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CHAP. kingdom, was to restore everything to the condition in

which it was before the Revolution. He was not slow 1814.

in following their advice. Disregarding a patriotic and moderate address from the University of Salamanca, in which he was prayed to follow up the gracious intentions professed in the declaration from Valencia, of convoking a Cortes, and establishing with their concurrence the laws which were to govern the kingdom, he re-estab

lished by a decree from Madrid the Inquisition, and as a July 21. natural consequence recalled the Pope's nuncio, who had

left the country on its abolition by the Cortes. The use

of torture, however, in all the civil tribunals, was proAug. 3. hibited by a decree soon after; and in a memorial to the

Pope by the Spanish government it was proposed to abolish it also in the dungeons of the Inquisition, and various regulations were submitted for mitigating the severity of that terrible tribunal. These proposals were

carried into effect; and thereafter its proceedings were

Reg. confined to a species of police surveillance over opinions, 1814,71; to check the progress of heresy, but without the frightful teur, Aug. tortures which had characterised its secret, or the Autos1 and 15,

da-which had for ever disgraced its public proceedings.1

The open assumption of absolute power by the GovernDiscontent ment, the delay in convoking the Cortes, and, above all,

the re-establishment of the Inquisition, excited the utmost alarm in the liberal party throughout Spain, and spread great dissatisfaction even among the officers of the army, by whose support alone they could be carried into effect. Symptoms of disturbance soon appeared in various quarters; for in Spain the habits of the people are so independent, and danger or life are so little regarded, that from dissatisfaction to hostility, as with the Bedouins, is but a step. The roads in the whole of Estremadura, the Castiles, Andalusia, Aragon, and Catalonia, were so infested by bands of guerillas, who, long inured to violence and rapine, had now become mere robbers and bandits, that

1 An



in various quarters,

DIOW atriotic of Sala

i gracious

elencia, of oncurrence je re-estabon, and as a cio, who had ies. The use aals, was pronemorial to the as proposed to Inquisition, and + mitigating the se proposals were s proceedings were ance over opinions,

4. 74,

without the frigtful secret, or the A autosI its public proceed

but they had no adequate armed force at their disposal to 1814. effect that object. A proclamation by the governor of Aug. 7. Andalusia revealed the existence of more serious disturbances, having a decided political tendency, and threatened every person who should be found either speaking or acting against Ferdinand VII. with death, within three days, by the sentence of a court-martial. A great number of arrests took place soon after in Madrid-ninety persons were apprehended in a single night; and so numerous did the Ann, Reg. prisoners soon become that the ordinary places of con- 75; Memo

rias del finement would not contain them, and the spacious con- Espoz y. vent of San Francisco was converted into a vast state 166, 169. prison, to embrace the increasing multitude.

These proceedings excited the greatest consternation among the liberals, and great numbers of persons Revolt of


th, Mina in Pyrenees into France. Among the rest, the famous Sept 2 ESPOZ Y MINA, who had gained such great celebrity as a partisan chief in Navarre in the war with Napoleon, fell under the suspicion of the Government, who sent him an order, on 16th September, to fix his residence at Pampeluna, and place the troops he had formerly commanded under the orders of the Captain-general of Aragon. Regarding this injunction, as it certainly was, as a decided measure of hostility, this daring chief, at the head of the 1st Regiment of Volunteers, approached that fortress in the night of the 26th. They were provided with scalingladders, and acted in concert with the 4th Regiment, then in garrison in the city, by whom Mina was admitted into the fortress, and with the officers of which he spent a part of the night on the ramparts, expecting a movement in his favour. Although the greater part of the officers, however, had been engaged in the conspiracy, the private soldiers nearly all remained faithful; and in Mina's own regiment of volunteers they sent information to the gover

power by the a Cortes, and, ab opem ition, excited the bre al rhout Spain, an utmost

the officers of spread juld be carried in Jon appeared to effect.

le army,

shits of the peo

ve so little reg

various ple are so

ty, as with the
e whole of Estra

and Catalonia, bo, long inured to pre robbers and

Warded that vedouins, is Vadura, the Pe so infestPolence and bandits, that




CHAP. nor of Aragon of what was in agitation, and warned him

e to be on his guard. The consequence was, that the 1814.

attempt proved abortive; Mina himself with difficulty Memorias made his escape, his troops nearly all deserted him, and

16. he deemed himself fortunate in being able to retire to Moniteur, France by Puente la Reyna—thus seeking refuge among 1814; Ann. the enemies whom he had so strenuously combated, from Reg. 1814,

the king he had so powerfully aided in putting on the throne.1

This abortive insurrection, as is ever the case in such 37. Fresh ar- circumstances, strengthened the hands and increased the cres of " rigour of the monarch. It soon appeared that the restoFerdinand. metiena Sept. 15.

