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CHAPTER XXII.

FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS.

The following extracts from the United States' Constitution, and from the Bills of Rights, and Constitutions of the several states, will show how high an estimate was once put upon the freedom of speech and of the press, by the fathers of our country.

Congress.

Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.Constitution U. S. Art. iii. Amendments.

Maine.

Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of this liberty. No laws shall be passed regulating or restraining the freedorn of the press.

Massachusetts.

The liberty of the press is essential to security of freedom in a state; it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in this commonwealth.

New Hampshire.

The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a state; it ought, therefore, to be inviolably preserved.

Vermont.

The people have a right to a freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments con

cerning the transactions of government, and therefore the freedom of the press ought not to be retrained.

Connecticut.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

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No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.

New York.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all prosecutions, or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury and if it shall appear to the jury, that the matter charged as libellous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.

Pennsylvania.

The printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the Legislature, or any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Delaware.

The press shall be free to every citizen who undertakes to examine the official conduct of men acting in a public capacity; and any citizen may print

on any such subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Maryland.

The liberty of the press ought to be inviolably preserved.

Virginia.

The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic governments.

North Carolina.

The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained.

South Carolina.

The trial by jury, as heretofore used in this state, and the liberty of the press, shall be for ever inviolably preserved.

Georgia.

Freedom of the press, and trial by jury, as heretofore used in this state, shall remain inviolate; and no ex post facto law shall be passed.

Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Louisiana, and Illinois.

The printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature, or any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Ohio.

The printing presses shall be open and free to every citizen who wishes to examine the proceedings of any branch of government, or the conduct of any public officer; and no law shall ever restrain the right thereof. Every citizen has an indisputable right to speak, write, or print upon any subject, as he thinks proper, being liable for the abuse of that liberty.

Mississippi.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiment on all subjects, being responsible for the use of that liberty.

No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.

Alabama.

Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Missouri.

The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every person may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

CHAPTER XXIII.

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.

1. "The Bible recognizes, and of course in some circumstances, justifies slavery."

One sentence is sufficient to dispose of this argument. Slave holders refuse the Bible to their slaves.

Strange that they should fear to add moral chains to the physical!

2. "Abolitionists are too sweeping in their denunciations. Slavery is not always, as they affirm, a sin, because slaves are often treated with kind

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ness.

So are horses. Is it right to put a man to the place of a horse, provided that horse is a beloved and favorite one? And would you judge it kind treatment, if you were, under any circumstances, robbed of your liberty, and bought and sold like a beast?

3. "The slaves are unfit for freedom."

Are they all unfit? If not, then you must be an immediate abolitionist in regard to those who are fit. If they are, then how can any of them ever be made fit, for some, nay, many of them, have already enjoyed long enough, all the possible influences which can be supposed to fit men for freedom while in a state of slavery.

4. "Slaves are paid wages, inasmuch as they receive from their masters food and clothing."

"It takes two to make a bargain." You might as well call the grease a man puts on his cart wheels, the wages of the ox and of the cart, as to call the food and clothing of the slave his wages.

5. "Many slaves have religious privileges. Their masters labor for the salvation of their souls."

So long as the slaves are kept in ignorance of the Bible, and of their own rights as men, and consequently of their duties to God and man; and so long as their persons and purity are not protected either by public opinion or by the laws, their piety must be of a doubtful character.

6. "Many would not take their freedom if it were offered them."

Fairly and constantly give a man the option of liberty, and he can no longer be your slave. He

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