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Page at Cadiz, and assault of Santa Petri, .

701 g, and dissolution of the Cortes,

702 e, .

703 lovernment, id for moderation and clemency,

704 705

ib. ueen into Madrid,

706 e state of Spain, .

708 this year. Royalist insurrection, .

709 ion, . . . . Te Duke d'Angoulême to Paris,

711 ssia to France rejected, .

712 ning in recognising the republics of South

. . 713-715 re independence to South America, but only

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

710

CHAPTER VII.

716

SPAIN AND ITALY FROM THE PEACE OF 1814 TO THE

REVOLUTION OF 1820.

American republics by Mr Canning, British interests, , gns in regard to the South American states, lymouth,. . . strength of the Royalists, . on the future destinies of France, ad measures announced in the royal speech, lerations in favour of it, .

. . . . . . erest of the national debt, ties, but thrown out by the Peers, . ! Difference of the English and French

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DIFFERING from each other in climate, national char ter, and descent, there is a striking, it may be a porte tous, resemblance in their history and political destin between Spain and GREAT BRITAIN. Both were inhabi originally by a hardy race, divided into various trib which maintained an obstinate conflict with the invade and were finally subdued only after nearly a centur harassing warfare with the Legions. Both, on the fall the Empire, were overrun by successive swarms of bar rians, with whom they kept up for centuries an indomita warfare, and from whose intermingled blood their desc dants have now sprung. The Visigoths to Spain w what the Anglo-Saxons were to Britain ; and the Da in the one country came in place of the Moors in the ot The rocks of Asturias in the first were the refuge independence, as the mountains of Wales and the Gra pian Hills were in the last. Both were trained, in th long-continued struggles, to the hardihood, daring, perseverance requisite for the accomplishment of g things in the scene of trouble. In both the elements freedom were laid broad and deep in this energetic :

VOL. II.

ib. 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740

sses, .
ult of the Spanish revolution,
ition into Spain in 1823, .
One of the Restoration, .
s justifiable, . .
behalf of South America justifiable ?
England, . . . .

VII.

CHAP. intrepid spirit; and it was hard for long to say which

was destined to be the ark of liberty for the world. The 1814.

ardent disposition of both sought a vent in maritime adventure, the situation of both was eminently favourable for commercial pursuits, and both became great naval powers. Both founded colonial empires in various parts of the world, of surpassing magnitude and splendour, and both found for long in these colonies the surest foundations of their prosperity, the most prolific sources of their riches. When the colonies revolted from Spain in 1810, the trade, both export and import, which she maintained with them, was exactly equal to that which, thirty years afterwards, England carried on with its colonial dependencies. Happy if the parallels shall go no farther, and the future historian shall not have to point to the severance of her colonies as the commencement of ruin to Great Britain, as the revolt of South America, beyond all question, has been to the Spanish monarchy.

Historians have repeated to satiety that the decline of The colo- Spain, which has now continued without interruption for

orce nearly two centuries, is to be ascribed to the drain which of weak these great colonies proved upon the strength of the parent

state. They seemed to think that the mother country is like a vast reservoir filled with vigour, health, and strength, and that whatever of these was communicated to the colonial offshoots, was so much withdrawn from the parent state. There never was a more erroneous opinion. No country ever yet was weakened by colonial dependencies; their establishment, like the swarming of bees, is an indication of overflowing numbers and superabundant activity in the original hive. As their departure springs from past strength, so it averts future weakness. It saves the state from the worst of all evils—a redundant population constantly on the verge of sedition from sufferingand converts those who would be paupers or criminals at home, into active and useful members of society, who encourage the industry of the parent state as much by

nies were not a source

ness to Spain,

iard for long to say which

liberty for the world. The sought a vent in maritime Joth was eminently favourable und both became great naval lonial empires in various parts g magnitude and splendour, and dese colonies the surest founda, the most prolific sources of their onies revolted from Spain in 1810,

and import, which she maintained ly equal to that which, thirty years

carried on with its colonial depenthe parallels shall go no farther, and

shall not have to point to the severies as the commencement of ruin to

the revolt of South America, beyond been to the Spanish monarchy. ve repeated to satiety that the decline of s now continued without interruption for Juries, is to be ascribed to the drain which unies proved upon the strength of the parent seemed to think that the mother country is

ervoir filled with vigour, health, and strength, natever of these was communicated to the shoots, was so much withdrawn from the e. There never was a more erroneous opinion. y ever yet was weakened by colonial depenaheir establishment, like the swarming of bees, is ation of overflowing numbers and superabundant

in the original hive. As their departure springs mst strength, so it averts future weakness. It saves -te from the worst of all evils—a redundant popu

constantly on the verge of sedition from sufferingconverts those who would be paupers or criminals at e, into active and useful members of society, who

the industry of the parent state as much by

their consumption as they would have oppressed their poverty.

