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and foreign markets this culture has been un bushel, the same wheat at shipping points on remunerative to our farmers ; that in exporting the Mississippi river in Minnesota has brought the products of our harvest fields we are ex during the winter an average of but cighty. porting the substance and richness of our soil; five cents per bushel; to us a ruinous disand that if we continue so unprofitable a busi- parity. ness under existing disadvantages, depending Let me also call the attention of Senators upon railroads for distant transportation, we to the fact that though nearly four million dol. must decline to poverty. Hence the pressing lars have at various times been expended for and patent necessity for improving the great the improvement of different portions of the natural artery which has been fashioned to our Mississippi river and its leading tributaries, hands by the Almighty Architect. The cost not one dollar of this sum has atany time been of transportation by the Mississippi river has expended to improve the long line of navigable been estimated at three mills per ton per mile, river which lies between the rapids of Roek while by railroads of ordinary grades the usual Island and the falls of St. Anthony, and which estimate is from twelve and a half to thirteen the natural drainage of a region larger than and a third mills. This gives a difference in all of western Europe, and as fertile as any favor of river transportation of more than three upon which the sun shines. Without refer. hundred per cent. The experience of the last ring to the present rapid development of out. few years has demonstrated that bulky com lying settlements in Dakota, Montana, and modities will not bear the charges of railroad British North America, all more or less intercarriage for any great distance. Where arti- | ested in this improvement. I will cite from the cles are perishable, or where time is an ele United States census the increase which was ment of value, railroads can be used to advan- had in population, in cultivated lands, in agri. tage; but the fact is notorious that during the cultural products, and in domestic animals in past year, with an average price for wheat in the bordering States of Minnesota, Wisconsin, New York city of more than two dollars per l Iowa, and Illinois, from 1850 to 1860:
for the survey, fortification, and improvement of the sca-board, and for the support of a Navy to protect our ocean commerce, equal attention has not been accorded to objects of public improvement in the interior, standing on the sane ground of constitutional authority and the same principles of public policy.
The waters of the Mississippi drain an area of 1,241,000 square miles. They are navigable by steam 10,674 miles; and according to an estimate of Mr. Benton, are boatable 50,000 miles, of which 30,000 are computed to unite above St. Louis, and 20,000 below. The commerce which floats upon these waters inoves, not to a local market, but to the markets of the world. It cnriches the whole Atlantic commercial region. It is a copious source of revenue to the canals, railways, and navigating interests of the East. The cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore are participators in it, in common with St. Paul, St. Louis, and New Orleans. This commerce affects the exchanges of the world, supplies the elements by which alone foreign commerce can be conducted, and contributes to the customs revenue by furnishing the commercial marine the outward-bound freight which is to be exchanged for the return cargo. For internal trade is the foundation of foreign commerce, which is called into being and sustained by the domestic commodities furnished for export. another form, it is an extension of it, distributing its freights. Each react upon the other, and any attempted discrimination in favor of one to the prejudice or exclusion of the other defeats itself.
In the upper Mississippi valley are situated the great food-producing States. Four of these States--Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, as well as the new Territories erected west of Minnesota and a vast region extending north far into British North America, to which a railroad is now in progress of construction from St. Paul-are directly interested in the improvement of the upper Mississippi river. But are these the only parties interested? By the census returns of 1860 it appears that New Eng: land raises barely a sufficiency of wheat to feed her population three weeks; and that for six months in the year even New York is dependent on the Northwest for her breadstuffs. The tables which are annually laid upon our desks from the Treasury Department show that the products of the Northwest have, during the recent war, sometimes constituted as high as seventy per cent. in value of all our domestic exports, exclusive of specie. Is not the proposition a true one, that in the same proportion they have contributed to the customs revenue and sustained the public credit? One thousand dollars' worth of Minnesota wheat exported to Europe will purchase there in exchange $1,000 worth of duty-paying articles. From the returning imports the Government, under existing tariffs, derives an average duty in gold of at least thirty per cent., or $300. Whatever, therefore, by cheapening existing rates of transportation, stimulates production, enlarges the basis of foreign commerce; and in the improvement of the navigation of the upper Mississippi, not alone the grain-growers and stock-raisers of Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois have a direct interest, but also the inland car. rier, the eastern consumer, the ocean navigator, the consumer abroad, the foreign importer, the buyer of imported fabrics, the miners of Montana, Idaho, and British North America, and the national Treasury itself.
