it is that loveth me.” There may indeed be obedience without love, as there may be love without obedience. But such obedience is either forced or hypocritical, and such love is natural and not spiritual.
But the Lord taught us this lesson by His example as much as by His precepts. His life and His death were the exemplification of His tender mercy even towards His enemies. His last prayer was for those who hated Him, even while they were venting their cruel hatred upon Him. But this need not surprise us, however greatly it may affect us. Christianity owes its existence to the love of enemies. The Lord came to seek and save that which was lost. “ While we were yet enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of His Son." It was not, therefore, the particular enmity of the Jews, but the general enmity of the human race and of the human heart to which the Lord was merciful and forgiving, and for which He suffered and died. When we only glance at this subject, how poor and miserable do our greatest provocations become, and how poor and small our greatest acts of forgiveness ! Yet if we desire earnestly to learn of Him who gave Himself for us, we shall find the imitation of His blessed example a never-failing means of improvement.
REVIEWS. SCRIPTURA SACRA ... EX LING. ORIG. IN LATINAM DUCE E. SWEDEN
BORGIS TRANSLATA. Accedunt Sensus Spiritualis Explicationes ex ejusdem Operibus collecta. Recensuerunt, suppleverunt, Notas adjecerunt J. F. S. LE BOYS DES GUAYS et J. B. A. HARLE'. Pars
Quarta. . . . Esatas. Sanéti Amandi. 1862. It is of itself no small commendation of this work, merely to state the rather complex objects which it endeavours to compass; for, to do so enables the reader to estimate how appropriately each of these conduces to bring into a focus every scattered ray of light which Swedenborg bas, in any page of his voluminous writings, shed on the text or the interpretation of Isaiah; and to discern a very appreciable advance in the acknowledgment of the importance of the ancient learned auxiliaries of Biblical interpretation.
The main objects of the work are two-fold: to collect together Swedenborg's Latin translation of Isaiah, and to accompany it by his elucidations
in a connected series; but, as neither of these objects--and especially not the first of them—can, if any width and exactness of view is desired, be simply and immediately attained, it has been necessary to embrace several subsidiary aims at the same time, all of which tend to enhance the value of the results. In conformity with the main purposes, every page is divided into two columns, each devoted to one of these functions. The first column, then, exhibits that Latin version of the Prophet which Swedenborg has expressly sanctioned. But, as he has given no continuous translation of a single chapter, this version is of recessity a tesselated work, gathered together piecemeal from the incidental citations throughout his writings. The editors have laboriously collected these scattered passages; they have inlaid them in consecutive order; they have filled up the inevitable gaps in this text by intercalations of the missing words from the translation of Schmidt chiefly; and they have been diligent to indicate by typographical signs what exact portion of every verse is given in the words which Swedenborg has used, and how much is complemented from Schmidt, or their own emendation. Next, they give, under each verse, references to the respective paragraphs of his works from which they have derived his version of that verse or its parts, or in which that verse is cited; and—which is a noticeable feature of this part of their plan—they have taken pains to indicate, by special marks and references, the particular authority for their adopting, among the discrepant renderings which Swedenborg has employed in different places, the select rendering which they have admitted into the text; and, not even content with that, they subjoin, with references to the places where found, those various renderings of Swedenborg which they have thought fit to exclude from the text. The principles which have guided them in such election between discrepant renderings have, of course, been nearer conformity to the Hebrew original, or stricter accordance with his deliberate exposition. For those passages which he cites and illustrates ex proposito-in which, therefore, his peculiar translation seems essential to his interpretation-are more authoritative for a given rendering, than any incidental citation exhibiting variation, in cases in which the sense of that particular word is not the one on which the gist of the quotation depends. Lastly, each verse, as special occasion requires, is furnished with brief notes explaining peculiar Hebrew words by reference to other places in the Word where they occur; and with some indications whether the LXX., or other ancient Greek versions, or the Peshito, or the Chaldee Paraphrase, or the Vulgate, or Schmidt, countenance or repudiate some doubtful rendering. So laborious and comprehensive is the scheme which the editors have adopted for bringing