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terior of the country, on conditions which are worthy of notice. The first adventurers had 2000 acres, subject to the yearly rent of 400 pounds of good wheat, for every five men between the age of sixteen and fif. ty, whom they imported for the purpose of planting or inhabiting the country; for less than five men 1000 acres were allowed; the same quantity for the wife of a settler and for his servant; and fifty for every child under sixteen years of age, subject to a rent of ten pounds of wheat yearly for every fifty acres. These proportions were altered by a subsequent regulation in 1655. Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Ma
ryland, with the Population of each County and Chief Town, in 1810, the Year of the late Enumeration. Counties.
Population. Chief Towns. Alleghany, - 6,909 Cumberland. Anne Arundel,
26,668 Annapolis, 2,000 Baltimore,
29,255 Ditto City, - 35,583 ) East precincts of ditto, 4,050 Baltimore, 46,555 West ditto,
6,922) Cecil, - - 13,066 Elkton. Calvert,
8,005 St Leonard's. Caroline, - : 9,458 Denton. Charles, - 20,245 Port Tobacco.
* The growth of Baltimore has been rapid beyond example, even in the United States. In March 1817, the population was 55,000. The number of vessels entered at the custom-house from fo. reign ports, during the year 1817, was 632, and the number of coasting vessels 758. During the same year 422 cleared for foreign ports, and 899 for ports within the United States.
Constitution.—According to the form of government, established at Annapolis in 1776, (14th Au. gust,) the general assembly is composed of two legislative bodies, a senate and house of delegates. Senators are chosen by electors, (who themselves are elected viva voce by the freemen, the first Monday in September,) of whom there are two in each county, besides one for the city of Annapolis, and another for the city of Baltimore. By the 5th article of the amendment to the constitution, confirmed in 1802, every free white male citizen, above twenty-one years of age, having resided twelve months in the county or city next preceding the election at which he offers to vote, has the right of suffrage for delegates to the general assembly, electors to the senate, and sheriffs. These electors assemble at Annapolis, a fortnight after they are chosen, and elect, by ballot, fifteen senators out of their own body, or from the mass of citizens; nine from the western, and six from the eastern shore, for the term of five years, with the following qualifications: 1. To be twenty-five years of age. 2. To possess real and personal property to the value of more than 1000 pounds. 3. To have resided in the state more than three years immediately preceding the election. The electors take an oath, “ that they will elect, without favour, affection, partiality, or prejudice, such persons, for senators, as they, in their judgment and conscience, believe best qualified for the office.” The members of the house of delegates are chosen annually by the people, on the first Monday in October, four in each county, and two from each of the cities, without regard to population. The qualifications are: 1. To be twenty-one years of age. 2. To possess real or personal property above the value of 500 pounds. 3. To have resided, during a year, in the county or city for which he is chosen. The executive power is lodged in a governor and council, consisting of five members, who are elected annually by the joint ballot of the general assembly, on the second Monday in November. The governor must be twenty-five years of age; a resident in the state five years next preceding the election, and possessed of real or personal estate above the value of 5000 pounds current money, of which 1000 at least must be freehold estate. He cannot continue in office more than three years successively; nor be re-elected until the expiration of four years; nor hold any other office of profit during the time for which he serves. The council is composed of “ able and discreet men,” twenty-five years of age, residents in the state three years next preceding the election, and possessed of a freehold of lands and tenements above the value of 1000 pounds. Any three of the members constitute a board, of which the governor is president, and is entitled to vote on all ques. tions in which the council are divided in opinion. The chancellor, judges, and justices, attorney-general, officers of the militia, registers of the land office, surveyors, and all other civil officers, except constables, overseers of the roads, and assessors, are appointed by the governor, with the advice of the council. Both houses of assembly choose their own officers; a majority of each constitutes a quorum ; any bills, except those which relate to money, may originate in the senate. No member of congress, or person holding an office, under the United States, or any particular state, or em. ployed in the regular land service, or marine, or minister of the gospel, can be elected a member of the general assembly, or of the council of state.
Judiciary.—The judges are appointed, by the governor and council, during good behaviour, and may be removed by the same authority, after conviction on indictment, with the concurrence of both houses. The chancellor, judges, attorney-general, clerks of the general court, and of the county courts, registers of wills, and of the land office, are also appointed by the governor and council, and are removeable only for misbe. haviour, on conviction in a court of law. In each county there is a register of wills, commissioned by the governor, on the joint recommendation of the senate and house of delegates. There is a court of chancery and of admiralty, and a court of appeals, whose judgment is final and conclusive. The state is divided into six judicial districts, in each of which there is a county court of three judges, one of whom is styled chief judge, and the other two associate judges. If the judges, or party indicted, suggest that a fair and impartial trial cannot be had in any of the courts of the county, where a trial is instituted, the case may be transmitted to the judges of the court of any adjoining county. The court of appeals is composed of the chief judges of the several judicial districts, any three of whom form a quorum ; the judge who has given the decision appealed against in the county court, withdrawing from the bench till it is decided. The judiciary officers of the United States, for the state of Maryland, are: 1. A judge with a salary of 1600 dollars. 2. An attorney with fees. 3. A marshal. 4. A clerk.
Finances. Before the revolution, there was a capitation, or poll-tax, varying from 90 to 170 pounds of tobacco, on all white males, and negroes of both sexes, from sixteen to sixty years of age. Since the revolution, the expences in each county have been defrayed by taxes on licences, marriages, taverns, hawkers, and pedlars, levied by the courts of the state.
In November 1811, the funds of the state amounted to 1,721,852 dollars, consisting of stock of the United States, to the amount of 978,052 dollars. Bank stock, 163,537. Turnpike and other companies, 53,604. Debts, 24,283.
From the 1st of November 1814, to the 1st of November 1815, the sum of 262,824 dollars, 26 cents,