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Products of Mineral Substances in 1810.

Iron,
Lead,
Glass, 8 glass works, value,
164 potteries,
Gunpowder, 2 mills, pounds 280,866,
Salt, * busbels 600,
Marble manufactured, 22 yards,

sawed, 2 mills,
Glass cut,
Paints, t dyes, &c. 8 manufactories,
Nitre, brimstone, and borax, 360 tons,
Prussian blue, 3000 pounds,
Lamp black,
Engraving, 16 establishments,
Bricks, 111 kilns, bricks 55,066,656,
Slate, 1 quarry,
Lime, 475 kilns, bushels 1,001,610,
Plaster of Paris, ground tons 3345,

Dollars. 5,869,487 296.800 144,800, 164,520 153,829

1,000 340,150 30,000

6,000 126,950 244,100

6,000 4,000 33,200 417,490

6,000 132,477 40,890

There are six manufactories whose machinery is driven by steam,—a rolling and slitting-mill, a papermill, a cotton, woollen, and wire manufactory. There are three companies, or associations, for making steam. engines and steamboats. There are five glass-houses, three for green and two for white glass, of which the annual amount is valued at 200,000 dollars. The other manufactories are founderies, three in number ; brew

Between 4000 and 5000 barrels of Onondago salt are brought appually to Pittsburgh by the Alleghauy river.

+ At Cannelsville there is an extensive bank of earth, which, when cal. eined, is a substitute for Spanish brown. This substance was discovered by Mr Lauderburn, to whom it þrings copsiderable profit.

eries, lead factories, and rope-walks. In Philadelphia there are several iron and brass founderies ; manufactories of steam-engines, of lead, copper, &c. to a great amount. A great many vessels are built of pine at the port of Philadelphia, and on the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers. The iron manufacturing establishment in Lancaster county, belonging to Robert Cole. man, Esq. is one of the most extensive and productive in the United States. There are others near Carlisle, at Fort London, and in Sherman's Valley; at Shippemburgh, in Cumberland, Hanover in York, and Mercesburg, in Franklin. Gypsum, brought by the Susquehannah from the Western county, 4 dollars per barrel, or 20 per ton.

A great quantity of cider is made from apples, and of brandy from peaches. This operation takes place in November. Almost

Almost every farmer has a press, which generally consists of a wheel made of thick oak plank, turning upon a wooden axis by means of a horse

power. Whisky is extracted from maize, rye, and buckwheat, and sugar from the juice of the maple tree, some of which, on the banks of the Monongahela, give four pounds in one season, of as good a quality, but not so strong as the musquevado, and valued at 13 cents apound. At Harmony, in 1809, the society of that place made 50 gallons of sweet-oil from the white poppy. The bark of sassafras, boiled in urine, in a vessel of metal, is employed to dye wool of a fine orange colour, which seldom fades. The myrtle wax tree yields a wax which is sometimes employed to make candles. Mixed with an equal quantity of tallow, this substance

renders the candles less subject to melt during the heat of summer, makes them burn more slowly, and give out an agreeable odour when extinguished.

The bark of elder furnishes a red or brown dye, the juice of the poke-weed gives a fine purple ; but no method is yet known of fixing it. A species of convolvulus is used as an esculent; and the seeds of a plant resembling broom are used by the Germans as a substitute for chocolate.

Products of Animal and Vegetable Substances. Flax, hemp, wool, and cotton, value 4,279,174 dollars. Grain, fruits, &c.

