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snake, corn snake, egg or chicken snake, eel snake, or great loach. (Lawson, p. 126.)

Fishes. The rivers, which we have described, contain sturgeon, pike, trout, perch, broom, mud-fish, catfish,

, gar, rock, and sucking fish. The coast abounds with bass, drum, shad, whiting, cavallo, black fish, and mullet. In the salt and fresh waters, according to Lawson, there are also whales of several sorts, thrashers, devil-fish, sword-fish, poises, sharks of two sorts, dog-fish, &c. Of shell-fish there are various kinds, of which the most esteemed are the soft-shelled turtle, a species of terrapin, and soft-shelled crab. The oysters are small, but of an exquisite flavour. The other shell-fish are clams, scallops, muscles, cockles, shrimps, &c. In the south-western parts of the state, a great quantity of fish is annually caught in winter and summer by means of traps. The shad arrives there to spawn in the latter end of spring. Alligators abound in the rivers, near the head of tide water, where, growing to the length of ten or fourteen feet, they are destructive to fish and animals, and sometimes the old ones attack men.

In June 1817, Mrs Anna Ratley, riding across the Gum Swamp, (about twelve miles from Lamberton, North Carolina,) where the water was little more than knee deep, an alligator at. tacked her horse ; and she falling off in the struggle, was so lacer. ated by the monster, though suddenly rescued by her husband and brother, that she died in the course of a few days. The alligator received seven or eight musket shot before it was killed, and was found to be eleven feet in length. (Walsh's Amer. Reg.)

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The increase of whites, during the last ten years, was 17,946, or nine and one-seventh per cent. ;

of blacks, 51,583, or thirty-four and a half per cent. The proportion of blacks to whites is nearly as twenty to By the last census it appears that there were of white


Under 16 years of age,
Between 16 and 45,
Above 45,






* Longevity.Dr Ramsay gives the names and places of residence of ten persons living when he wrote, (in 1808,) aged from 100 to 110; of thirteen from 90 to 98 years; of twelve from 80 to 89. Another list of persons, who died between 1797 and 1808, contains the names and residence of nine individuals aged from 100 to 114 years; of nine from 90 to 95 ; and of thirty between 80 and 90. A third list of persons, who died before 1797, con•

Civil or Administrative Division of the State of

South Carolina, with the Population of each County and Chief Town, in 1810, the Year of the late

Population. Chief Towns.

Population. Abbeville,

21,150 Abbeville.
• All Saints,


1000 + Charleslon city, 24,711 Charleston district, 38,468 Chester,

11,479 Chester. Chesterfield,


26,359 Darlington,

9,047 Edgefield,

23,160 Fairfield,

11,854 Fairfield. Georgetown,


Georgetown. Greenville,

13,133 Greenville. Horry,

4,349 Kershaw,

9,867 Camden. Lancaster,

6,318 Laurens,


Laurens. Lexington,


tains the names and residence of twelve persons aged between 82 and 96 years. Those who had survived their 80th year were generally emigrants from Europe, and lived in the upper country. Few residents of the low country see their 80th year, though many live to 60, and several to 70, with their faculties entire. One negro, born in Carolina, lived to the age of 120.

* The names in this and other tables, opposite to which there are no vumbers, are those of new counties, created subsequently to the last census, by subdividing the larger old counties, as the population increases.

+ In 1817 the population of Charleston was 22,944, of which 11,229 were white inhabitants, and 11,715 people of colour.

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St Peter's,

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415,115 Diseases.—All the low country along the sea coast, and to the distance of eighty miles in the interior, is liable to bilious and intermitting fever during the three months of autumn. This is owing partly to the inundation of the rice lands, and partly to the exhalations of marshy places. During this season, no white servants can be induced to share the labour of the slave, and it is even difficult to procure overseers.

The atmosphere is unhealthy from the middle of June to the commencement of frost. The rich inhabitants, to avoid the danger, go to the northern states, to Rhode Island, and New York ; but this temporary emigration is both inconvenient and expensive, and one cannot but wonder why the mountainous parts of South Carolina, equally healthy, and more picturesque, have not been made the place of fashionable retreat.

The yellow fever visited Charleston in 1699, 1703, 1728, 1782, 1739, 1745, 1748, but did not again appear till 1792, when it became almost annual till the year 1807, carrying off, in some of its worst years, from 148 to 239 persons. In 1792 and 1794, 150 persons died in each year. The white population was then about 8000. It ceased for several years, but reappeared in the autumn of 1817, and carried off 1249 persons. It prevailed only in the lowest and most crowded parts of the city, inhabited chiefly by foreigners, to whom it has always been most fatal. In no instance has its ravages been extended beyond the city.

The dangerous effects arising from drinking cold water during the great heats of summer, so well known in the northern states, do not occur at Charleston, owing to the water of the wells being near the surface of the earth, and preserving a temperature of sixty-five degrees, which is twelve degrees higher than that of the wells of Philadelphia. Bilious remitting autumnal fevers have decreased ; pleurisies, formerly common and dangerous, are now rare and easily cured ; the thrush in children, cholera morbus, and iliac passion, have in a great measure disappeared. Consumptions are more common, resulting, perhaps, from the growing wealth of the inhabitants, and their fashionable dresses. Vaccination was introduced by Dr Ramsay in 1802, four years after Dr Jenner's discovery. In the south-western parts, dysentery is the most prevalent disease, and generally prevails more or less during the months of July, August, and September. Diseases of the throat are common, often accompanied with

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