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VII.

CHAP. exports to them are not now so great as they were forty

years ago, when their inhabitants were little more than a 1814.

fourth of what they now are ; and while our colonies consume, some £2, 10s., some £2, some £6 or £8 a-head of our manufactures, our emancipated offspring in North America do not, on an average of years, consume 12s. worth.* To the shipping of the parent state the change is still more disastrous, for, instead of being all on the side of one country, it becomes divided into two, of which the younger rapidly grows on its older rival. Witness the British trade to her North American colonies, with

2,600,000 of inhabitants, which employs 1,200,000 tons 1 See ante, of British shipping; while that with the United States, Chiw 107, with their 24,000,000, employs only 1,400,000, the rewhere the figures are mainder, about double that amount, having passed into Humboldt's the hands of the Americans themselves.t And while Nouvelle

Spain, while she possessed her colonies, carried on a traffic with them equal to what England has since attained

given,

* Exports from Great Britain in 1851 to

Australia, . . . , £2,807,356
British North America, . 3,813,707
West Indies, . . . 2,201,032
South Africa,

752,000
United States of America, . 14,362,000
- Parliamentary Paper, Nov. 29, 1852.

Population. Rate per Head.

500,000 £5 16 2,600,000 1 10 970,000 2 10

450,000 1 15 24,000,000 0 12

+ Shipping of Great Britain with

British Tons. Population. Foreign Tons.
British North America-1849, 1,280,000 2,400,000
United States,

1,482,707 23,000,000 2,658,326 -PORTER's Progress of the Nation, 1851, p. 392.

The great amount of the British tonnage to the United States of late years has been mainly owing to the prodigious emigration-on an average, 250,000 souls-from Great Britain to that country. Before this began, our tonnage with America stood thus :

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-PORTER’s Parl. Tables, vi. 43; vii. 43; ii. 50, 52, 518-years 1839, 1840, 1841.

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them are not now so great as they were forty when their inhabitants were little more than a what they now are ; and while our colonies cone £2, 10s., some £2, some £6 or £8 a-head of factures, our emancipated offspring in North do not, on an average of years, consume 12s. To the shipping of the parent state the change is disastrous, for, instead of being all on the side intry, it becomes divided into two, of which the apidly grows on its older rival. Witness the rade to her North American colonies, with O of inhabitants, which employs 1,200,000 tons

shipping; while that with the United States, r 24,000,000, employs only 1,400,000, the reabout double that amount, having passed into Is of the Americans themselves. And while hile she possessed her colonies, carried on a trafbem equal to what England has since attained

with her settlements in all parts of the wo capable for long of maintaining an equal co mistress of the seas, since she lost them her has sunk to nothing, and her fleet, the su invincible Armada, has dwindled to two sh and three frigates. *

Although the prosperity of the Spanish become such that they contained, when t severed them from old Spain, nineteen mi bitants, and carried on an export and imp it of above £16,000,000 sterling in all, yet chiefly from the bounty of nature and th wealth which they themselves enjoyed, and from the government of the parent state. tration had been illiberal, selfish, and op very highest degree. It was founded ma bases-1. The establishment of the Romi most bigoted form, and the absolute exclusi even of toleration to every other species o The exclusive enjoyment of all offices of tr ment in the colonies, and especially the wor] tion of the mines of gold and silver, by pers by the Spanish government at Madrid ; monopoly of the whole trade with the merchants and shipping of the mother cour those of Cadiz and Corunna, whom its ir bad long elevated to the rank of merchant the radical selfishness and shortsighted vi nature appeared in their full deformity ingly, as these were the evils which depre * Imports and exports of Spain to her colonies in 1809

Exports, . . . . 59,200,000 piastres,

Imports, . . . . 68,500,000 piastres, -HUMBOLDT, Nouvelle Espagne, iv. 153, 154. See also a the details are given. Esports of Great Britain to her whole colonies in

1847, . . £14,912,000 1850, . .
1848, . . 12,833,000 1851, .
1849, . , 15,690,000 1-Parl. Returns 0)

s from Great Britain in 1851 to

ia, . . . . £2,807,356 North America, . 3,813,707 ndies, . . . 2,201,032 Africa, :

752,000 States of America, . 14,362,000 ntary Paper, Nov. 29, 1852.

Population. Rate per Head.

500,000 £5 16 2,600,000 1 10

970,000 2 10

450,000 1 15 24,000,000 0 12

ng of Great Britain with

British Tons. Population. Foreign Tons. Torth America-1849, 1,280,000 2,400,000 tates,

,, 1,482,707 23,000,000 2,658,326 Progress of the Nation, 1851, p. 392. it amount of the British tonnage to the United States of late years Dainly owing to the prodigious emigration-on an average, 250,000 Im Great Britain to that country. Before this began, our tonnage ica stood thus :

British to British to United States. N. Am. Cols.

America,

Tons.

Exports to
United States.

Exports to
Canada.

152,833 1 541,451
900,781

771,905
2,183 789,410

36 1,090,224

319,524
396,189
338,781
444,442

£3,528,807
5,013,510
7,938,079
7,142,839

£2,333,525
1,751,211
3,070,861
3,555,950

vi. 43; vii. 43; ü. 50, 52, 518-years 1839, 1840, 1841.

