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Ref AE 5 . E36 19100 6.9

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME IX. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

AAT.

A. Ca.

A. C. McG.

A. E. G.

A. E. H.

A.E. H. L

A. F1*

A.F..

A.F.P.

ARTHUR AUGUSTUS TILLEY, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages, King's College, Cambridge. Author of Estienne.

The Literature of the French Renaissance; &c.
ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.

Equation.
See the biographical article: CAYLEY, ARTHUR.
ARTHUR CUSHMAN MCGIFFERT, M.A., Ph.D., D.D.

Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York: Author of Eusebius: of Caesarea.
History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia of

Eusebius.
REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D.

Principal of New College, Hampstcad. Member of the Board of Theology and Eschatology.
the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life

of Jesus; &c.
A. E. HOUGHTON.

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Resloralion of the Espartero.

Bourbons in Spain.
AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon.

Elasticity.
Fellow of Queen's College. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.

Secretary of the London Mathematical Society.
ALEXANDER FISHER.
Expert Examiner to the Board of Education, London. Gold Medallist, Barcelona.

Enamel
Hon. Associate, Royal College of Art. Author of The Art of Enamelling on Metals;

&c.
A. F. KENDRICK.

Embroidery (in part).
Keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.

Elizabeth, Queen;
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University) Emser; Englefeld;
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. English History (VII. and

Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cronmer; &c. XIII.).
Rev. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
ARTHUR HASSALL, M.A.

Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European Europo: History (in part).
History; The Balance of Power;. &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T.'H. Dyer's

History of Modern Europe.
ALAN HENDERSON GARDINER, M.A.

Joint Editor of the New Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Berlin. Formerly Worcester Egypt: Ancient Religion.

Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford.
Rev. A. H. SAYCE, LITT.D., LL.D.

Elam;
See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H.

Esar-baddon.
SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

Elburz.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent Epistle (in part).
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of

Mysore Educational Service.
ALLEN MAWER, M.A.

Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-,
Tyne. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in

England (V.).
English at the University of Sheffield.

"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. Go.

{Erastus

.

A. HL

A H.G.

A. LL. S.

AH-S.

A. J. G.

A. MCM.

'A. M. O.

A. M. CL

A. N.

A. So.

A. S. C.

A. W. H.*

{

A. W.R.

0. B.

{Efigies (in part).

C. EL

C. E. N. R.

ALEXANDER MACMORRAN, K.C., M.A.
Bencher of the Middle Temple. Author of works on the Local Government Act England: X. (in part).

{
1888; Local Government Act 1894; London Government Act 1899; &c.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.

Encke.
See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M.
AGNES MURIEL CLAY (MRS WILDE).

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint Author of Sources Eupatridao.

of Roman History, 133-70 B,C.
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Eider;
See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

Emou.
ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A., F.R.S.

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Embryology.
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology

in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909.
ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B.

Assistant Secretary for Art, Baard of Education, 1900-1908. Author of Ancient Embroidery (in part).
Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European

Silks ; &c.
ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

Einhard.
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.

Ejectment;
ALEXANDER Wood RENTON, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws

Emblements;
of England.

Eminent Domain.
Rev. CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A. (1812–1877).

Author of English Heraldry; À Manual of British Archaeology; &c.
SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-
Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Ephthalites;
Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900-1904: Formerly Fellow Esthonia (in part).
of Trinity College, Oxford. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the Far

East; &c.
CHARLES EDMUND NEWTON ROBINSON, M.A.

Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Founder of the Epee de Combat.

Epée Club, London. Author of The Golden Hind; &c.
CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International

English Finance.
Trade.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member Eugenius III. and IV.

of the American Historical Association.
CHARLES WILLIAM CHADWICK OMAN, M.A., F.S.A.

Chichele Professor of Modern History, Oxford UniversityFellow of All Souls'
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Madrid English History (I., II., III.,
Academia de la Historia. Author of The Art of War in the Middle Ages; The Great IV., V., VI.).

