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Harbours. These are three in number ; Charleston, Port Royal, and Georgetown. The first, formed by the junction of Ashley and Cooper rivers, is large and convenient; but there is a bar at the distance of twelve miles from the city, across which the deepest channel has but eighteen feet water, and vessels of more than 200 tons cannot safely enter. That of Port Royal, near the borders of Georgia, is large enough to contain the most numerous feet. That of Georgetown, or North Island, is inconvenient, as there is a bar at the entrance of Winyaw bay, over which vessels drawing more than twelve feet water cannot pass.
There are light-houses at Cape Lookout, and at Charleston. In April 1816, 1500 dollars were granted for placing beacons and buoys on Georgetown bar and in Winyaw bay.
Canals.-The Santee canal, which affords a commu. nication between the Santee and Cooper rivers, uniting Charleston with the middle country, is twenty feet broad at the bottom, and thirty-five at the surface, hav. ing four feet water. It is navigable for boats of twenty-two tons, carrying from sixty to ninety bales of cotton. This work, which commenced in 1792, was fi. nished in 1800. There are two double and six single. locks, constructed of brick and stone, sixty feet in length and ten in width. The water is drawn from reservoirs along the course of the canal. The ascent from the Santee to the highest intervening ground is thirty-five feet; the descent to the Cooper river is sixty-eight feet. The expence amounted to 650,667 dollars. The toll does not exceed 13,000 dollars. The Keowee river has been made navigable for boats carrying 10,000 pounds, more than twenty miles from its mouth. The expence amounted to 700 dol. lars.
Water-carriage.--In 1811, the price of transportation by land, from Augusta to Charleston, 145 miles, was 14 dollar per cwt.; by water, a distance of 300 miles, it was but 60 cents. From Augusta to Savannah, the advantage of the latter over the former was nearly as eight to one. The internal navigation has been lately improved by the use of steam-boats.
Bridges. There are but few of a solid construction. One across the Congaree at Columbia, another across the Savannah at Augusta, and a third across Ashley river, one mile above the city of Charleston, have been all carried away by the swelling of the waters. The last, finished in 1811, was destroyed by the equinoctial gales of 1816. It was 2100 feet in length, 33 feet in breadth, with a drawbridge of thirty feet. The wooden piles which supported it were covered with lead to protect them against the worms.
At each extremity of the bridge a causeway extended 1500 feet in length. A good bridge has been lately built across the Savannah at Augusta.
Banks. The first bank was established in 1792, and was a branch of the national bank, under the name of “ the Office of Discount and Deposit.” 2. The South Carolina Bank, established the same year. 3. The State Bank, established in 1801. 300,000 dollars were subscribed by the state, and paid in six per cent. stock, and the dividend exceeding the interest of funded stock froin two to four per cent. per annum, the shares in the several banks were taken up, and sold at an advanced price.
Roads.—The roads are opened and kept in repair by commissioners appointed for this purpose, but are yet in a very bad condition. That across the Apalachian mountains, from the north fork of Saluda river to Knoxville, in the state of Tennessee, is now passable for waggons with a load of 2500 lbs. weight,
Inventions cluimed by Citizens of this State. Lucas's machine for separating the grain of rice from the husk, worked by the tide, cleans twenty barrels a-day. De Neale's ma. chine for thrashing the grain from the straw. Middleton's machine for thrashing wheat, worked by horses, is now employed with advantage, both for this grain and rye. Another machine, invented by the same person, is now employed for cutting wheat.
Books and Documents relating to the History and
Geography of this State. 1666. Brief Description of Carolina, 4lo, London. 1682. Present State of Carolina. Loudon, in 4to, by R. F.
1687. Description de la Virginie, et du Marylan, par un Français éxilé pour la Religion. 8vo. La Haye.
1706. Proceedings of the Proprietors of South Carolina. Fol. London.
1707. Archdale's (John) Account of South Carolina. London, This author was governor in 1695.
1709. Lawson's (John) llistory of Carolina, or New Voyage to Carolina, in 4to, containing an exact description of the country, its natural history, &c. This work was translated into German, with additions, in 1722, by Vischer, in 8vo, Hamburgh.
1710. Account of South Carolina, with the Charges of settling a Plantation, &c. By a Swiss Gentleman to his Friends at Berne, in 8vo, London.
1732. Account of Carolina and Georgia, 8vo, London.
1738. Lining's (Dr John) Meteorological Observations, (the first ever published concerning the weather of Charleston,) communicated to the Royal Society.
1740. Mitchell's Present State of Carolina. London, 1740, in Svo.
1745. Brickwell's (John) Natural History of Carolina, with an Account of the Trade, Manners, and Customs, of the Christian and Indian Inhabitants. Dublin, in 8vo.
1753. An Accurate History of the Yellow-fever of this Country, the first given to the Public from the American Continent.
Cox's Description of Carolina, in 8vo.
1758. Burke's European Settlements in America. 2 vols. in 8vo.
1761. Description of South Carolina, containing many useful and interesting Particulars relating to the Civil, Natural, and Commercial History of that Colony. In 8vo, 2s. Dodsley, London.
1770. Milligan’s (Dr) Short Description of South Carolina.
Drayton, (William Henry) who died in 1779, in the thirty seventh
year of his age, was the author of the well known pamphlet under the signature of Freeman, addressed to the American Congress in 1774. He has left a njanuscript History of the American Revolution to the close of the year 1778, in 3 folio volumes.
1775. American Husbandry, 2 vols. 8vo, London.
1776. Chalmers's (Dr Lionel) Account of the Weather and Diseases of South Carolina. His observations include a period of ten successive years, from 1750 to 1760.
1779. Historical Account of South Carolina and Georgia, 2 vols. 8vo, London.
1779. Hewitt's (Rev. M.) History of South Carolina, 2 vols. in 8vo.
1780. Chalmers's Political Annals of the present United Colonies, in 4to.
1785. Ramsay's (David) History of the Revolution of South Carolina, 1 vol. in 8vo, Trenton,
1788. Walter's Flora Caroliniana. London.
1791. Bartram's Travels through this State, in 1766, 1 vol. in 8vo, Philadelphia.
Troti's Laws of Scotch Carolina.
1796. Ramsay's (David, M. D.) Sketch of the Soil, Climate, Weather, and Diseases of South Carolina. Charleston, 8vo, pp. 30.
1801. Michaux's Histoire des chenes de l'Amerique. Paris.
1802. Drayton's (John) View of South Carolina, as respeets her Natural and Civil Concerns. 1 vol. 8vo, pp. 252, Charleston, with a map of the state,
1809. Ramsay's History of South Carolina, from 1670 to 1806, with a Map. Pp. 1080, 2 vols. 8vo, Charleston.
Hewat's (Dr) Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and Georgia.
Maps. In 1816 the legislature appropriated 15,000 dollars for a new survey and map of the state.