Every emigrant who is now landed on the shor Australia, converts a pauper, whose maintenance have cost Great Britain £14 a-year, into a cons who purchases £8 yearly of its manufactures. ] and Athens, so far from being weakened, were im surably strengthened by their colonies : those flouri settlements which surrounded the Mediterranean were the brilliant girdle which, as much as the arı the Legions, contributed to the strength of the Em and England would never have emerged victorious her immortal conflict for European freedom, if she not found in her colonial trade the means of mainta the contest, when shut out from the markets of the tinental states. If it were permitted to follow fa analogies between the body politic and the human f it would be safer to say that the prolific parent of colonies is like the happy mother of a numerous offs who exhibits, even in mature years, no symptor decline, and preserves the freshness and charms of for a much longer period than she who has never u goue the healthful labours of parturition.

There is no reason, in the nature of things, why nies should exhaust the mother country; on the con the tendency is just the reverse. They take from the state what it is an advantage for it to lose, and g what it is beneficial for it to receive. They take surplus hands and mouths, and thereby lighten the] market, and give an impulse to the principle of pi tion ; while they provide the means of subsisten those who remain at home, by opening a vast and r increasing market for its manufactures. A coloi long is always agricultural or mining only. Ma tures, at least of the finer sort, can never spring up for a very long period. An old state, in which factures and the arts have long flourished, will nc

VII.

1814.

5.

CHAP. find such a certain and growing vent for its fabrics as in

its colonial settlements; while they will never find so sure and steady a market for their rude produce as in the wants of its inhabitants. Similarity of tastes and habits renders the fabrics and productions of the parent state more acceptable to the young one than those of foreign lands. The certainty of not having their supplies of necessaries interrupted, is an inappreciable advantage to the mother country. Their identity of interest perpetuates the union which absolute dependence on one part had at first commenced. The connection between a parent state liberally and wisely governed, and its colonies, is founded on the surest of all foundations—a real reciprocity of advantages; and, as such, may long prove durable to the great benefit of both, and retain the infant state in the bonds of allegiance, after the time has arrived when it might aspire to the honours of separate dominion.

To preserve, however, this connection between the What the mother countries and her robust colonies, a wise and liberal colonial policy of system of government is indispensable. If such be not the parentia adopted, they will, when they have attained majority,

inevitably break off on the first serious difficulties of the parent state. Nothing can permanently retain them in their allegiance but a real reciprocity of advantages, and the practical enjoyment of the powers of self-government by the colonies. The reason is, that the rule of the distant old state, if unaided by colonial representation, direct or indirect, never can be founded upon an adequate knowledge of the necessities, or attention to the interests, of the youthful settlement. It will always be directed by the ideas, and calculated for the advantage of the society with which it is surrounded — generally the very reverse, in the first instance at least, of what the young state requires. The true colonial policy, which can alone insure a lasting connection between the mother country and her transmarine descendants, requires the most difficult of all sacrifices on the part of the former-that of

be.

her established prejudices and selfish int the sacrifice of her immediate advantage will the interests of the old state, in th moted as by the most liberal and enlarg its distant offspring. What that polic been written in characters of fire on tl tory. It should be the exact reverse a England North, and Spain, South Am be the government of the colonies, not f the mother country, but for the advantage an administration which should make th would lose rather than gain by a severar tion. Rule the colonies as you would you, if the seat of government were in you were the distant settlement, and it w before they will desire to become indepe perhaps, the last lesson of wisdom whic by the rulers of mankind; yet is it the

such a certain and growing vent for its fabrics as in colonial settlements; while they will never find so sure I steady a market for their rude produce as in the nts of its inhabitants. Similarity of tastes and habits ders the fabrics and productions of the parent state more eptable to the young one than those of foreign lands. e certainty of not having their supplies of necessaries errupted, is an inappreciable advantage to the mother intry. Their identity of interest perpetuates the union ich absolute dependence on one part had at first comnced. The connection between a parent state liberally I wisely governed, and its colonies, is founded on the est of all foundations—a real reciprocity of advanes; and, as such, may long prove durable to the great efit of both, and retain the infant state in the bonds allegiance, after the time has arrived when it might ire to the honours of separate dominion. to preserve, however, this connection between the ther countries and her robust colonies, a wise and liberal em of government is indispensable. If such be not pted, they will, when they have attained majority, ritably break off on the first serious difficulties of the ent state. Nothing can permanently retain them in r allegiance but a real reciprocity of advantages, and practical enjoyment of the powers of self-government che colonies. The reason is, that the rule of the dis-old state, if unaided by colonial representation, direct ndirect, never can be founded upon an adequate knowe of the necessities, or attention to the interests, of

youthful settlement. It will always be directed the ideas, and calculated for the advantage of the ety with which it is surrounded — generally the very rse, in the first instance at least, of what the young e requires. The true colonial policy, which can alone re a lasting connection between the mother country - transmarine descendants, requires the most diffi

rifices on the part of the former--that of

secret of colonial, as indeed of all other to do to others as we would they should

There is no idea more erroneous th entertained by many in this country, t interest of the old state to sever the coi colonies when they have arrived at a strength; because by so doing, as it is the advantages of mercantile intercours the burden of providing for defence. proved that this opinion is of all other cious; because the very first thing whi when it becomes independent, is to le duties on the manufactures of the mother to encourage its own, and thus the be market is at first abridged, and at length state. The United States of America, imposed an import duty of 30 per cei whatever ; and the consequence is, 1

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