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Pamlico rivers. Core sound, with which it communicates, extends from its southern extremity to Cape Lookout. Albemarle sound, situated to the north of Pamlico, is sixty miles in length, and ten in breadth. Their waters communicate with each other, and the former with Currituck sound, which extends to the northern boundary.

Rivers.—The Roanoke, or Albemarle river, rises in Virginia, on the eastern side of the Apalachian mountains, and runs, in a south-eastern direction, to the sound of the same name. Its two branches in Virginia, known by the names of the Staunton and the Dan, have been already described. The Roanoke is navigable nearly thirty miles from its mouth, for vessels of considerable size, and boats from twenty to forty tons can ascend to the falls seventy miles from its mouth. Those carrying from 150 to 200 barrels of produce can ascend to Halifax, six miles below the cataracts. The Pamlico, or Tar river, which takes its rise near the northern boundary, runs in a south-east course 180 miles, into Pamlico sound. It is navigable for vessels drawing nine feet water to Washington, thirty miles from its mouth, and for large boats, called flats, to Tarborough, fifty miles higher. The Neuse river, which rises a little to the west of the sources of the former, also empties itself into Pamlico sound, after a winding south-east course of 220 miles. It is navigable from the sea, through the Ocracock inlet, fiftywo miles for sea vessels, ninety miles for large, and 160 for small boats. The southern branch of Neuse river, called Trent river, is navigable for sea vessels

twel ve miles from its confluence, and boats ascend eight miles higher. Cape Fear river, so called from the remarkable cape at its outlet, is formed by the union of Haw and Deep rivers, which, after a course of ninety miles from the mountains in the north-western parts of the state, unite seven miles above Buckhorn falls, after which the river takes a south and south-easterly course of 160 miles, to the Atlantic Ocean. Near its outlet, on the eastern side, it receives two considerable branches, running in a southern course, which have the name of North-east Cape Fear and South river. The former is navigable, for vessels drawing ten or eleven feet, to Wilmington, situated on the eastern branch, about thirty miles from the sea.

The western branch is navigable for sloops twenty-five miles higher, and boats ascend to Fayetteville, 130 miles from the sea. The north-west and mountainous parts of this state are watered by the upper branches of the Yadkin and Catawba rivers, which will be described under South Carolina. The New river and North Fork branches of the Great Kenhawa also run from the north-western angle of this state. The southwestern side is watered by the branches of the Little Pedee and Wacanaw river, and other smaller streams. North Carolina is not highly favoured with respect to internal navigation, for none of the rivers admit of shipping more than sixty miles. Their mouths are crossed by sand bars, formed, as some have supposed, by their current,--and others, by the action of the gulf stream. These bars, preventing the free escape

of the waters, occasion the banks to be overflowed af: ter a heavy rain.

Islands.-Cape Island, known also by the name of Bald Island and Smith's Island, is about eight miles in length from Cape Fear to New Inlet, and from one to three in width. The soil is light and sandy, and produces live oak, cedar, and the cabbage-tree. Cape Fear, the southern point, is situated in latitude 33° 52' and 78° 20 west longitude from Greenwich. This island was formerly joined to the main-land by a ridge of sand, which, about fifty years ago, was swept away by a strong wind, which forced the tide through, form. ing an opening, called the New Inlet, two miles wide, and sufficiently deep to admit the passage of vessels drawing eleven feet of water.

Minerals.--Iron ore exists in great abundance throughout the mountainous district. Gold ore is found in the sands and gravelly beds of streams, in Cabarrus county, near Rocky river meadow, and Long creek ; but a bushel of sand yields but half a dollar's worth of gold. Small fragments of from four to fourteen pennyweights have been sometimes discovered ; and a piece of a pound weight was found, in 1809, in a corn field, in Anson county. Cobalt, combined with arsenic, exists in Buncombe county, at the foot of the mountains near Mackeysville. Limestone.-A ridge of calcareous stone extends across the state in a south-westwardly direction, crossing Dan river to the westward of the Sawra town, and the Yadkin, about fifty miles north-west from Salisbury ; none is visible VOL. II.

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to the east of this ridge. Clay, resembling fuller's earth, is found near the subterranean wall in the coun. ty of Rowan. It is employed as a cement for the construction of chimneys, and is very durable. ,

Mineral Springs.- In the counties of Warren, Montgomery, Rockingham, Lincoln, Rowan, and Buncombe, there are several springs of different medicinal qualities, resorted to for the cure of scorbutic affections, and other diseases. The spring in Buncombe county is situated near the French Broad river, and has a temperature of 104° of Fahrenheit.

Geological Phenomena.—Marine productions are found in all the low country, at the depth of eighteen or twenty feet below the surface, and masses of shells and sand, called shell rock, which exists in many places near the banks of rivers, and is employed for the construction of the walls of edifices. In the year 1816, the skeleton of an enormous shark was thrown up on the Meherrin river, near Murphysville, at the distance of fifty miles from the ocean. A single joint of the spine weighed 127 pounds ; a tooth, 16 ounces. In the county of Rowan, twelve miles north-east of Salisbury, there is a subterranean wall several hundred feet in length, from twelve to fourteen feet in height, and twenty-two inches in width, formed of stones of irregu. lar shape, and from one to twelve inches in length, all parallel to each other, and in a horizontal direction. The stones appear to contain iron. At the distance of six or eight miles another similar wall has been discovered, forty feet in length, four or five in height, and

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seven inches in thickness. Both are supposed to be natural productions. *

Forest Trees and Shrubs.-The black fertile soil produces white and red oak, walnut, and the horse chestnut with yellow flowers. The pitch pine covers the low country. The moist sandy soil is favourable to the growth of the black jack. The marshes are bordered with cypress, and cedar of juniper; and the pitch-pines, with which the Alligator swamp is covered, grow so close to each other that the report of fire-arms is not heard at a very short distance. In some parts are maple, (Acer rubrum,) poplar, (Arbor tulipifera Virginiana,) white oak, intermixed with the Magno. lia glauca, with tall reeds and briars. + The level sandy tracts are covered with pine and black jack. In the back country, the misletoe abounds; the myrtle wax shrub is common; in the woods, and on the high lands, there is a variety of wild grape, ..

Plants.-Ginseng, sarsaparilla, the Virginia and Seneca snake-root, and other medicinal plants, are found here in abundance, The shrub called yellow root (Xanthorhiza tinctoria) affords a fine yellow dye, and is besides a palatable and strong bitter. I

Animals. The animals are the same as those of South Carolina, and will be described under that head. The pigeons were formerly so numerous, says Lawson,

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* See Medical Repository, Vol. IV. p. 227. + Williamson's History of this State.

I See Dr Woodhouse's Account of this plant in the fifth volume of the Medical Repository, p. 159.

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