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Statement of the Valuation of Lands, Lots, with their improve' ments, Dwelling-houses, and Slaves, within the several Counties of the State of Georgia, as revised and settled by the Board of Principal Assessors, and the Amount of the Quota of each, at the rate of 33 cents on every 100 dollars valuation.
The valuation of the property of the state of Georgia, subject to the direct tax, amounts to 57,746,771 dollars, 16 cents, of which considerably more than one-half is raised on the valuation of slaves.
Military Force.—The militia amounted, in 1815 to 27,480; of which 23,264 were infantry, 162 artillery, and 1112 dragoons.
Religion.—There is no established religion in this state, and no religious tests are required from those who hold public offices. The different denominations, in point of numbers, stand in the following order: Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, the number of their ministers was 202, members 16,834. The clergy are excluded from the legislature. It is stated by Mr Beecher, that there are not more than ten regular clergymen in this state.
Education.—An association was incorporated, in 1785, for superintending schools and other seminaries, called the Senate of the" University of Georgia." They propose to render the system of education uniform throughout the state; and the university is to consist of a college, and of an academy in each county. The corporation is composed of the president of the university, governor, senators, speaker of the house of representatives, and chief justice, and some other persons, who constitute altogether a board of trustees. The academies and schools are under the superintendence of a board of commissioners, appointed by the senate of the university, and responsible for their instructions. The rectors of the academies, who are officers of the university, are appointed by the president. The college is established at Athens, in Clarke county, on a high ground, near the Cedar shoals, or north fork of the Oconee river, from which there is a fine view of the surrounding country. The president is also president of the university, and several professors have been appointed; but the number of students has rather diminished of late. All these institutions are to be supported out of the proceeds of 50,000 acres of land, and L.6000 sterling, in bonds, houses, and town lots in Augusta. Public property, to the amount of 1000 pounds, has been appropriated by the legislature for building and furnishing an academy in each county. About eight or nine years ago an academy was endowed at Lexington, seventeen miles from Athens, by Mr Mason, a native of Ireland.
Humane Institutions.—In the year 1740 the first charitable institution, an orphan house, was founded by Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, near the seashore, at Savannah, on a spot of land granted by the state-trustees for this purpose. In 1749 Lady Huntingdon purchased a tract of 500 acres, and stocked it with black slaves, for the support of this establishment; and, at her decease, left a large donation for the use of the institution. The poor children placed here were supported, partly by charity, partly by the proceeds of the land cultivated by negroes. The building, constructed of wood, 70 feet by 40, was furnished with an excellent library; but the situation was unhealthy, and the institution did not flourish. About thirty years after its erection the house was consumed by fire, or by lightning, with the library and all the furniture it contained.
Slaves.—The introduction of slaves was at first prohibited by the laws of the colony; but the interests of the planters gradually prevailed over the letter of the law; and, when the colony passed from the hands of the trustees under the royal authority, slaves were openly imported in great numbers. In 177S their number was 14,000. By the present laws the person who brings a slave within the state, and sells or offers him for sale, within a year from the time of his introduction, is liable to a fine of 1000 dollars, and five years imprisonment in the Penitentiary. But persons emigrating into the state may bring their own slaves with them. Any person who maliciously dismembers or deprives a slave of his life, is to suffer " the same punishment as if the offence had been committed on a free white person, except in case of insurrection, and unless the slave loses his life by accident, receiving moderate correction." No laws can be passed for the emancipation of slaves, without the consent of their owners, and no slave can be set free, without the sanction of the legislature.
Agriculture.—The agricultural productions of this state are wheat, Indian corn, rice, cotton, indigo, tobacco, and potatoes. * The soil of the interior parts, and the heat of the climate, are particularly favourable to the growth of tobacco and Indian corn. The cotton, of long staple, known by the name of
Mean current price of articles of consumption at Augusta, in