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the former. Rock river, which rises near a branch of the Muskingum, is longer than either, and more rapid; it discharges its waters at the distance of eighteen miles from the former. It is navigable to the distance of twenty-five miles from its outlet, but the current of its waters is impeded by sand bars, and sometimes by the north-west winds of the lake, which raise its waters above its banks, and render its borders unhealthy. The next is the Cayahoga, which takes its rise near the parallel of 41° 35', and running in a south-westerly course to the latitude of 41° 8', then takes a northwesterly direction to Lake Erie, which it joins in 41° 31', according to the excellent map of Hough and Bourne. This river could easily be rendered navi. gable to the distance of fifty miles from its mouth, and within seven or eight of the Tuscarawa. For this purpose a lottery was authorized by the legislature of the state, but failed; the new settlers at Cleaveland, near its mouth, being discouraged by the want of a harbour, and the bilious fever which prevailed in autumn. A branch near its southern bend, which issues from a neten small lake, approaches quite near the source of the Tuscarawa creek, or great southern branch of the Muskingum river, which falls into the Ohio. This river, like the former, has its current impeded by sand bars, and by the influence of the north-west wind, which is the cause of the fevers that prevail near its borders. It has several small branches, the largest of which is Tinker's creek, coming from the east. Chagrin river takes its rise within the great bend of the Cayahoga, and runs a northern course of forty miles to Lake Erie, which
it enters twenty miles east of the former. It is a rapid stream, and frequently overflows its banks. Grand river takes its rise near the great bend of Big Beaver creek of the Ohio, and runs a northern course to 41° 45', where it takes a western direction to the lake. It is not navigable. The Ashtabula creek falls in twentysix miles east of the former. The last stream, which enters ten miles farther east, is the Confought creek. Je This, like the former, affords many mill seats, but is not navigable.
Streams which run into the Ohio, watering the Southern Portion of the State. The Ohio river bounds the eastern and southern parts of this state for the space of 420 miles, * and affords an easy and safe navigation for vessels of large size from Pittsburgh to its junction with the Mississippi, during the high water of spring and autumn. At this period it is navigated by ships of 300 tons burden. The current then runs at the rate of three miles and a half an hour, but in other seasons its velocity is nearly-one third less. The tributary streams of this river, which water the state of Ohio, are the Great and Little Miami, Scioto, Muskingum, Hockhocking, and Big Beaver rivers. The Great Miami rises near 40° 30 of north latitude, and runs in a south-westerly course through a deep valley to its junction with the Ohio. In the south-western angle of the state, its width, to the distance of forty miles from its mouth, is about 130 yards. In high floods it is navigable with keel and fat bottomed boats
* The l'estern Gazetteer says 509.
as high as Loramie's creek, 130 miles from its mouth; and, in the common state of the waters, to the town of Dayton. In low water the navigation is rendered difficult by the formation of numerous sand bars, and also by islands, of which there are no less than twenty near the village of Troy. In spring and autumn some parts of its banks are liable to be overflowed, and the current is then rapid. One of its branches on the west, called Loramie's creek, which falls in 130 miles from its mouth, is navigable for batteaux nearly thirty miles. This branch takes its rise near St Mary's river. Mad river, an eastern branch, is obstructed by rapids, but it affords fine situations for mill machinery. The descent, in a short distance, is said to be 200 feet. The navigable waters of the eastern branches of the Great Miami reach within nine miles of Sandusky ri. ver, which empties itself into the bay of the same name; and those of the western branch of this river extend within five miles of the Miami of the lakes, another navigable river, which runs across the northwestern parts of the state into Miami bay of Lake Erie. The Little Miami rises below the eastern branches of Mad river, and west of that of Paint creek, a branch of the Scioto, and meanders through an extensive valley, pursuing nearly the same course as the Great Miami, at the distance of about twenty miles therefrom, and joins the Ohio seven miles above Cincinnati, where, in high water, it is 150 yards wide. Many parts of its banks are annually overflowed, and its navigation is not of much importance; but it affords fine situations for mills. About 100 miles from
its mouth, in the county of Green, the navigation is entirely obstructed by a ledge of rocks. It has two considerable branches, which extend in an eastern direction, called Eastern and Todd's Fork. The Scioto river rises near 40° 30' of latitude, not far from the Round heads Indian towns, and traversing Great Prairie, runs in an eastern direction to below the Sandusky plains; from which it runs south, through the middle of the state, watering some of the most fertile lands, and joins the Ohio in north latitude 38° 34'. It is navigable for large boats nearly 200 miles from its mouth ; and, as it extends within three of Sandusky river, it affords another direct communication with Lake Erie. It has three considerable western branches,— Paint, Deer, and Darby's creeks; and on the east, Big Belly and Whetstone creek.
The Muskingum river, another branch of the Ohio, which runs through the state in a direction from north to south, is navigable for boats 140 miles; and when the waters are high, skiffs can ascend within a mile of the Cayahoga river, which also empties itself into the above-mentioned lake. Its outlet is 250 yards in width. It has numerous branches, which water an extensive surface between 40° and 41° of latitude. On the west, Licking creek, White Woman's creek, which divides into several branches-Owl creek, &c. The eastern branch, or Tuscarawa creek, is a considerable stream. The Great Hockhocking, which runs between the Scioto and the Muskingum, in a south-eastern direction, joins the Ohio 150 miles above the former, and is navigable for boats from its mouth to the falls, * a distance of about seventy miles. On the east a number of small streams fall into the Ohio-Big Beaver and Little Beaver creek; and others, known by the name of Yellow, Cross, Short, Indian, Wheeling, MacMahon's Capitina, and Sun-fish creeks. The Little Muskingum is a small stream, which falls into the Ohio a little to the east of the Great Muskingum. The Racoon creek, which falls in between Hockhocking and the Scioto river, Rush creek, White Oak creek, and Eagle creek, run into the Ohio in a southern direction, between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami. The Little Scioto river is a small stream, which falls in eastward of the Great Scioto. These different streams afford the most eligible situations for mills, and manufacturing establishments, and easy channels of transportation for the home and foreign commerce
of this country. Springs are numerous, and good wa• ter for domestic use is generally found at the depth of from twenty to thirty feet.
Temperature.— The climate is generally very mild. The heat of summer is not greater than in the state of Vermont; and the winter is very moderate, though subject to sudden changes and frequent rains. Spring opens about the middle of March, with a genial warmth, which remains nearly uniform till the middle of May, when the warm season commences, and continues till the middle of September, after which period the atmosphere assumes a hazy appearance, with dry
* These falls are five feet in height.