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Trenton, in small grains of a yellow and whitish colour, reposing on carbonated wood; also near Woodbury, in a bed of marl.
Mr Smith observes, * that, on quitting the Pennsylvania shore, you leave the granite ridge, and there is nothing but a loose sandy soil, of a siliceous nature, interspersed with breccia, or rounded pebbles, imbedded in a very ferruginous cement.
Mineral Springs.—There is a cold medicinal spring, in the county of Hunterdon, near the summit of the Musconetung mountain, and another in Schooley's mountain, in the town of Washington, and county of Morris, of late celebrated for its efficacy in cases of calculous concretions. The spring, situated in a deep defile between two beautifully wooded mountains, discharges a gallon in two minutes and a half, in all seasons. Its temperature is 52° of Fahrenheit, t
Forest Trees.—White cedar and black pine abound on the eastern coast. The hills are covered with oak, hickery, chestnut, poplar, ash, &c. The sugar maple tree grows along the Delaware; the quercitron in the
* Medical Repository, 3d vol. p. 152.
+ It contains a little more than one-third of its bulk of carbonic acid gas, in a state of combination; 16.50 grains of the residuum of a certain portion of the water evaporated fjave, muriate of soda, 2.35; muriate of lime, 0.5; muriate of magnesia, 4.40 ; carbonate of lime, 3.59; sulphate of lime, 0.65; carbonate of magnesia, 0.40; silex, 0.80; carbonated oxide of iron, 2.60; loss, 0.41.*
* Chemical Examination by Dr Macneven, contained in the 1st volume of the Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society, 18 J 5.
vallies, where it rises to the height of eighty feet; hickery, in moist low places.
Animals.—The cougouar, bear, and wolf, have nearly disappeared. Deer have become rare. In 1680 they were in such plenty, that seven or eight fat bucks were brought in daily, by the Indians, to some of the settlers of West Jersey, at eighteenpence the quarter, (Smith, p. 112, 177 ) The racoon (Ursuslotor) is very common in low places; the red and grey fox abound; otter and beaver are rare. Wild /owl are ducks, geese, pigeons, pheasants, partridges, plover, and a great variety of smaller birds. Snakes were so numerous at the time of the arrival of the West Jersey commissioners, in 1677, that they were frequently seen on the hovels of the Quaker settlers whom they brought thither. There are rattle-snakes, black snakes, wampums, and other species.
Fishes.—Along the coast, in the rivers, and streams, are various kinds of fish. The most noted are sturgeon, stockfish, sheepshead, horse-mackerel, blackfish, sea-bass, herring, munches, perch, sun-fish, drum, shad, shell-fish, black-turtle, clams, mussel-crabs, oysters. It was one of the earliest eulogiums of this state, that at Amboy Point there was plenty of brave oysters, (Smith, p. 184-.) The inhabitants of the seacoast derive a great portion of their subsistence from the fisheries.
Table of the Progress of Population.
In 1718 it amounted to 47.367, 3,981 including blacks.
1745 to 61,403, 4,606
1784 to 140,435.
1790 to 184,139,
1800 to 211,149,
1810 to 245,562,
By the last census, there were,
Under 16 years of age,
Between 60 and 45,
Above 45, - -
2,792 free blacks.
Total, - 115,357 111,511
New Jersey is the twelfth state in the Union, in respect of population.
Diseases.—The temperature on the sea-coast, subject to rapid changes, is unfavourable to health. On the borders of the Delaware, bilious and intermitting fevers prevail in autumn; but in the hilly parts, diseases are rare, and many persons arrive at the age of eighty. The yellow fever prevailed in the autumn of 1798, in the village of Port Elizabeth, supposed to have been generated by stagnant waters in the neighbourhood. Of ninety-seven inhabitants, thirteen persons were attacked by the disease, and six died.
Manners and Character.—The population being composed of Hollanders, Germans, Scotch, Irish, and emigrants from the New England states, or their descendants, has no uniform character. * The neces
* By the first law published in 1692 at Elizabethtown, the punishment of death was inflicted for undutifulness on the part of children towards their parents, smiting or cursing them, unless provoked by motives of self-preservation, and the complaint and proof saries of life are in great abundance; and even the lowest class of labourers are well clothed and fed, and, like the rich, have their tea and coffee daily.
The inhabitants of this state sacrificed every personal consideration to the cause of independence, and were the first to appoint delegates to the memorable congress of 177'1'« Their vote in favour of the ratification of the federal constitution was not only unanimous, but was passed anterior to that of all the other states except Delaware and Pennsylvania, being passed on the lyth of December I787.
of the father or mother was taken as sufficient evidence. In burglary, or highway robbery, the third offence was also punished with death; the first by burning on the hand; the second on the forehead; in both the party was to make restitution. In the case of stealing, treble restitution was required for the first, second, and third offences, with an increase of punishment even to death, if the party appeared incorrigible. Parties unable to make restitution were sold to satisfy the claim, or received corporal punishment. For adultery the party was divorced, corporally punished, or banished, as the court thought proper. Fornication was punished at the discretion of the court, by marriage, fine, or corporal punishment. Night walking and revelling after the hour of nine rendeied the person liable to arrest by the constable, or other officer; and if he did not give a satisfactory account to the magistrate, he was bound over to the next court. No son or daughter could marry without the consent of the parents, nor maid or servant without that of the overseer, and after public notice three times given in a kirk or meeting. In 1685 quarrels and challenges were numerous, in consequence ot which a law was passed, making the person giving a challenge liable to six months imprisonment without bail or mainprize, and subjecting to a fine of L. 10 all who accepted orconcealed it; and half this sum was the fine for wearing a short pistol, dagger, or other unusual weapon.-—Smith, p. 263and 195.
History.—This province was included in the patent granted by King James, in 1606, to Sir Thomas Gates and others, embracing all the lands situated between the 34th and 49th degree of north latitude, with all the islands lying within 100 miles of the coast. The first settlements were made by Dutch emigrants from the Delaware, when this country formed a part of the New Netherlands; and Bergen, called after the capital of Norway, shows that some Danes were also settled there. The tract of land on which Elizabethtown now stands was purchased from certain Indian chiefs in 1669; and four towns began to be formed, Elizabeth, Newark, Middleton, and Shrewsbury, by settlers from New England, and the west end of Long Island, and by emigrants from Europe. The neighbouring Indians were formidable, not by their numbers, but by their alliances. In the year 1664 Charles II. gave the territory as a donation to his brother the Duke of York, by whom it was afterwards sold to Lord Berkely and Sir George Carteret, who changed the name of New Albion, under which it was conveyed, into that of Nova Cesaria, or New Jersey; and by a line drawn from north-west to southeast, divided the country into East and West Jersey. The eastern division was retained by Carteret; the western, which belonged to Lord Berkely, was sold by him (I676) to William Penn, (a leading man among the English Quakers,) and other persons. Some years afterwards Sir George Carteret dying, his portion was sold to an association of Scotch people, Anabaptists and Quakers, among whom was the cele