The late civil war, Mr. President, has so changed the character of our foreign commerce that the leading staples of the South no longer constitute, as formerly, the bulk of our exports. Food has for a number of years taken the place of cotton, rice, and tobacco, and it is reasonable to suppose that for some years to come the settlement of European balances will largely depend upon the exportation of food. I regret that this should be so. I regret that the industry of my own State is confined, too exclusively, I think, to the culture of grain. I know that owing to our distance from eastern
Area of square miles .. Population, 1850... Population, 1860. Improved land, 1850. Improved land, 1860. Wheat, busbels, 1850. Wheat, bushels, 1860. Corn, bushels, 1850. Corn, bushels, 1860 Oats, bushels, 1850 Oats, bushels, 1860. Rye, bushels, 1850.. Rye, bushels, 1860 Barley, bushels, 1850. Barley, bushels, 1860. Swine, head, 1850. Swine, head, 1860. Cattle, head, 1850. Cattle, head, 1860..
Remarkable, Mr. President, as is the prog: In 1865 the number of steamers registered ress thus indicated in the decade from 1850 at the single port of St. Paul was 39, with a to 1860 in these four States, these returns but | registered tonnage of 3,088.52, with a carfaintly show the present situation of the same rying capacity of 4,973 tons, and valued at States. Notwithstanding the decline of im. $607,500. The number of arrivals and departmigration, and the stagnation of business in ures of steamers at St. Paul in 1865 was 2,117. many portions of the country during the war, Three steamboat companies transact busithe material advancement of the Northwest ness on the upper Mississippi-the Northwest in the last five years has been unparalleled ern Packet Company, from Dunleith and DuBy any equal period of peace. I will not buque to St. Paul; the Northern, from St. occupy the time of the Senate with statistics | Louis to St. Paul; and the La Crosse and of the increase, in population and productions | Minnesota Steam Packet Company, from La during the last five years, of the States of Wis Crosse to St. Paul. Details of the business consin, Iowa, and Illinois, but will content done by the latter company in 1864 and 1865 myself with submitting a few statements which have been furnished me, which I herewith will illustrate the progress of Minnesota in this submit, premising that by multiplying the period--a State with which I am most familiar, sums total by three a sufficiently accurate and from which the growth of the other States estimate of the business upon the upper Mismay be inferred. The State of Minnesota has | sissippi river in 1864 and 1865 can be 2,746° miles of shore line of navigable waters. arrived at:
Receipts by the La Crosse and Minnesota Steam Packet Company at La Crosse, Wisconsin, during the season of
navigation of the year 1864, from March 20 to November 27.
Receipts by the La Crosse and Minnesota Steam Packet
Company at Lu Cropre, Wisconsin, during the season of navigation of the year 1865, from April 1 to December 1.
Shipments from La Crosse, Wisconsin, by the La Crosse and Minnesota Steam Packet Company for the same time as above to various points above La Crosso: Merchandise, assorted, tons..
.16.847 Salt, barrels.....
.11,876 Railroad iron, tons........
