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fund was granted by law to this seminary, of 1250 pounds currency, accruing from fees, forfeitures, and marriage licences, on the eastern shore; and in 1811 1000 dollars a-year was appropriated by the legislature for its support. St John's College, at Annapolis, was instituted in 1784, under the direction of twenty-four trustees, with a permanent fund of 1750 pounds currency, arising from the same sources of revenue on the western shore; but part of this fund has been withdrawn by the legislature, and, in 1811, the number of students has diminished from 150 to 60. These two colleges constitute the" University of Mary land,* whereof the governor is chancellor. The price of boarding in this college is 140 dollars a-year, payable quarterly, the price of tuition, 10 dollars; the whole expence, including washing, does not exceed 180 dollars. St Mary's College is under the direction of French clergymen, priests of St Sulpicius, to whom the establishment belongs. The price of boarding, lodging, and washing, is nearly 400 dollars. The number of students is about 120. There is a religious seminary attached to the college, for the education of priests. Cokesbury College, at Abington, was established by persons of the Methodist profession, in 1785, and is supported by subscription and voluntary donations. The students are the sons of travelling preachers, of annual subscribers, orphans, and members of the Methodist society. There are classes for the English, Latin, and Greek languages; logic, rhetoric, history, geography, natural philosophy, and astronomy. In the intervals of study the students are employed in gardening, walking, riding, and in the practice of the mechanical arts.
The Medical College of the university of Maryland consists of the following lectureships. 1. Institutes of the principles of physic. 2. Anatomy. 8. Principles and practice of surgery. 4. Chemistry. 5. Materia Medica. 6. Midwifery. 7- Practice of Physic. The lectures commence on the last Monday in October, and continue till the first of March. Candidates for the degree of doctor of medicine must have attended two courses of lectures, unless they have attended one in some other medical school. Twenty dollars are paid on the delivery of a diploma.
Washington Academy, in Somerset county, was instituted by law, in 1799, under the direction of fifteen trustees, and is supported by voluntary subscriptions and private donations, which it is authorized to receive; and also to hold land to the extent of 2000 acres. The public library of Baltimore, from which books may be taken out for use by the owners of shares, contains about 12,000 volumes. A handsome building is now erecting for this institution.
Societies.—There are several literary and humane societies, and one for the encouragement of manufactures, trade, and commerce. In the year 1800 a society was formed, called the Maryland Society, for promoting useful and ornamental knowledge. The society for the encouragement of emigrants has been of great service to the numerous foreigners who arrive here. An hospital is nearly finished, of which the expence, including furniture, will amount to 70,000 dollars.
Law.—Young men destined for this profession generally receive a regular education; and, after prosecuting their legal studies, from three to five years, under the direction of a lawyer, they are admitted by the courts, upon proper examination. Young men generally commence the study of law at the age of eighteen or nineteen. The profits of this profession, among the first class of lawyers, have been estimated at 8000 dollars a-year; of the second class at 5000; and the third class at 30U0 dollars. The greatest fees are given in admiralty cases and cases of ejectment. The number of lawyers at Baltimore is about sixty.
Newspapers.—In the year 1817 four daily and nine weekly newspapers were printed in this state.
Agriculture.—Wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco, are the staple crops. Rye and oats are also cultivated. The sweet potatoe thrives; and the apples, pears, plums, and peaches, are of a good quality. The true white or Sicilian wheat, and the bright kite's foot tobacco, which grow on a light clayey soil, are said to be peculiar to Maryland. The growth of tobacco in 1 SlG was estimated at 19,000 hogsheads.* 1000 lbs. of tobacco is the product of about ()000 plants. It is stronger than that of Virginia, and is preferred by the northern and eastern nations of Europe. Hemp and flax are raised on the uplands, in the interior country, to a considerable extent. The produce of wheat is from twelve to sixteen bushels per acre, on the best
I* Circular letter of Messrs Stump and Williams, Baltimore, March 18] 7.
soil; of Indian corn, from twenty to thirty bushels, and the average crop of the former has been estimated at ten bushels; of the latter at fifteen. It is stated, by Dr Morse, "that an industrious man may cultivate four acres of Indian corn, and rear 6000 plants of tobacco."
On the west river, the produce of wheat is from four to five bushels. On the eastern shore, where many farmers grow from 100 to 200 acres, the average crop was from five to ten bushels per acre, with six cwt. of straw. It is gathered in June, and one man with a scythe cradle will cut three acres per day, for which his wages were a dollar, with food and a pint of whisky. About Baltimore, the average crop of oats is said to be four bushels per acre; of barley, one bushel; of rye, four bushels. Of oats and barley, it is stated, that an English waggon could carry away the produce of ten acres, and that the produce seldom exceeds the quantity of seed, which is about a bushel per acre. Potatoes yielded 100 bushels an acre. Turnips, SCO bushels. Hay, less than half a ton per acre. Mr Smith, who, during the revolutionary war, went largely into farming in this state, * having sown 350 acres in wheat, 50 in buckwheat and oats, 12 in potatoes, 36 in tobacco, and 200 in Indian corn, employed, for all this culture, but fifteen slaves.
Of insects injurious to agriculture, the Hessian fly is the most remarkable. It sometimes destroyed whole
* Smali's Tour in the United States, Vol. II. chap. 57.
fields in a season; but its ravages have been, for some years past, counteracted by late sowing, and constant manuring. Near Annapolis, the grapes, plums, and pears, are often injured by an insect.
Value of Lands and Houses.
In 1799, the value of lands was - 21,634,004
Of houses, - - - 10,738,286
Total, 32,372,290 In 1814, the value of lands, houses, and slaves, was 122, 577,572; difference, 90,205,282 dollars. The value of slaves deducted, (at 300 dollars each,) according to their number, in 1810, leaves for the increase of lands and houses, 57,000,000 dollars.
Before the American revolution, there was, in the whole state, but one manufactory, and that of woollen, which was established in the county of Somerset. Tobacco was their only article of trade. The planters now prepare their own clothing; and a great number of manufactures have been lately established on a large scale in the northern counties. The capital of the Union manufacturing company of Maryland is 1,000,000 dollars, divided into 20,000 shares of 50 dollars each.
Products of Mineral Substances in 1810.
Dollars. Two iron works in Frederick county, value, Glass, 2 glass-works, square feet, 540,000,
bottles, 7000, - - 72,660
Gunpowder, pounds, 323,447, - 164,122
Salt, bushels, 7538, - - 3,769
Marble, .... 10,000
Millstones, 1 manufactory, - - 6,000
Soapstone, ... 1,000
Potters' ware, - 360
VOL. II. L