ad. ration of the absolute government, and the chief privi

leges of the nobles, had been resolved on by the camarilla which ruled the State. Already, on 15th September, a decree had been issued restoring the feudal and seignorial privileges of the nobles, which had been abolished by a decree of the Cortes on 6th August 1811; and this was soon followed up by the still more decisive step of reinvesting the council of the Mesta with its old and ruinous right of permitting its flocks to pasture at will over the downs in Leon, Estremadura, and the two Castiles, thus rendering the enclosure of the land or the improvement of the soil impracticable. On 14th October, on occasion of the king's going to the theatre of Madrid, an amnesty for State offenders was published, which professed to be general,

but contained so many exceptions that it in reality Nov. 7. was little more than nominal; and the resolution of the

Government to extinguish anything like free discussion in the kingdom was evinced by the king in person arrest

ing and committing to prison M. de Macanay, the MinisDec. 17. ter of Justice and of the Interior. Soon after, the state

our, prisoners at Madrid were sentenced, some to ten, some to and Dec.. six, and some to two years of the galleys, or of imprison25, 1814; Ann. Reg. ment in strong castles ; and they included the editors of,

or contributors to, the Redacta General, and principal liberal journals published at Madrid.2

2 Moniteur Nov. 14

1814, 77,





nd Por

Open war was now proclaimed by the Spanish Govern- CHAP. ment against the liberals of all grades, and, unhappily, _ the violence of the Government kept pace with the in- 18 creasing desire of the inhabitants of the great towns for Farther

violent proconstitutional privileges. As it had now become a mat-ceedi ter of imminent danger tó hazard such opinions in public, ina the liberal leaders had recourse to the usual resource of a lier's revo zealous and determined party under such circumstances. Secret societies were formed under the direction of the chiefs of their party, and the ancient and venerable order of free-masons was laid hold of as a cover for designs against the Government. The Inquisition, in consequence, issued a proclamation denouncing these societies; and March 5. ere long it appeared that there was too much foundation for their apprehensions. On 18th September, General Porlier, who had greatly signalised himself in the Peninsula, assembled the troops stationed at St Lucia without the gates of Corunna at night, and suddenly entering the city, the sentinels of which had been gained, put the Captain-general of Galicia, the governor of the town, and a few other persons, under arrest. No sooner was tbis done than he issued a proclamation, in which he proposed the reassembling of the Cortes, and dismissal of the Ministers ; and another, purporting to be from the Moniteur,

Sept. 29, Provincial Junta of Galicia, under the “presidency of 1815; Ann.

• Reg. 1815, General Porlier, General-commandant of the Interior of 117. the Kingdom.” 1

In taking these bold steps, which at once committed him with the Government, the principal reliance of Porlier Its failure,

and his was on a body of grenadiers and light infantry stationed death. at St Iago, which he had reason to believe would join him. Being informed, however, that they hesitated, and that his presence might probably determine them, he set out in haste from Corunna at the head of eight hundred men and four guns, and arrived at a village within four leagues of St Iago, where he halted to rest his men, who were much fatigued by their march. While there, some




Oct. 3,

CHAP. emissaries from the convent of St Iago introduced them

selves in disguise among his men, and urged them to arrest their general by the promises of ample rewards in case of success. These promises proved successful: Porlier and his officers were suddenly surrounded and seized by their own men, while reposing in a cabaret in the heat of the day after their march ; and the general, being taken back to Corunna, was condemned by a court-martial to be hanged, which sentence was immediately carried into execution. He wrote, on the eve of his death, a pathetic letter to his wife, with a handkerchief steeped in his tears, in which he exhorted her not to afflict herself on account of the species of death to which he was sentenced, since it was dishonourable only to the wicked, but glorious to the virtuous. He met his fate with dignity and resolution. Then began the days of tragedy in Spain, which ere long led to such frightful reprisals on both sides, and

for many long years deluged the Peninsula with blood : 1 Moniteur, the unhappy bequest of the insane liberals, who estabOct. 10, 1815; Ann. lished a constitution utterly repugnant to the vast majoReg. 1815, 117. rity of the people, but eminently attractive to the ardent

and generous among the educated classes.

In the end of August, one Spanish army, under CasInvasion of taños, crossed the frontier near Perpignan; and another, retreat of under the Conde d’Abisbal, the Bidassoa, with the proineds paresh fessed design of aiding Louis XVIII. in his contest with tyrannical the nortie

the partisans of Napoleon. As that contest had been king. already decided by the battle of Waterloo and the

presence of a million of the allied troops in France, it may readily be imagined that the presence of the Spanish auxiliaries was anything but desirable, and accordingly the Duke d’Angoulême, as already mentioned, hastened to the Spanish headquarters, where he had an interview

with Castaños, whom he prevailed on to retire ; and his Sept. 4. retreat on the eastern was soon after followed by that of iii. 23the Conde d’Abisbal on the western frontier.2 The people

both in Pampeluna and Corunna had taken no part in


the Spa

acts of the

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