VII.

1814,

tnres,

CHAP. gies and cramped the efforts of the colonies, the prevailing

feeling which produced the revolution, and the war-cry which animated its supporters, were for the opposite set of immunities. Liberation from Romish tyranny, selfgovernment, and free trade with all the world, were inscribed on the banners of Bolivar and San Martin, and in the end proved victorious in the conflict. Happy if they had known to improve their victory by moderation, and exercise the powers it had won with judgment, and if the liberated states had not fallen under a succession of tyrants of their own creation, so numerous that history has not attempted to record their succession, and so savage that it recoils from the portrait of their deeds.

Although, too, the trade which Spain carried on with The trade of her colonies was so immense anterior to the revolution in Spain was all with Spanish America, yet we should widely err if we imaforeign manufac

gined that it consisted of the manufactures raised or worked up in Spain itself; on the contrary, it consisted almost entirely of manufactured articles produced in Holland, Flanders, Germany, and England, brought by their merchants to the vast warehouses of Cadiz and Corunna, and transported thence beyond the Atlantic. The government of Madrid was entirely swayed in these matters by the merchants of these great seaport towns ; and their interest was wound up with the preservation of the monopoly of the trade, and by no means extended to the production of the manufactures. On the contrary, they were rather interested in keeping up the purchase of the articles which the colonies required from foreign states, for they enjoyed in that way in some degree a double transit, first from the seat of the manufactures in Britain or Belgium to Cadiz and Corunna, and again from thence to the American shores. Spain, notwithstanding the efforts of the Government to encourage them, had never possessed any considerable manufactures; and even if the merchants engaged in the colonial trade had wished it, they could not have found in their

VII.

1814.

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own country the articles of which their colonies stood in CHAP. need. Thus the traffic with those colonies, great as it – was, did little to enrich the country in general. It created colossal fortunes in the merchants of Cadiz and Corunna, of the Havanna or Buenos Ayres, but nothing morelike the railway traffic from London to Liverpool and Manchester, which does much for the wealth of these great towns at either end of the line, but comparatively little for the intermediate country along the sides of the communication between them. The causes of this peculiarity are to be found in the peculiarities of its physical circumstances, national character, and long-established policy, which have deprived old Spain of nearly all the advantages of her magnificent colonies, and afford the true, though hitherto unobserved, key to her long decline.

1. The first of these is to be found in the national character and temperament, the real source from which, Want of inhere as everywhere else, more even than its physical the national or political circumstances, its fortunes and destiny have of flowed. The races whose mingled blood have formed the heterogeneous population of old Spain, have none of them, excepting the Moors, been remarkable for their industrial habits. Tenacious of custom, persevering in inclination, repugnant to change, the original inhabitants of the country, with whom the Legions maintained so long and doubtful a conflict, were, like all the other families of the Celtic race, formidable enemies, indomitable guerillas, but by no means either laborious husbandmen or industrious artisans. The Visigoths, who poured through the passes of the Pyrenees, and overspread the country to the Pillars of Hercules, added nothing to their industrious habits, but much to their warlike propensities: from them sprang Pelayo and the gallant defenders of the Asturian hills, but not either the cultivators of the fields or the manufacturers of the towns; from them sprang Pizarro and Cortes, and the conquerors of the New World, but neither a Penn or a Franklin, nor the hardy pioneers of civilisa

VII.

1814.

voured commerce, but not manufactures.

CHAP. tion in its wastes. The Moors alone, who at one time

had nearly wrested all Spain from the Christians, and established themselves for a very long period on the banks of the Guadalquivir, were animated by the real spirit of industry, and great was the wealth and prosperity of their provinces to the south of the Sierra Morena. But religious bigotry tore up from the state this source of wealth; and the banishment, three hundred years ago, of nearly a million of its most industrious and orderly citizens, deprived Spain—as a similar measure, at a later period, did France-of the most useful and valuable portion of its inhabitants, and with them of the most important advantages she could have derived from her colonial settlements.

2. The physical circumstances and peculiarities of 10. The physi- Spain, and the pursuits to which its inhabitants were for stances of the most part of necessity driven, were such as favoured Spain fa

nautical and commercial, as much as they obstructed manufacturing pursuits. Placed midway between the Old and the New World, with one front washed by the waves of the Atlantic, and another by the ripple of the Mediterranean, with noble and defensible harbours forming the access to both, she enjoyed the greatest possible advantages for foreign commerce; and accordingly, even in the days of Solomon, the merchants of Tarshish rivalled those of Tyre in conducting the traffic of the then known world. But she had little natural advantages for interior traffic or manufactures. The mountainous nature of the greater part of the country rendered internal intercourse difficult; the entire want of roads, save the great chaussées from Madrid to Bayonne, Cadiz, Barcelona, Badajos, and Valencia, made it impossible. What little traffic there was off these roads, was all carried on on the backs of mules. Having little or no coal, and few of the forests which in France supply in some degree its want, she had none of the advantages for manufacturing industry which that invaluable mineral has furnished to northern Europe, enabling the inhabitants of Great Britain to

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