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On the first Monday of February next, will be put up at public auction before the court house, the following property, belonging to the estate of the late REV. DR. FURMAN,
A plantation or tract of land on and in the Wateree Swamp, through which the road passes from Stateburg to Columbia, consisting of 2000 acres of land of the first class for cotton and corn, and the finest range for stock.
A tract after the first quality of fine land, on the waters of Black River, within four miles of Sumpterville, from 600 to 800 acres.
A lot of land in the town of Camden.
A LIBRARY of a miscellaneous character, CHIEFLY THEOLOGICAL.
Some of them very prime. Two mules, one horse and old wagon.
Conditions. For the Wateree tract, one-sixth payable on the first of January, 1836, the balance in five equal instalments. For Black River land, one-half on the first of January, 1836, balance in 12 months thereafter. For the Camden lot, a credit of 12 months. For the negroes, one-half on the first of January, 1836, balance on the first of January, 1837. For the other property, cash, bonds or notes, with interest annually on the whole amount, with personal security, if required.
Jan. 17, 1835.
Manner of carrying on this traffic.
Those who are transported down the Mississippi river, are stowed away on the decks of steamboats, males and females, old and young, usually chained, subject to the jeers and taunts of the passengers and navigators, and often, by bribes, or threats, or the lash, made subject to abominations not to be named. On the same deck, you may see horses and human beings, tenants of the same apartments, and going to supply the same market. The dumb beasts, being less manageable, are allowed the first place, while the human are forced into spare corners and vacant places. My informant saw one trader, who was
taking down to New Orleans one hundred horses, several sheep, and between fifty and sixty slaves. The sheep and slaves occupied the same deck. Many interesting and intelligent females were of the number. And if I were satisfied that the columns of a newspaper was the proper place to publish it, I could tell facts concerning the brutal treatment exercised towards these defenceless females while on the downward passage, which ought to kindle up the hot indignation of every mother, and daughter, and sister in the land.
The slaves are taken down in companies, varying in number from 20 to 500. Men of capital are engaged in the traffic. Go into the principal towns on the Mississippi river, and you will find these negro traders in the bar-rooms, boasting of their adroitness in driving human flesh, and describing the process by which they can 'tame down' the spirit of a 'refractory' negro. Remember, by 'refractory' they mean to designate that spirit which some high-souled negro manifests, when he fully recognizes the fact, that God's image is stamped upon him. There are many such negroes in slavery. Their bodies may faint under the infliction of accumulated wrong, but their souls cannot be crushed. After visiting the bar-room, go into the outskirts of the town, and there you will find the slaves belonging to the drove, crowded into dilapidated huts,-some revelling others apparently stupid-but others weeping over ties broken and hopes destroyed, with an agony intense, and to a free man, inconceivable. Many respectable planters in Louisiana have themselves gone into Maryland and Virginia, and purchased their slaves. They think it more profitable to do so. This shows that highly respectable men engage in this trade. But those who make it their regular employment, and thus receive the awfully significant title of soul drivers,' are usually brutal, ignorant, debauched men. And it is such men, who exercise despotic control over thousands of down-trodden, and defenceless men and women.
The slaves which pass down to the southern market on the Mississippi river and through the interior, are mostly purchased in Kentucky and Virginia. Some are bought in Tennessee. In the emigration they suffer
great hardships. Those who are driven down by land, travel from two hundred to a thousand miles on foot, through Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. They sometimes carry heavy chains the whole distance. These chains are very massive. They extend from the hands to the feet, being fastened to the wrists and ankles by an iron ring round each. When chained, every slave carries two chains,-i. e. one from each hand to each foot. A wagon in which rides 'the driver,' carrying coarse provisions, and a few tent coverings, generally accompa nies the drove. Men, women and children, some of the latter very young, walk near the wagon; and if, through fatigue or sickness, they falter, the application of the whip reminds them that they are slaves. They encamp out nights. Their bed consists of a small blanket. Even this is frequently denied them. A rude tent covers them, scarcely sufficient to keep off the dew or frost, much less the rain. They frequently remain in this situation several weeks, in the neighborhood of some slave-trading village. The slaves are subject, while on their journeys, to severe sickness. On such occasions the drivers manifest much anxiety lest they should lose their property! But even sickness does not prevent them from hurrying their victims on to market. Sick, faint, or weary, the slave knows no rest. In the Choctaw nation, my informant met a large company of these miserable beings, following a wagon at some distance. From their appearance, being mostly females and children, and hence not so marketable, he supposed they must belong to some planter who was emigrating southward. He inquired if this was so, and if their master was taking them home. A woman, in tones of mellowed despair, answered him: 'Oh, no, sir, we are not going home! We don't know where we are going. The speculators have got us!'-H. B. Stanton.
