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Before the late war, the tax on lands of the first qua. lity was a dollar and twenty cents per hundred acres ; on those of a second quality, a dollar ; and the poorest was taxed at sixty cents.

At the land office of Cincinnati, public lands are sold at two dollars an acre, one fourth of the purchase money to be paid at the time of purchase, one fourth two years after, one fourth in three years, and the other fourth in four years; and if the whole is not paid at the expiration of the fifth year, the land reverts to the United States. The smallest quantity disposed of is a quarter section of 160 acres.

liquid amber. The colour and depth of the soil is another indica. tion ; the black mould on a bed of loam is best; that on clay, good ; but the light sandy tracts are in general bad, unless they are of a dark colour, and moist, with good trees growing from them ; in that case they may be excellent, for sands differ as much as loams. The misfortune is, that in America the sands are generally white and dry, and produce little besides pines. Meadows are to be judged of by the height, thickness, and luxuriance of the grass. The va. lue of the marshes depends on the richness of the soil and the faci. lity of draining it.-(American Husbandry, p. 304.)

At New Lancaster, lots 82 feet in front and 164 feet deep, bring 300 dollars ; at Zanesville, lots 66 in front, and containing a fifth of an acre, from 100 to 1000 dollars ; outlots of five acres, from 100 to 200; at Canton, lots 66 feet in front and 198 feet deep, or a third of an acre, from 50 to 300 dollars ; at New Philadelphia, on the Tuscarawa river, lots of 88 feet square sell from 20 to 200 dol. lars; at Cincinnati, the price of lots, in 1817, was more than 200 dollars a foot, measuring on the front line; those possessing less local advantages, from 50 to 100; outlots, and lands adjoining the town, from 500 to 1000 dollars an acre-(Western Gazetteer.)

The price of a horse is from forty to eighty dollars ; of a cow from ten to twelve ; a sheep, two.

Manufactures.-At Cincinnati there are various manufactures of cotton and wool, and a steam-mill has been erected, of seventy horse power, on a rock on the beach of the river. The building is eighty-seven by sixty-two feet, and 110 in height. The walls are ten feet thick. The expence of building was 120,000 dollars. There are six pair of stones, and when in complete operation it will grind 1000 barrels of flour per week. There is also a steam saw-mill, of twenty horse power, which cuts about 800 feet per hour. There is a cotton and woollen factory; the former with 3300 spindles, the latter with 400. There are, besides, four cotton-spinning establishments, the whole number of spindles about 1500. A woollen manufactory, producing sixty yards of broad cloth per day, commenced in 1815. There are two extensive rope walks, and two glass factories. The “ Cincinnati Manufacturing Company” have extensive stores above the mouth of Mill creek. * At Zanesville an association has been formed, under the name of the “ Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing Company,” for manufactures of iron, cotton, wool, hemp, flax, paper, &c. The machinery of the woollen manufactory at Stenbenville is also moved by steam; and New Lisbon, Chilli. cothe, Marietta, Worthington, have also made consi

- * 10 1317 Cincinnati was estimated to contain 8000 inhabitants, all whites. The greatest part of this flourishing town has been raised up within four years. Palmer's Travels, p. 71. Birkbeck's Notes, p. 81. Western Gazetteer.

VOL. II.

derable progress in manufactures and the mechanical arts. Coarse linen and yarn are now articles of exportation.

The steam-boat Washington, built at Wheeling in 1816, is 148 feet in length; her main cabin 60 feet; the engine, which weighs only 9000 pounds, has the power of 100 horses. The first sea-rigged vessel of the Ohio river, the St Clair, of 120 tons, was built at Marietta, in 1799, in north latitude 39° 34'. Shipbuilding has been lately revived at this place under the direction of a “ Commercial and Exporting Company.” More than twenty boats were built at and near Columbus on the Scioto river in 1817, for the purpose of carrying flour to New Orleans ; and a still greater number at Delaware, Circleville, and Chillicothe, each to carry 300 barrels. The voyage from Louisville to New Orleans and back is performed by the steamboats in 35 or 40 days.-(American Register.)

V

Products of Mineral Substances. 3 furnaces,

118,490 dollars. 24 naileries,

61,723 Saltwork, 24,000 bushels,

24,000

Common pottery is made at Cincinnati, and a glassmanufactory has been lately established. Scythes are manufactured at Cincinnati at twenty dollars per dozen. Sickles at ten dollars. Screw augers cheaper than those imported. The Scioto saltworks, situated near the centre of Jackson county, which belong to the United States, furnish a considerable quantity of Products of Vegetable Substances. Cotton goods made in families, yards, 56,072, value,

salt.

43,600 dollars. 2 cotton factories, Flaxen cloths, yards, 1,093,031,

425,149 768 cotton spindles in operation. Maple sugar, pounds, 3,023,806,

308,932 * 343 distilleries,

580,180 13 breweries,

5,712 2 paper mills,

10,000 6 gunpowder mills,

7,335

Hats,

Products of Animal Substances. Woollen cloth made in families, yards, 93,074, value,

112,485 dollars, 10,856 looms for cotton and wool, 21 fulling-mills, 217 tanneries,

153,581 4 flax seed oil-mills,

3,941

· 276,267 In 1811 the general assembly of the state enacted, that each person who had a family should be allowed to keep twelve sheep, and that their wool, and all the yarn and cloth manufactured by them, should be exempt from all attachment, distresses, or executions, The gross value of all these manufactures, according to the marshal's return, was estimated at 2,894,290 dollars.

* The annual product of a common tree is about ten pounds of sugar. The sap is extracted in the months of February and March. In the process of boiling it is cleared with animal jelly. Eggs, milk, or glue, and a small portion of unslacked lime, are thrown in to take up the superabundant acid; and thus prepared, it is sold at ten or twelve cents a pound.

Commerce.— The external trade of the state passes through the channel of the Ohio river, and by the Mississippi to New Orleans, with the exception of a small portion of the northern parts which finds a market at Lake Erie. * The exports consist of flour, pork, bacon, and lard, whisky, peach brandy, beer, and porter, pot and pearl ashes, cheese, soap, and candles, hemp and spun yarn, boards of walnut, cherry and blue ash, furs from the waters of the Great Miami, Wabash, and Maumee.

The imports consist of goods from the East Indies, Europe, and New England, and manufactures of the middle states, which are transported 300 miles across the mountains from Philadelphia and Baltimore. From Louisiana are imported the commercial productions of that country, sugar and molasses, cotton, rice, and salted hides. From the Missouri territory lead, peltry, and skins; from Tennessee and Kentucky, cotton, tobacco, salt petre, and marble ; from Pennsylvania and Virginia, iron in the bar, rolled or cast form, nails, millstones, glass-ware. +

* In the new settlements on the Ohio river there are vessels with cabins fitted up like a shop, and furnished with goods of all kinds, which are given in exchange for the produce of the plantations. Their arrival is announced by the sound of a horn, or conch shell.

Sutcliffs Travels, p. 91.

+ The nature and amount of the surplus productions of the western country bordering on the Ohio may be estimated

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