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ing among the marshal's men. I saw it; and told John of Gaunt, he beat his own name 6: for you might have truss'd * him, and all his apparel, into an eel-skin; the case of a treble hautboy was a mansion for him, a court; and now has he land and beeves. Well; I will be acquainted with him, if I return : and it shall go hard, but I will make him a philosopher's two stones to me?: If the young daces
* Quartos, thrust. “ Whose chariot wheels have burst th' Assyrian's bones.” Again, in Holinshed, p. 809 : “that manie a speare was burst, and manie a great stripe given.”
To brast had the same meaning. Barrett, in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, calls a housebreaker “a breaker and braster of doors.” The same author constantly uses burst as synonymous to broken. See vol. v. p. 358, n.5. STEEVENS.
6 — beat his own NAME :) That is, beat gaunt, a fellow so slender, that his name might have been gaunt. Johnson,
7-philosopher's Two stones -] One of which was an universal medicine, and the other a transmuter of base metals into gold. WARBURTON.
I believe the commentator has refined this passage too much, A philosopher's two stones is only more than the philosopher's stone. The universal medicine was never, so far as I know, conceived to be a stone before the time of Butler's stone.
Johnson. Mr. Edwards ridicules Dr. Warburton's note on this passage, but without reason. Gower has a chapter in his Confessio Amantis, “Of the three stones that philosophres made : ” and Chaucer, in his tale of the Chanon's Yeman, expressly tells us, that one of them is Alixar cleped; and that it is a water made of the four elements. Face, in the Alchymist, assures us, it is “a stone, and not a stone." FARMER.
That the ingredients of which this Elixir, or Universal Medicine, was composed, were by no means difficult of acquisition, may be proved by the following conclusion of a letter written by Villiers Duke of Buckingham to King James I. on the subject of the Philosopher's Stone. See the second volume of Royal Letters in the British Museum, No. 6987, art. 101 :
“ I confess, so longe as he conseled the meanes he wrought by, I dispised all he said : but when he tould me, that which he hath given your sovrainship to preserve you from all sicknes ever hereafter, was extracted out of a tod, I admired the fellow; and for theis reasons : that being a stranger to you,
be a bait for the old pike, I see no reason, in the law of nature, but I may snap at him. Let time shape, and there an end.
ACT IV. SCENE I.
A Forest in Yorkshire.
Enter the Archbishop of York, MOWBRAY, HAST
INGS, and Others.
yett he had found out the kind you are come of, and your natural affections and apetis : and so, like a skillful man, hath given you natural fisicke, which is the onlie meanes to preserve the radicall hmrs : and thus I conclude : My sow is healthfull, my divill's luckie, myself is happie, and needs no more than your blessing, which is my trew Felosophers stone, upon which I build as upon a rocke : “Your Majesties most humble slave and doge
“ Stinie.” The following passage in Churchyard's Commendation to them that can make Gold, &c. 1593, will sufficiently prove that the Elixir was supposed to be a stone before the time of Butler :
much matter may you read
“ And many more that were too long to name.' Again, in the Dedication of The Metamorphosis of Pigmalion's Image and certaine Satyres, 1598:
“Or like that rare and rich Elitar stone,
" Can turne to gold leaden invention." STEEVENS. I think Dr. Johnson's explanation of this passage is the true one : “ I will make him of twice the value of the philosopher's stone.” MaloNE.
8-if the young dace ] That is, if the pike may prey upon the dace, if it be the law of nature that the stronger may seize upon the weaker, Falstaff may, with great propriety, devou Shallow. Johnson.
Hast. 'Tis Gualtree forest”, an't shall please your
'Tis well done.
ground, And dash themselves to pieces.
Enter a Messenger.
Now, what news ?
ber Upon, or near, the rate of thirty thousand. Mows. The just proportion that we gave them
out. Let us sway on', and face them in the field.
9 'Tis Gualtree forest,] “The earle of Westmoreland, &c. made forward against the rebels, and coming into a plaine, within Galtree forest, caused their standards to be pitched down in like sort as the archbishop had pitched his, over against them.”
Holinshed, p. 529. Steevens. "Let us sway on, I know not that I have ever seen sway
Then, my lord,
in this sense; but I believe it is the true word, and was intended to express the uniform and forcible motion of a compact body. There is a sense of the noun in Milton kindred to this, where, speaking of a weighty sword, he says, “ It descends with huge two-handed sway." Johnson.
The word is used in Holinshed, English History, p. 986: “ The left side of the enemy was compelled to sway a good way back, and give ground," &c. Again, in King Henry VI. Part III. Act II. Sc. V.:
“ Now sways it this way, like a mightie sea,
“ Now sways it that way,” &c. Again, in King Henry V.:
“ Rather swaying more upon our part," &c. Steevens. 2 - WELL-APPOINTED leader-] Well-appointed is completely accoutred. So, in The Miseries of Queen Margaret, by Drayton :
“Ten thousand valiant, well-appointed men.” Again, in The Ordinary, by Cartwright:
" Naked piety
“Dares more, than fury well-appointed.” Steevens. 3 Led on by BLOODY youth,] I believe Shakspeare wrote-heady youth. WARBURTON.
Bloody youth is only sanguine youth, or youth full of blood, and of those passions which blood is supposed to incite or nourish. Johnson.
So, The Merry Wives of Windsor ; “ Lust is but a bloody fire." Malone.
And countenanc'd by boys, and beggary;
4 — GUARDED with rage,] Guarded is an expression taken from dress; it means the same as faced, turned up. Mr. Pope, who has been followed by succeeding editors, reads goaded. Guarded is the reading both of quarto and folio. Shakspeare uses the same expression in the former part of this play:
“ Velvet guards and Sunday citizens," &c.
Give him a livery
“ To face the garment of rebellion
“Of fickle changelings," &c.
" to dress the ugly form
“Of base and bloody insurrection-" Malone.
o Whose see is by a civil peace maintained;} Civil is grave,
Come civil night,
By comparing this passage with another in p. 91, of Dr. Grey's