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31. King's declaration in favour of freedom, and promise to convoke a legal
32. Universal transports in Spain at this decree, and the king's return to
33. Reflections on this event, and the obvious courses which lay open to the
king, . .
34. Ferdinand's despotic measures. Re-establishment of the Inquisition,
35. Discontent in various quarters,
36. Revolt of Mina in Navarre, . . . . .
37. Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand, .
38. Further violent proceedings of the king, and Porlier's revolt, ,
39. Its failure, and his death,
40. Invasion of France, and retreat of the Spaniards. Fresh tyrannical acts of
the king, . . .
41. Change of ministers, and policy at Madrid, .
42. Restoration of the Jesuits, and other despotic measures,
43. Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal,
44. Creation of the kingdom of Brazil, . .
45. Insurrection in Valencia, .
46. Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona, and death of General Lacy,
47. Papal bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church,
48. Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria, .
49. Treaty for the limitation of the slave-trade, .
50. Miserable state of Spain : its army and navy, .
51. Extreme penury of the finances of Spain. Decree, April 3, 1818,
52. Death of Queen Maria Isabella of Spain, .
53. Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima,
54. Fresh revolt at Valencia, which is suppressed, .
55. Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon, .
56. Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote it, .
57. Insurrection at Cadiz, .
58. The conspiracy is at first arrested by d'Abisbal,
59. D’Abisbal is deprived of the command of the expedition,
60. Additional measures of severity on the part of the Government,
61. Yellow fever at Cadiz, .
62. Sale of Florida to the Americans,
63. Marriage of the king, .
64. Revolution attempted by Riego,
65. Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents,
66. Capture of the arsenal, and expedition of Riego into the interior,
67. Its defeat and failure, .
68. Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon,
69. Insurrection at Corunna, and in Navarre, ,
70. Revolution at Madrid : the king accepts the constitution,
71. Reflections on this revolution, .
72. Rapid advances of the revolution,
73. Reception of the revolution at Barcelona, Valencia, and Cadiz,
74. Massacre at Cadiz, .
75. New ministry at Madrid,
76. First measures of the new government,
77. Establishment of clubs in Madrid, and other revolutionary measures,
ad policy at Madrid,
uits, and other despotic measures, .
e royal families of Spain and Portugal,
m of Brazil, .
| Barcelona, and death of General Lacy,
he contribution by the Spanish church,
Queen of Etruria,
ion of the slave-trade, .
in : its army and navy, ..
e finances of Spain. Decree, April 3, 1818,
Isabella of Spain,
first expedition to Lima,
cia, which is suppressed, .
the Isle of Leon, .
liberals to promote it, ..
78. Legislative measures, .
79. Meeting of the Cortes : its composition,
80. Disorders in the provinces, . .
81. Murder of one of the body-guard, and reward of the murderer
82. Opening of the Cortes, . .
83. Report on the state of the army,
84. Majority of the Cortes : its leaders, .
85. Suppression of the Jesuits, and measures regarding entails,
86. Financial measures, . . .
87. Tumult at Madrid, and dismissal of Riego, .
88. Closing of the session, and rupture with the king,
89. Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain, .
90. Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king, .
91. Return of the king to Madrid,. .
92. Victory of the revolutionists, . .
93. New society for execution of lynch law,
94. Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal,
95. Revolution at Oporto, . . . .
96. Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon, .
97. Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon, .
98. Return of Marshal Beresford, who is forced to go to England,
99. Effect of the banishment of the British,
100. Reaction, and adoption of more moderate measures, .
101. Commencement of reforms in Italy, . .
102. Breach of the king's promise of a constitution,
103. Progressive but slight reforms already introduced,
104. Origin of secret societies, .
105. Their origin and previous history, .
106. Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution,
107. Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples,
108. The king yields, and swears to the constitution,
109. Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily, .
110. Revolution in Palermo,
111. Frightful massacre in Palermo,
112. First measures of the new junta,
113. Failure of the negotiations with Naples, .
114. Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo, .
115. Renewal of hostalities, . . .
116. Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament,
117. Insurrection of the galley slaves in Civita Vecchia,
118. Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont,
119. Revolt in Alessandria and Turin, .
120. The king yields, and accepts the constitution,
121. Resignation of the king, and proclamation of the Prince of
. regent, and the Spanish constitution, .
122. General character of the revolutions of 1820, .
123. What caused their speedy overthrow, . .
124. What should the military do in such circumstances ?
RUSSIA AND POLAND, FROM THE PEACE OF 1815 TO THE ACCESSION OF
NICHOLAS IN 1825.
1. Vast growth and extent of Russia, America, and British India in recent
2. Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815, .
3. Important acquisition of Russia in the grand-duchy of Warsaw,
4. Statistics of the grand-duchy of Warsaw,
5. Establishment of the kingdom of Poland, .
6. Biography of the Grand-duke Constantine,
7. His character,
8. His first acts of administration, and training of the army,
9. Great advantage to Poland from its union with Russia,
10. Great increase of its military strength, .
11. Failure of the representative system in Poland,
12. Great influence of Russia, .
13. Great wisdom of its external policy, .
14. Their unity of purpose, ; .
15. Statistics of the empire : its population,
16. Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population, ...
17. Great room for future increase in its inhabitants,
18. Unity of feeling in the whole empire, . .
19. Reason of this unity. Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings,
20. Unity of interest in the empire,
21. General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment,
22. The clergy, . .
23. Rank in Russia : the Tchinn, .
24. Great power given by the Tchinn,
25. Caste of the nobles, . .
26. Of the bourgeois and trading classes, .
27. The serfs : their number and condition,
28. Privileges and advantages they enjoy, .
29. The Tieglo : its advantages and evils, .
30. Way in which it is carried into effect, .
31. Contrast of English and Russian cultivators, .
32. Opinion of M. Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement,
33. Evils of the Russian serf system,
34. Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate, .