How Americans are exposed for sale.
Mr. Robinson, a member of the Lane Seminary, a citizen of Nashville, Tennessee, where he was graduated, and has resided, says :—
After slaves arrive in market, they are subjected to
the most degrading examinations. The purchasers will roll up their sleeves and pantaloons, and examine their muscles and joints critically, to ascertain their probable strength, and will even open their mouths and examine their teeth, with the same remarks, and the same unconcern, that they would a horse.
The feinales are exposed to the same rude examinations as the men. When a large drove of slaves arrives in a town for sale, placards are put up at the corners of the streets, giving notice of the place and time of sale. Often they are driven through the streets for hours together (for the purpose of exhibiting them) exposed to the jeers and insults of the spectators. About a year since, Mr. Robinson saw about a hundred men, women and children, exposed for sale at one time in the market place at Nashville; and while three auctioneers were striking them off, purchasers examined their limbs and bodies with inhuman roughness and unconcern. This was accompanied with profanity, indelicate allusions, and boisterous laughter.
There are planters in the northern slave-states, who will not sell slave families, unless they can dispose of them all together. This they consider more humane,—as it in fact is. But such kindnesses are of no avail after the victims come into the southern markets. If it is not just as profitable for the traders to sell them in families, they hesitate not a moment to separate husband and wifeparents and children, and dispose of them to purchasers, residing in sections of the country, remote from each other. When they happen to dispose of whole families to the same man, they loudly boast of it, as an evidence of their humanity.
Separation of Families.
Take the following facts as illustrative of the deep feeling of slave mothers for their children. It is furnished me by a fellow student who has resided much in slave states. I give it in his own words. 'Some years since when travelling from Halifax in North Carolina, to Warrenton in the same state, we passed a large drove of slaves on their way to Georgia. Before leaving Halifax, I heard that the drivers had purchased a number of
slaves in that vicinity, and started with them that morting, and that we should probably overtake them in an hour or two. Before coming up with the gang, we saw at a distance a colored female, whose appearance and actions attracted my notice. I said to the stage-driver, (who was a colored man,)' What is the matter with that woman, is she crazy?' 'No, massa,' said he, 'I know her, it is Her master sold her two children this morning to the soul-drivers, she has been following along after them, and I suppose they have driven her back. Don't you think it would make you act like you was crazy, if they should take your children away, and you never see 'em any more?' By this time we had come up with the woman. She seemed quite young. As soon as she recognized the driver, she cried out, 'they've gone! they've gone! The soul-drivers have got them. Master would sell them. I told him I couldn't live without my children. I tried to make him sell me too;-but he beat me and drove me off, and I got away and followed after them, and the drivers whipped me back :-and I never shall see my children again. Oh! what shall I do!' The poor creature shrieked and tossed her arms about with maniac wildness-and beat her bosom, and literally cast dust into the air, as she moved towards the village. At the last glimpse I had of her, she was nearly a quarter of a mile from us, still throwing handfulls of sand around her, with the same phrenzied air.—H. B. Stanton.
Prices for which Americans are sold.
The other day I attended a sale of slaves in the exchange.
In one accustomed to such scenes, it excited no enviable feelings. The first spontaneous emotion of my heart was, that God never made men and women to be sold like beasts or bales of cotton, and to be separated from each other, and from their children, as I saw them separated! And yet a Presbyterian minister not long since in a sermon preached before synod, asserted and attempted to prove from the Bible that 'slavery is no sin.'
There were 33 in the lot to be sold. As a specimen, I subjoin the prices of a few.