.10,320 From the mouth of the Minnesota to the Rock Island rapids, the Mississippi is charaterized by almost innumerable wooded islands. The main volume of the stream is confined to one channel, but branches from it ramisy in various directions, forming sloughs, as they are generally named, and making its water course with inclosed islands, seldom less than a mile in width. The low water in the channel of the river is caused by the numerous diversions created by these islands. Each slough subtracts a large amount of water from the main chan. nel, and by decreasing the current allows the formation of deposits. To ascertain the cheapest and most feasible mode of stopping these Icaks, and rendering all the water in tlie river available for navigation, is the object of the examination proposed in the bill before us. That this can be done at a very moderate cost, and in a very simple way, I am well satisfied! In a paper prepared by a skillful engineer and by a gentleman with an experience upon the river of more than twenty-five years, it is sug. gested that a line of piles driven diagonally and filled in with fascines at the head of each slough, will so turn the force of the current as to cause permanent deposits of sand upon the face of the barrier, which, in a few years, will become seli-sustaining, and always secure such outlet against further waste.
Ás this paper possesses much practical interest I will here ask the indulgence of the Senate while I read it:
The time seems to have arrived when the improvement of the upper Mississippi river should no longer be a problem without a solution. The vast increase in the productions of the northwestern States, their vast exports of wheat and other provisions, and their corresponding importation of all articles except food, demand that this question, second in importance to none that has been before Congress since internal improvements were first made a part and parcel of the policy of the country, should be met and answered.
It is unnecessary, at this late day, to speak of the importance of the Mississippi river, that great spinal column through which circulates the vitality which fecds and sustains so large a proportion of the people of this country and of Europe, and without which civilization would not have reached beyond the lakes at this time.
The interests of not only the States in the valley of this mighty river, but of the whole country, de
mand that efficient means be at once taken to removo the obstructions and furnish a free and adequate commuvication with the ocean.
From Maine to Florida, from Minnesota to Louisiana, all are equally interested in the question of cheap food; and any appropriation and expenditure for the improvement of this river is of national importance and equally benefits all.
When we compare the vast production with the means of transportation, we shall at once be surprised at the disproportion existing between them. There are three lines of railways connecting the Mississippi with the lakes, which are available in a greater or less degree to Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Iowa: these are, first, the Milwaukee and St. Paul road, extending froin La Crosse to Milwaukee, wbich can receive and forward about twenty thousand bushels of wheat each day, which will require some sixey cars for its transportation, and which together with merchandise and passengers, is about the limit of its ability, with its present facilities for clevating: second, the Milwaukce and Prairic du Chien roail, connecting the points its name indicates, and whosc elevator has a possible capacity of forty thousand bushels per day; third, tho Illinois Central road, from Dunleith to Freeport, and thence by the Northwestern road to Chicago, whose elevator has a possible capacity of twenty thousand bushels a day.
The route by the way of Savannah and Racineistoo far down the river, and its equipment and facilities are too limited to be of much benefit or to excrcise any marked effect on the general result; it is not therefore considered in this connection. The same reasons, but with increased force, apply to the Rock Island road, which has a local business equal to its utmost capacity.
The Illinois Central road, for a greater part of the year, is blockaded with freight from the Dubuque and Sioux City road, and is forced to neglect its local business in order to furnish an outlet for the country immediately contiguous, and cannot be relied upon for the transportation of a bushel or a pound from above McGregor.
The Prairie du Chien road has at least half its capacity absorbed by the contributions of the McGregor Western road, and at the present rate of increase, will in a few years be unable to move more than that connection will demand.
We now come to the La Crosse route, which is the principal outlet on which Minnesota and Wisconsin must depend, and while that road is now taxed to its utmost capacity, the question arises, what are we to do in the time to como?
The capacity of all roads is vastly increased by laying another track the entire distance, but there is no probability that the present owners of either of the upper roads will embark in an enterprise requiring such an outlay for many years to come, even if it should crer be their policy.
