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large size, ply on the Delaware, and form a communi. cation with New York, by Trentown and Bordentown; and with Baltimore, by Wilmington and Newcastle. They are all fitted up in an elegant manner. A ferryboat, called the Union, plies between the Navy Yard, in Philadelphia, and a place in New Jersey called Kaighns' point. There are two or three other steam ferry-boats, and one or two driven by horses.
Canals.--Along the Conewago falls of the Susquehannah, at the
gap of the blue ridge, where the descent is nineteen feet, there is a canal a mile in length which cost 14,0000 dollars.
In 1790 public commissioners were employed to survey the country from Philadelphia to Lake Erie, a distance of 561 miles, for the purpose of establishing a water communication between these two places, which, for want of funds, has not been executed. In 1793 a canal was commenced, which is not yet completed, to extend from a navigable point of the Swetara branch of the Susquehannah to the Schuylkill, and thence to the Delaware, 'near Philadelphia. This will open a communication from Harrisburgh, the seat of government, to Philadelphia and the sea, a distance of 130 miles through the central parts of the state. In 1817 the legislature appropriated the sum of 500,000 dol
The expence is about seven cents a mile, and the arrival and de. parture of stages and steam-bcats is so arranged, that the traveller may stop six hours in New York, nine in Albany, nineteen at Whitehall, and six at Montreal, and perform the above route in five and a half days. (Domestic Chronicle for 1816.)
· lars for internal improvements ; 10,000 dollars for im
proving the navigation and removing the obstructions in the river Delaware, from the Trenton Delaware bridge to the falls ; and 50,000 for the completion of the lock navigation of the Schuylkill. The works for improving the navigation of the Schuylkill are considerably advanced. This forms the first part of the water communication with Lake Erie, and leads to a bed of coal of immense extent. The governor of the state, in his message to the legislature of the commonwealth, in 1815, (5th December,) recommended the formation of a canal from the head of Seneca Lake to the Chemung, a branch of the Tioga, which empties into the northeast branch of the Susquehannah.
Roads.—The roads from Philadelphia to Trenton twenty-eight miles, and from Germantown to Perkioman, twenty-five miles, are turnpikes, fifty feet broad, covered in the middle with eighteen inches of gravel, or twelve of pounded stones, and cost 285,000 dollars. The road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, a distance of sixty-two miles, cost 465,000 dollars. Other turnpike roads have been authorized by the legislature. The great state road from Harrisburgh to Pittsburgh, by the way of Bedford in one direction, and by Lewistown and Huntingdon in another, will be completed in a few years. When the turnpike stocks are at par they generally yield about six per cent. ; that of bridges is nearly the same. By law they have the power of raising the tolls till they yield six per
cent. Price of Transportation of Goods.-During the late war the transportation of goods from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, (310 miles,) increased fron seven to nine dollars per 100 lbs., which is nearly the price by the Hudson river and Lake Erie ; that from New York to Lake Erie, being four dollars fifty cents; from Cleveland to Pittsburgh five dollars. The price has greatly diminished since the peace.
List of Inventions and Discoveries by Persons be.
longing to this State. Franklin's discovery of the identity of the electric fluid and lightning
Evans's steam grist-mill at Pittsburgh, with two pair of stones, grinds sixteen bushels an hour. The two cylindrical boilers are of wrought iron, one-fourth inch thick; twenty-six feet in length, and twenty-seven inches in diameter ; and the water is introduced through pipes connected to a pump, which goes by the same power that sets the mill in motion. The daily consumption of coal is twenty bushels. The running gear is of cast iron. The whole cost is estimated at between 12,000 and 14,000 dollars.
Cist's (Jacob) discovery of the application of the coal of Luzerne county, for the purpose of ink, paint, &c.
Hare's (Robert) blow-pipe, for producing a very intense heat by a stream of oxygen and hydrogen gases.
Books and Documents relating to the History, Geo
graphy, fc. of this State. 1682. Penn's (William) draught of government for Pennsyl. vania and New Jersey.
1682. (April 25th.) The Frame of the Government of the Province of Pennsylvania in America. Votes of Repr. Penn. 27.
1682. (August 21st.) The Duke of York's Deed for Pennsyl. vania. Yotes Repr. Penn. 35.
1698. Thomas' Account of Pennsylvania and Jersey. 12mo, London.
1702. Holm's (Thomas Campanius) Description of the Pro. vince of New Sweden in America, named by the English Pennsylvania. Stockholm, in Sweden.
Kort Beskrifning om provincen ny Swerige, af de Engelshe hal. lad Pennsylvania.
1745. Proud's History of Pennsylvania.
1751. Bartram's (Joha) Observations on the inhabitants, climate, soil, rivers, productions, animals, &c. made in his travels from Pennsylvania to Ouetango, Oswego, and the Lake Ontario. London, 8vo.
1755. A Brief State of the Province of Pennsylvania. 8vo. 15. Griffith's, London.
1756. Mittleborger, Reise nach Pennsylvanian in Yahr 1750. Frankfurth und Leipzig, in 12mo, pp. 120. Voyage in Pennsyl. vania, &c. Stutgard, 1756, in Svo.
1759. Au Historical Review of the Constitution and Govern. ment of Pennsylvania. London, 1 Vol. in 8vo.
1768. Histoire Naturelle et Politique de la Pennsylvanie et de l'établissement des Quakers dans cette contrée. Traduite de l'Allemand. Par M. Rousselat de Surgy, Censeur Royal, precedé d'une Carte Geographique Paris, in 12mo, pp. 372.
1785. Bayley's Pocket Almanack. Philadelphia.
1793. Hardie, (James) The Philadelphia Directory and 'Register, in 8vo. pp. 234.
1794. Davies's (Benjamin) Account of the City of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, in 12mo. pp. 93.
1795. Hogan (Edmund) The Prospect of Philadelphia, and check on the next Directory. Philadelphia, in 8vo. Pp. 108. giving the names and occupations of the inhabitants ; name of the street, number of the houses, &c.
1796. A Description of the River Susquehannah, with Observations on the present state of its trade and navigation, and their practicable and probable improvements. Philadelphia, in 8vo, 1796. Trumbull's (Robert J.) Visit to the Philadelphia Prison,
1798. Condie's (Thomas) and Folwell's (Richard) History of the Pestilential commonly called Yellow Fever, which almost desolated Philadelphia in the months of August, September, and October 1798. Philadelphia, 1 Vol. in Svo. pp. 200.
1799. Rush's (Dr) Observations upon the Origin of the Malignant Bilious, or Yellow Fever, in Philadelphia, pp. 28.
1809. Franklin's Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsylvania, Vol. II. of the Philadelphia edition of his works.
1811. The Picture of Philadelphia, giving an Account of its origin, increase, and improvements, &c. By James Mease, M. D. i Vol, in 12mo. Philadelphia.
1811. Duane (William J.) Letters addressed to the People of Pennsylvania, respecting the internal improvement of the Commonwealth by means of roads and canals. Philadelphia, 8vo,
Maps.-Hill's (John, Surveyor) Map of the Country round Philadelphia, to the distance of ten miles, published in 1808.
Reading's (Surveyor) Map of Pennsylvania.