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is a substitute for olive oil, to which it is not inferior, and the substance which remains, after expression, is a profitable food for cattle and poultry.

Grasses.—The cross, or crab grass, is preferred for hay. It is sweet and nourishing, and in some places has yielded from four to five tons per acre. Lucerne and crowfoot, on a similar soil, yield nearly the same quantity. The joint grass affords good pasture for sheep. The oat grass, which grows in rich tide land, when cut green, is an excellent food for horses. The mildness of the climate affords great agricultural advantages. The cattle range and fatten in the woods throughout the winter. A considerable number of sheep are raised. The average fleece of the common breed is about three pounds; and some have yielded from fourteen to fifteen pounds. Fruit.The peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry, are excellent, but liable to be attacked by an insect * in its larva state. Melons are very plentiful. The peach sometimes grows to an enormous size, measuring a foot in circumference. Grapes also thrive well, some bunches weighing three pounds. † The sweet orange is now successfully propagated, by ingrafting it on the sour orange.

The plough is much used in the middle and upper country. In the lower the principal instruments are the hoe and the spade. In the two first the productions are carried to market on waggons with narrow wheels, drawn by four or six horses, which carry two or three tons weight. On the plantations sledges are employed to draw wood, rails, and small timber. In the low country the cart with broad wheels, drawn by oxen, is preferred.

* Curculio.

+ Essay of Mr Johnson, vice-president of the Literary and Philosophical Society at Charleston.

Price of Land.-Some tracts of the first quality of cotton land have been sold as high as sixty dollars an acre ; the average price is from six to forty. The price of rice land is about twenty dollars an acre. In Pendleton district in 1808, where about one-third of the surface was then cleared, and one-fourth more fit for cultivation, low grounds sold from twenty to forty dollars ; high grounds, one-half to five dollars. On Edisto Island the price of land was from thirty to sixty dollars an acre ; some portions were leased at six and a half dollars per acre. In Orangeburgh district lands were then sold at from one-half dollar, the lowest, to twenty dollars, the highest price per acre. The price of a steam-engine, on the plan of Evans, of an eight horse power, was 3000 dollars.

Manufactures.—In the upper parts of the state, domestic manufactures supply nearly all the wants of the people, except in the articles of salt and sugar.

I'roducts of Mineral Substances.- Iron Works.The first iron works, erected in 1773, were destroyed by the English during the revolutionary war, and rebuilt in 1783. On Allison's creek, in York district, there is a forge, a furnace, a rolling mill for making sheet iron, and a nail manufactory. On Middle Ti. ger river, there are iron works on a small scale ; also on the Enoree river and Reedy river, on the north fork of Saluda river, on George's creek, and Twenty-six Mile creek. In 1802, an air furnace was erected on a neck of land between Cooper and Ashley rivers, where good castings are made. There are several manufactories of gunpowder in the upper country. The nitre is imported from Kentucky and Tennessee.

Products of Vegetable Substances. On the waters of Pine Tree creek, on Little river, and Reedy river, and in the middle and upper country, are various grist, saw, and oil mills. One of the wheat mills, on the plan of Evans, boults and packs fifty barrels of superfine flour per day; others manufacture from twelve to sixteen. There are three rope-walks within the state ; two near Charleston, the other near Columbia. The last manufactures annually eighty tons of excellent cordage, rope, and cables. The cane or reed is used for angling rods and weaving implements. The trunk of the Cabbage palmetto, which is of a spongy nature, and resists the attack of the salt water worms, is em ployed for the construction of wharfs. It is also used in the building of forts. The leaf serves for the manufacture of hats, which are said to be very durable. . The red bay tree, on account of its fine texture, is employed for cabinet work and furniture. The live oak, the red and white cedar, white scaly bark, and chestnut oak, and white iron oak, are valuable for shipbuilding; the red and Spanish kind for staves and rails. The pitch and yellow pine serve for masts, yards, and planks. The berries of the candleberry myrtle yield a wax, from which, when bleached, excellent candles and



soap are made, of a kind which has a great advantage over those made of tallow in hot countries. The berries of the tallow tree also yield a substance which is employed for soap and candles. The Palma Christi, or castor-oil tree, is cultivated here, and gives from 100 to 150 gallons of oil per acre.

The leaves of the Yaupon or Cassina shrub, which grows on the coast, were formerly much used by the Indians in the form of tea, and furnished an article of profitable commerce with those of the west. Ginseng, which grows near the mountains in the upper country, was an article of considerable commerce, but has become scarce since the great demand made by the Cherokee Indians. The bark of the root of the dogwood is considered as an infallible remedy against worms. Cider is manufactured in the interior from a species of apple, which hangs on the tree till the beginning of frost.

In 1810, the quantity of flax-seed oil was 100 gallons, value 100 dollars ; spirits, 436,853 gallons, value 296,060 dollars ; 202 grist mills, and 4200 barrels of flour, value 42,000 dollars.

Products of Animal Substances.-Coarse woollens are manufactured throughout the state. Silk was formerly cultivated for exportation to London by a colony of Swiss emigrants at Parisburgh, a small village on the Savannah river. The whole amount of manufactures in 1810, according to the report of the marshal of the district, was 2,174,157 dollars ;

besides the amount of flour, classed as a doubtful article, 42,000 dollars.

Commerce. --About the beginning of the eighteenth century, rice became an article of export, and negroes were imported for its culture. The list of exports was soon increased by other articles ; indigo from 1747, tobacco from 1782, and cotton from 1792. In 1800, the exports had increased to the value of 14,304,045 dollars. During the first 106 years of colonial government, all the trade centered in Great Britain and its dependencies, with the exception of rice, which, by special act of Parliament, was exported to Cape Finisterre. Soon after the declaration of independence, vessels were fitted out by different merchants for the Dutch and French West India islands; and so great were the profits in 1776 and 1777, that the safe arrival of two vessels indemnified for the loss of one. The merchants of Charleston, after the peace of 1783, extended their commerce to the Mediterranean, Germany, France, Spain, Holland, Madeira, and Russia ; but only one vessel had been fitted out for the East Indies anterior to the year 1809. The great articles of export are cotton, rice, and tobacco, which are sent to the northern states, or to Europe. The imports consist of British manufactured goods from the East and West Indies, and wines from France. In 1801, the exports amounted to 14,304,045 dollars ; in 1804, to 7,451,616 dollars ; in 1810, to 5,290,614 dollars ;

in 1811, to 4,861,279 dollars. The shipping, in 1810, was about 53,000 tons. The export of produce from Charleston, the great place of trade, from the 1st of October 1815 to the 31st of March 1816, was as follows : Rice, 64,578 tierces; cotton, Sea Island, 9527 bales; Upland, 46,901 bales,

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