The Lake Superior road, should it ever become a fact, will, in connection with the Minnesota Valley road, open an outlet for five or six montbs in the year, and if the necessary accessories of elevator's and a line of propellers are provided, prove of immense value to the commerce of the Northwest: but the benefits arising from these lines of communication are necessarily local, and will be confined to the country north and west of St. Paul, The great markets of the world are situated at the outlets of navigable rivers, wbich in this country are at the East and South; produce will not come up the Mississippi to reach the lakes at Superior, unless it is transported at a loss, and no fact is better known and understood in transportation than this, namely, that whenever you divert freigbt from its only legitimate course, which is the most direct and the shortest, you have to competo with lines possessing these advantages, and rates which are remunerative to the direct route prove losing ones to the indirect. The Mionesota Central road will only add to the burdens now imposed upon the La Crosse and Prairie du Chien routes to thc lakes by opening up a communication with a rich and productive part of Minnesota. Its continuation south and a connection with the Northern Missouri railroad will open a line of communication with St. Louis, and furnish that great market to Iowa and Minnesota; but all experience shows that a railroad through a rich and productive country is in a few years hardly able to transport more than it creates and develops.
In view of these facts, what remains for the country but to make available the great highway prepared for us by nature, and by a judicions expenditure render perfect that which is nearly so already: that highway whose capacity is unlimited, and which can bear the mighty burdens of the three hundred million people who will one day live on its course?
The question now is simply as to the best way of doing what all admit must be done; and on this point we beg to offer the following suggestions as the result of our own experience confirmed by that of many prominent river men: first, as to the cause of the low water in the channel; this, it must be evident to all, cannot be because there is not enough water in the river, but because it is spread over so vast a width and divided into so many channels.
From bluff to bluff, a distance of from one to four miles, this vast highway spreads out, offering many routes divided by islands, sand bars, and deposits of drift; one, of course, is better than all others, but even this varies at different seasons, and is liable to changes and dangers. The islands which form so remarkable and picturesque a feature in the upper Mississippi, are formed by primary deposits of sand, which, by the wonderful fecundity of nature, are soon covered with vegetation, and permanently divert the water from its direct course. Every such diversion reduces the volume of water, and consequently lessens the current, which effect causes new deposits, and thoy, in turn,new islands, thereby increasing and
multiplying the difficulties. Let us bear these facts in mind, and the remedy at once suggests itself; closo up these sloughs or a sufficient nuinber of them, direct the water into one clannel, and its immense volume will open to itself an “unvexed course to the
A line of piles driven diagonally and filled in with fascines at the head of each slough will so turn tho force of the current as to cause permanent deposits of sands upon the face of the barrier, which in a few years, by the growth of vegetation, will become selfsustaining, and always secure such outlet against further waste.
This assertion does not rest on mere conjecture, but has been verified by the experience of the summer of 1861, when the labor of twenty men, one day, in merely driving a few stakes and filling in with brush, raised the water in the channel ten inches between St. Paul and Pine Bend, and secured navigation for small boats through, which otherwise could not have reached above Prescott.
We do not propose in any case to attempt to change the channel of the river or dig canals, but simply to stop the leaks and make all the water available for navigation.
Having thus briefly given our views as to the obstructions caused by diverted forces, we come to tho matter wherein the river cannot by its own forco contribute to its own improvement.
The Upper Rapids of the Mississippi, as they aro known, extend from Le Claire, in Iowa, to Davenport, and consist of a series or succession of boulders and projections interspersed with many reaches of smooth and deep water.
For an arerage of perhaps three months in cach year thieso rapids are impassable for loaded boats, and all freight has to be taken over in barges and lighters and reshipped at Davenport, thereby causing a vast loss in time and moncy. Added to this is the Rock Island bridge, stretching diagonally across the channel, and whuch is never passed without danger, and proves a perfect barrier in windy weather.
The rocks projecting into the channel of the river can all be reinoved and perfectly safe and deep navigation sccured by the judicious expenditure of a few hundred thousand dollars. The most dangerous rocks in Hell Gate, East river, have been successfully taken out, and in fact we need not go so far for an illustration, but look at the improvements made in the Lover Rapids, in spite, we may almost say, of the stupidity and inefficiency of the parties in charge.
That rocks can be cut off and removed from under water are indisputable facts; that the work can ho done by contract rapidly and cheaply all will admit; and that all internal improvements attempted by the Government directly have been either falures or compicted at a cost vastly beyond what the same would have been done for by individuals, are also facts.