35. Fear the universal principle of government in Russia, .
36. General use of corporal chastisement, . . .
37. Character which these circumstances have imprinted on the Russians, 149
38. Causes which have led to this character,
39. Great effect of the distances in Russia, ,
40. Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks,
41. Strong imitative turn of the Russians, .
42. Military strength of Russia, .
43. The military colonies, .
-, FROM THE PEACE OF 1815 TO THE ACCESSION OF
NICHOLAS IN 1825.
nt of Russia, America, and British India in recent
the treaties of 1814 and 1815, .
of Russia in the grand-duchy of Warsaw,
-duchy of Warsaw,
kingdom of Poland, .
d-duke Constantine, .
istration, and training of the army,
land from its union with Russia,
military strength, ..
ntative system in Poland,
e, . .
e: its population,
ease of the Russian population, .
increase in its inhabitants,
whole empire, . .
Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings,
of the schools to produce enlightenment,
Erading classes, .
Der and condition,
ages they enjoy, .
mtages and evils, .
rried into effect, .
nd Russian cultivators, .
ausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement, 144
serf system, .
r forced upon Russia by its climate,
Enciple of government in Russia, .
circumstances have imprinted on the Russians, 149
d to this character, .
stances in Russia, .
entirely on the higher ranks,
of the Russians, .
44. The Cossacks, .
45. The admirable discipline and equipment of the army, .
46. Russian navy, : : :
47. Revenue of Russia, .
: : :
48. Positions of the principal armies,
49. General corruption in Russia, .
50. Enormous abuses which prevail,
51. Striking instances of this corruption,
52. Emigration in Russia is all internal, .
53. Great impulse to agricultural industry in Russia from free trac
54. What is the destiny of Russia ? .
55. Two different people in Russia, .
56. Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and
57. First steps of Alexander on his return to Russia in 1814,
58. His beneficent measures, .
59. Marriage of Alexander's sister to the Prince of Orange, and a
duke Nicholas to the Princess of Prussia,
60. Incessant travels of Alexander from 1815 to 1825,
61. Various beneficent measures introduced by him,
62. His arrival at Warsaw in 1818, . . .
63. Alexander's memorable speech to the Diet, .
64. Journey of Alexander to his southern provinces,
65. His efforts for the enfranchisement of the peasants,
66. Transactions of 1819, . . . . .
67. Expulsion of the Jesuits,
68. Great changes in the emperor's mind from the revolution of 1
69. Violent scene, and dissolution of the Polish Diet,
70. Congress of Troppau, . .
71. Congress of Troppau : its resolutions, .
72. Congress of Laybach, . .
73. Reflections on the division among the allied powers,
74. Limits of the right of intervention, . . .
75. What share had the Holy Alliance in this ? .
76. Attitude taken by England on the occasion, .
77. War declared against the revolution in Naples,
78. Unresisted march of the Austrians towards Naples,
79. Subjugation of Naples, and return of the king, .
80. Movement of the insurgents in Piedmont,. .
81. Meeting of the Allies, and fresh revolution in Genoa,
82. Increasing difficulties of the insurgents,
83. Total defeat of the insurgents at Agogna,
84. Submission of the capital, and termination of the war,
85. Violent reaction in Italy, . .. .
86. Reaction in Piedmont, and treaty with Austria, .
87. Revolt in a regiment of guards at St Petersburg, . .
88. Alexander refuses to support the Greeks, . .
89. Extension of the Russian empire in North America, .
90. Suppression of freemasons' and other secret societies, .
91. General failure of the emperor's philanthropic projects,
92. Dreadful flood at St Petersburg,
93-94. Description of the situation of St Petersburg, .
95. Great inundation of St Petersburg, .
96. Noble charity of the emperor and nobles,
97. Internal measures of 1824, and settlement of the boundaries of Russian
98. The Empress of Russia : her birth, parentage, marriage, and character, 209
99. Amours of the Czar, .
100. Death of Alexander's natural daughter,
101. Reconciliation of the emperor and einpress, .
102. Solemn service in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Kazan,
103. His departure from the cathedral,
104. His arrival at Taganrog,
105. His last illness,
106. And death, .
107. And funeral, ,
108. Death and burial of the empress,
109. His character, . . . ..
110. His failings, ,
111. State of the succession to the throne,
112. Constantine refuses the throne,
113. How this came about,
114. Constantine's previous renunciation of his right of succession,
115. Nicholas refuses the crown, and proclaims Constantine, .
116. Contest of generosity between the two brothers, and Nicholas mounts
the throne, . .. .
117. Account of the conspiracy against him,
118. Details on the conspiracy, .
119. Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander, .
120-121. Plans of the conspirators,
122. A revolt is decided on by the conspirators, .
123. Commencement of it, . .
124. Heroic conduct of Nicholas on the occasion, .
125. Nicholas advances against the rebels,
126. Forces on both sides, and irresolution of the chiefs of the revolt, .
127. Death of Milaradowitch, . . . . . .
128. The Archbishop also fails in reducing the mutineers,
129. The emperor gains the victory,
130. Seizure of the leaders of the conspiracy, and generous conduct of Nicholas
to the privates, : : : : :
131. Appointment of a commission of inquiry, .
132. Its composition and report, .
133. Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south,
134. And in that of the west, .
135. Arrest of the Mouravieffs, and outbreak of the conspiracy in the army of
· · · · · ·
136. Its suppression, .
137. Sentences on the conspirators,
138. Their conduct on the eve of death, .
139. Their execution,
140. Reflections on this event,
141. Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of the
. . . . . . . 250