Revolt of 1381; Warwick the King-maker; &c.
SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Erzerum (in part);
sion. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Erzingan (in parl);
Military Educati 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord, Euphrates (in part).

Clive; &c.
DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow

Egin;
of the British Academy: Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903;
Ephesus, 1904-1905: Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, Ephesus.

1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
DAVID HANNAY.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy,

Ensenada;
1217-1088; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

Espagnols sur Mer.
D. J. MATTHEWS.

Hydrographer, Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United English Channel (in part).

Kingdom, Plymouth.
SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra

Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V... Director of the Foreign Egypt: Modern History
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International
and Officer de l'Instruction Publique of France. Joint Editor of New Volumes (in part);
(10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egyp! and the Europe: History (in part).

Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
DAVID SAMUEL MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., D.LITT.
Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic

Egypt: History (Mahommcdan
Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Coiro, Jerusalem

Period); and Damascus.

Ethiopia.

C.F. B.

C. H. Ha.

{

C. W. C. O.

C. W. W.

D. G. I.

D.A.

D. J. M.

D. M. W.

D. S. M.

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E. Br.

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, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical { Elgon.

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EDWARD ANTHONY SPITZKA.
Professor of Genera! Anatomy, Jefferson Medical College and Hospital

, Philadelphia: { Electrocuton.
Member of Association of American Anatomists, American Anthropologists'

Association, &c.
ERNEST BARKER, M.A.

Electors;
Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Emperor;
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.

Empire.
EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.

Eunuch.
See the biographical article: Tylor, E. B.
Rr. Rev. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.LITT. (Dublin).

Elias.
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.

Elegy; Epic Poetry; Epilogue; EDMUND Gosse, LL.D.

Epistle: Poetry; Essay;
See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND W.

Etheredge; Euphuism.
EJLE GARCKE, M.INST.E.E.

Electricity Supply:
Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of

Commercial.
Electrical Undertakings; &c.
SIR ELDON GORST, K.C.B.

Egypt: Finance (in part).
See the biographical article: GORST, SIR JOHN ELDON.
ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A.

Eleusis; Elis; Epidaurus;
See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.

Erechtheum; Eretria.
EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A.

Society, London.
EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LITT. (Oxon.), LL.D.

Eucratides;
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des

Euthydemus.
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien A gyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
EDWARD STANLEY POOLE.

Egypt: History (II. in port).
See the biographical article: POOLE, REGINALD STUART.
Rev. EDMUND VENABLES (1819-1895).

Ember Days and Ember
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.

Weeks.
FIELD-MARSHAL SIR EVELYN Wood, V.C., G.C.M.G.

Egypt: Modern, Army.
See the biographical article: Wood, Sir Evelyn.
FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).

Epiphany;
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford.

Eucharist.
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A.

Edwin;
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.

Essex, Kingdom of.
FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.S.A.

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of
Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Ermine Street.
German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student,
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906. Author of

Monographs on Roman History; &c.
FRANCIS LLEWELYN GRIFFITH, M.A., Ph.D.

Reader in Egyptology. Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Egypt: Ancienl.
Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the

Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
FRANK R. CANA.

Author of Soutk Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
FRANCIS RICHARD MAUNSELL, C.M.G.

Lieutenant-Colonel, R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond. Van (Kurdistan). ) Erzerum (in port);
1897–1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. Erzingan (in pari).

Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.
FREDERICK WILLIAM MAITLAND, LL.D.
See the biographical article: MAITLAND, F.W.

English Law.
FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. Emery.

Emerald;
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D.

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Engleheart.
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition

of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSOX, M.A., F.R. Hist. S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer,

1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Egmont, Count ol.
case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary

arbitrations.
GEORGE GOUDIE CHISHOLM, M.A.

Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary of the Royal ) Europo: Geography ond
Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography. Statistics.
Editor of Longman's Gazettees of the World.

F. G. M. B

F.J. E.

F.LL. G.

7. R. C.

{Egypt

: Modern (in part).

F. R. M.

F. W. M.

7. W.R.•

G. C. W.

Q. E

G. G. C.

G. H. C.

G. S. C.

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A. C. R.

H. F.T.

H. Ha.

H. H. W.

{

H. M. R.

H. M. R. M.

{English Language (in part).

H. N. G.

H. R. M.

GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc.

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: Entomology.

Their Structure and Life.
SIR GEORGE SYDENHAM CLARKE, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S.

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Greal Sea Power;
The Last Great Naval War; &c.

1883–1885.
HANS A. E. DRIESCH, PH.D., LL.D.

Gifford Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, 1907–1908. Author of Die Or- Embryology: Physiology of ganischen Regulationen; Der Vitalismus als Geschichte und als Lehre; The Science Development.

and Philology of the Organism; &c. HENRY BRADLEY M.A., Ph.D.

Fellow of the British Academy. Joint Editor of the New English Dictionary English Literature (I.).

(Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition English History: XII. (in part).

of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-Editor of the 10th edition.
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON, BART., G.C.B.

Euphrates (in part).
See the biographical article: RAWLINSON, Sır H. C.
Rev. HENRY FANSHAWE TOZER, M.A., F.R.G.S.

Hon. Fellow and formerly Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British
Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. Author of Euboea.
History of Ancieni Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the Geography of

Greece; &c.
HEBER HART, LL.D.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.

Estate and House Agents.
REV. HENRY HERBERT WILLIAMS, M.A.

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Philosophy, Hertford College, Oxford. Examining Ethics (in part).

Chaplain to the Bishop of Llandaff.
HUGH MUNRO Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln

College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering English Channel (in part).
Supplement. Author of British Railways.
HILDA MARY R. MURRAY, M.A.

Lecturer on English at Royal Holloway College.
HARRY NORMAN GARDINER, A.M.

Professor of Philosophy, Smith College, Northampton, U.S.A. Editor of Jonathan Edwards, Jonathan (in part).

Edwards - Retrospect.
HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.Sc., LL.D.

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Formerly President of the Royal Meteoro-
logical Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. Correspond England: Physical Geography
ing Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg,

(II., IV.).
Amsterdam, &c. British Delegate to International Conference on the Exploration
of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of The Realin of Nature; The Clyde Sea

Area; The English Lakes; The International Geography. Éditor of British Rainfall.
HENRY SIDGWICK, LL.D.
See the biographical article: SIDGWICK, H.

Ethics (in part).
HENRY SWEET, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich,

Esperanto.
Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since

the Earliesi Period; A Handbook of Phonetics; &c.
HENRY VAN DYKE, A.M., D.D., LL.D.

Professor of English Literature, Princeton University, U.S.A. Author of The Poetry Emerson.

of Tennyson; The Ruling Passion; The Spirit of America; &c. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS Davis, M.A.

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.

Einhorn, David;
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Elijah Wilna ;
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera-
iure; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c.

Elisha ben Abuyah.
Electrical Machine;

Electricity;
JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Electricity Supply;
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of Electrokinetics;
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.
Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles

Electromagnetism;
of Electric Wave Telegraphy; Magnets and Electric Currents; &c.

Electrometer;
Electrophorus;

Electroscope; Electrostatics.
JOAN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of England: Geology (III.);
Geology of Building Stones.

Eocene.
SIR JAMES AUGUSTUS HENRY MURRAY, LL.D., D.C.L., LITT.D.
See the biographical article: MURRAY, SIR JAMES A. H.

English Language.
JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A.

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; Euyuk.
Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.

H. S.

H. Sw.

H. van D.

H. W. O. D.

I. A.

J. A. F.

J. A. H.

J. A. H. M.

J. G. C. A.

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