The difference in cost between the plan here proposed and a canal around the rapids, can bardly be estimated. Probably the locks alone would be double the cost of reinoving all obstructions, and aside from that, the delay in passing so many boats up and down, would cause a loss in a few years equal to theoriginal outlay.
Nature has given us this noble river almost perfect to our hands; it has hitherto answered our purpose very well, and furnished us a clear communication with the ocean, but the time is coming, and in fact now is, when that line of communication must bo made perfect, and then the powerful tug, with its four barges laden with their forty thousand bushels of wheat, can float uninterruptedly from the falls of $t, Anthony to New Orleans, and return laden with tho sugar and cotton of the South.
Multiply railroads as we may; stretch them from the East and tho West, and yet a few years finds then crowded with local business which their simple construction has developed. The Mississippi is our chief dependence; its capacity is unlimited; it requires neither switches nor double tracks; it only requires a limited outlay to render it perfect for all time.
G. A. HAMILTON,
RUSSELL BLAKELEY. We the undersigned having had long experience in the navigation of the upper Mississippi cordially approve of the plan proposed above for its improvement.
N. F. WEBB. These gentlemen are among the most enterprising and experienced navigators of our western rivers, and where they are known, as they are throughout the valley of the Mississippi, their approbation of the views of Messrs. Hamilton & Blakeley will commend the plan to the favorable consideration of the public and I trust to that of the Congress of the United States. Should it receive the approbation of the engineers to be detailed by the Secretary of War, if the bill under consideration receives the favorable action of Congress, I am informed by excellent authority that four feet of water can always be obtained between St. Paul and Prescott, Wisconsin, and five feet below the latter point to Dunleith, at a probable cost not exceeding $250,000.
As I believe I can best accomplish my purpose in having the honorable Committee on Commerce, wbo have now before them the bill from the House of Representatives making the
usual annual appropriations for the improve. for this measure would be on one of the appro. the Board of Visitors at West Point, and was ment of rivers and harbors, accept this bill as priation bills.
very anxious to have the changes made in the an amendment to that, I shall, Mr. President, Mr. WILSON. If the Senator desires that law which this resolution proposes. The first after having now called the attention of the course to be taken, I have no objection to let. change is to raise the minimum age of admis. Senate to the subject-matter, permit the bill to ting this resolution lie over and be put upon sion from sixteen to seventeen, so that boys be passed over informally for the present. the Army appropriation bill when it comes shall not enter so young as heretofore, but The kindred measure, likewise so important here.
shall be more piature. Then it provides that to the preservation of the navigation of the Mr. FESSENDEN. The Army appropri- || young men who have served in the Army, upper Mississippi river, which some time since || ation bill is here.
either as officers or as soldiers, may be admitI presented to the Senate-I mean the Senate Mr. WILSON. It can lie over until we take ted up to twenty-four years of age. The ob joint resolution No. 61, in these words: up that bill.
ject of the provision requiring the appointWhereas the Mississippi river is one of the greatest Mr. FESSENDEN. In the mean time I ments to be made a year in advance is to give highways of inland commerce in the world, affording, think the Committee on Military Affairs had the persons appointed an opportunity during together with its conuecting rivers, many thousands of miles of navigable waters for the cheap transpor
better inquire whether it meets the approbation that year to fit themselves to enter the Acad. tation of agricultural, mineral, manufacturing, and of the Secretary of War. I am very unwilling emy. Then the resolution provides for increas. other bulky products; and whereas to insuro safety to act in matters of this kind until they receive ing the standard of admission now required. and cconomy in such transit the navigation of said stream must be protected from all obstructions,
the real approbation and recommendation of Very little is required by this increase. I think whether natural or artificial, especially as the meth the head of the Department.