15,778,424 Leather,

3,155.967 Tanneries,

1,607,804 Hats,

1,296.346 Paper,

1,227,766 Other manufactures,

9,451,941 Brushes, 24 makers,

94,760 Bookbinding, 102 binders,

107,183 Tortoise shell, ivory and horn, 6740 doz. 80,624 Suspenders, 2 manufacturers, 2222 doz. 19,049 Upholstery, 9 upholsterers,

165,000 Merino wool, 1150 free pounds. Flax-seed oil, 171 mills, gallons 521,375, 518,421 Spirits, 3594 distilleries, gallons 6,552,2843, 986,045 Beer, ale, and porter, 48 breweries, gallons 71,273, per day,

876,072 Starch and hair powder, lbs. 358,000,

41,766 Wafers,

5,000 Mustard, pounds 25,550,

10,200 Currant wine, barrels 67,

3,886 Grape wine, gallons 25. Cabinet wares, makers 482,

657,870 Waggons, number 8658,

211,625

Carriages, 51 makers,

value 578,816 dollars. Coopers' wares, 958 shops,

845,887 Saddle trees, 10 makers,

2,075 Last and boot trees, 3 makers,

3,000 Prints cut, 4 establishments,

6,000 Printing presses, 2 manufactories,

26,000 Bark ground, 24 mills. Baskets, number 24,012,

9,406 Rakes, number 11,000,

1,876 Corks cut, 3 establishments,

5,000
Chip hats, number 6,312.
Spirits of turpentine and varnish, 22,000 galls. 20,650
Sugar refined, pounds 336,459,

605,610 Tobacco, 67 mills, pounds 2,186,757, 410,910 35 rope-walks, cables, and cordage, 933 tons, 357,498 Playing cards, 4 manufactories,

12,900 Segars, American, 29,060,000,

44,253 Ditto, Spanish, 3,898,999,

26,550 Hand bellows, 2 manufactories,

6,500 Chocolate, pounds 216,200,

41,700 Drums, 5 manufactories,

2,500 Artificial flowers,

6,700 Looking-glass frames, 12 framers,

100,000 Umbrellas, 7 makers,

43,000 Whips,

38,000 2008 wheat mills, * bushels, 4,024,640,

10,800,290 barrels, 844,417 1995 saw mills, feet sawed 73,847,640, 600,430 Maple sugar, pounds 1,046,268,

119,345 Malt, bushels 3035,

3,303 Pearled barley, 1 mill, pounds 20,000, 1,100

* At Pittsburgh there is a steam grist-mill, built by Oliver and Evans of Philadelphia, which, with two pairs of stones, grinds 16 bushels an hour.

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Wind-mills,

value 267 dollars. Clover seed, 27 mills, bushels 11,650, 54,730 21 mahogany saw-mills, 700,000 feet sawed, 17,800 Rosin and pitch, 2000 barrels,

8,000 Hemp mills, pounds 3600,

36 Ground ginger, pounds ground 51,000, 5,520 Printing, 108 offices, work,

353,517 Muslin and linen printing, 122 hands, 8 printers, yards printed, 106,132,

145,290 The whole amount of manufactures, in 1810, excluding articles of a doubtful nature, amounted to 83,691,111 dollars; the doubtful articles to 12,203,063, consisting of flour and meal manufactured, saw-mills, sugar, saltpetre, malt, pearled barley, clover seed, wind-mills and mahogany saw-mills, hemp mills, slate and lime.

Commerce. *The exports, in 1799, amounted to 12,431,967 dollars; in 1810, to 10,993,398; of the last, 4,751,634 were of domestic, and 6,241,764 of

* In 1704, Pennsylvania consumed 180,000 pounds sterling in merchandise coming from England, and the imports levied on its natural productions brought a revenue of 30,000 pounds sterling. In the work on American Husbandry, published at London in 1775, is inserted a table of the exports of this province, Vol. I.

p. 181.

Biscuit flour, 350,000 barrels at 20s.
Wheat, 100,000 qrs. at 20s.
Beans, peas, oats, Indian corn, and other grain,
Salt beef, pork hams, bacon and venison,
Bees wax, 20,000 lb. at 1s.
Tongues, butter, and cheese,
Deer, and sundry other sorts of skins,
Live stock and horses,

L. 350,000
100,000

12,000 45,000

1,000 10,000 50,000 20,000

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