it ought to be much larger than it is, and that ods of transfer on barges towed by steamers, and Mr. WILSON. The resolution was sent to the institution ought not to be a primary school; requiring much larger channel-way than heretofore, are now coming into general use on the western rivers;
us by the War Department. I accept, how it ought to be a higher school; but there is objecand whereas the necessities of land travel and rail. ever, the suggestion of the Senator from Maine, tion to that. The increase here provided for way connection render it very desirable tuat the and will consent to this resolution lying on the is very slight indeed-English grammar, hisproper steps should be taken for bridging said stream at such points as inay be found practicable for effect
table for the present, and I will make an effort tory of the United States, and small matters ing continuous freight lines from west to east, and to have it put upon the Army appropriation of that kind. under such conditions of structure, as to height, chan bill when it comes up.
Mr. JOHNSON. The honorable member nel-pay, position of piers, and plan of operation, whether by draw or otherwiso, as will not, by any
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The bill will permit me to ask him if there is no qualipossibility, operate to render the navigation of said will be laid upon the table, if there be no fication required now. There is, I think, a stream dangerous to the lives of passengers or the objection.
pretty rigid one. safety of cargoes; and whereas it is proper that the Congress of the United States should protect the nar
Mr. WILSON. But very little qualifications iga:ion of this highway of inland waters from the
Mr. FESSENDEN. I desire to make a re
are required now. This is an addition to those obstructions of private persons or interested corporations, and yet should concede such privileges in re mark to Senators, in consequence of the notice
qualifications. I should like the Secretary to gard to bridging the same as may not interfere with which I gave a week ago that I should to-day
read that portion of the joint resolution. the rightful claims of river commerce, and in order to do so should be furnished with accurate inforinacall up the joint resolution reported by the
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The read. tion on the points stated to guide its legislation and committee on reconstruction, which has already
ing of that portion of the joint resolution being prevent it from doing any wrong in the premises : been passed by the House of Representatives.
asked for, it will be again read.
Mr.HENDRICKS. Before the readingofthat atives of the United States of America in Congress as the Senate, and to say that I shall not desire
section, I wish to call the attention of the Senator sembled, That the Secretary of War be directed to
from Massachusetts for a moment to the fact, them to proceed with that matter until Wedappoint a commission, to consist of three officers of the corps of Engineers of the Army, to examine and nesday. I am litterly unable, myself, to take
and I suppose it will be recollected by him, that report at the present session of Congress, if practica charge of it; but whatever may be my own
the Senator from Rhode Island (Mr. ANTHONY] ble, and if not, before the next session of Congress, condition on Wednesday, I shall expect the
presented to the Senate, at the last session, a upontbesubject of the construction of railroad bridges across the Mississippiriver atsuch localitics and upon
Senate to proceed with the consideration of the proposition, which had a good deal of strength buch plans of construction as will offer the lcast im. subject. I deler calling it up until Wednesday
in the body, changing the mode of appointing pediment to the navigation of the river; and that the morning, when I hope to have the attention of
cadets to West Point. It was then presented sum of $10,000, or so much thereof as may be neces
to the Senate under circumstances which presory, be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, out the Senate to it.
vented its full consideration. I was not willof any money in the Treasury not otherwise appro
MILITARY ACADEMY APPOINTMENTS. priated, to defray the expenses of said commission.
ing to support it at that time, because its merits I trust it may receive the favorable consid
Mr. WILSON. I move to take up.the House could not then be fully understood and coneration of that committee and be ingrafted as
joint resolution No. 131, relative to appoint sidered. It was proposed as an amendment an amendment upon the bill now before them.
ments to the Military Academy of the United to an appropriation bill. All Senators know The PRESIDENT pro tempore.
that the proposition could not very well be will be regarded as postponed for the present,
The motion was agreed to ; and the joint res considered in that connection, with the opposino objection being made to that course.
olution was considered as in Committee of the tion to it as legislation upon an appropria
Whole. It provides that hereafter the age for tion bill; but as it is a very important propQUARTERMASTER GENERAL'S CLERKS.
the admission of cadets to the United States osition, I think, more important, perhaps, than Mr. WILSON. I move to take up the Sen Military Acadeiny shall be between seventeen any provision of this bill, if it have any merit ate joint resolution No. 96, providing for the and twenty-two years; but any person who has at all, it is due to the Senator from Rhodo transfer of certain clerks to the office of the served honorably and faithfully not less than Island that we should wait until he returns beQuartermaster General.
one year as an officer or enlisted man in the fore we propose to change the present plan. I The motion was agreed to; and the joint || Army of the United States, either as a volun cannot state to the Senate what was the propresolution was read the second time and con teer or in the regular service, in the late war osition of the Senator from Rhode Island, but sidered as in Committee of the Whole. It for the suppression of the rebellion, and who I think it was that there should be a board in provides that thirty-seven clerks of the first possesses the other qualitications prescribed by each State for the examination of candidates; class, two of the second class, and one of the law, shall be eligible io appointment up to the that the member of Congress from the district fourth class, from the ordnance department, age of twenty-four years. Cadets at the Mili should present the names of a certain number ten of the first class from the subsistence de tary Academy are hereafter to be appointed one of young men, and those young men should partment, and four of the first class from the year in advance of the time of their admission, go before the board, and should be examined office of the Secretary of War, shall be trans except in cases where, by reason of death or with a view to their physical qualifications for ferred to the oflice of the Quartermaster Gen other cause, a vacancy occurs which cannot be the military service, their intellectual qualiteral, and proposes to appropriate $65,800 for thus provided for by an appointment in advance; cations and capacity, and also with regard to the payment of their salaries for the fiscal year but no pay or allowance is to be made to any their education; that they should be examined ending June 30, 1867.
such appointee until he shall be regularly ad by the board in advance, so as to prevent so Mr. FESSENDEN. Where does this come mitted on examination as now provided by many failures in the institution. I am not from?
law; nor is this provision to apply to appoint prepared to say that I am in favor of the prop. Mr. WILSON. I will simply say in regard ments to be made in the present year. In addi osition of the Senator from Rhode Island ; but to this matter that the resolution is based upon tion to the requirements necessary for admis to say the least, it is worthy of the consideraa recommendation of General Meigg. He sion as provided by the third section of the act tion of the Senate; and if the Senator from desired to have these clerks classed higher, but making further provisions for the corps of Engi. Massachusetts will not object, I will move to the committee thought they would transfer neers, approved April 29, 1812, candidates shall postpone this bill for a reasonable time until them to his office in the same classes they are be required to have a knowledge of the elements the Senator from Rhode Island shall return. in at present.
of English grammar, of descriptive geography, Mr. WILSON. I have certainly no objecMr. FESSENDEN. I ask whether the mat particularly of our own country, and of the his tion to the bill going over for that purpose, ter has been submitted to and received the tory of the United States.
although I must say to the Senator that I ex approbation of the Secretary of War.
Nr. JOHNSON. Will the honorable chair pect little to come of the postponement. It Mr. WILSON. It was sent to us indorsed man of the Committee on Vilitary Affairs state will be found very difficult to devise any plan by the Secretary of War.
what is the reason for requiring the appoint that will be satisfactory to Congress, and esMr. FESSENDEN. Approved by him? ments to be made a year in advance?
pecially to the House of Representatives, Mr. WILSON. I understood so.
Mr. WILSON. This joint resolution comes changing the mode of appointment of cadets Mr. FESSENDEN. I think, from the recent from the Committee on Military Affairs of the at West Point. However, at this stage, I will course taken with regard to the clerks in the House of Representatives. The chairman of allow the bill to lie over. It is from the different Departments, that the proper place that committee was last year, a member of House of Representatives; no amendment is
proposed to it; and I will allow it to lie over with. It seems to me that the Senate ought to and rejected it, but afterward adopted the until the return of the Senator from Rhode | proceed with it at an early day, that the ques. measure and sent it to the President who has Island.
tion may be definitively settled. As it stands vetoed it, and now a proper courtesy on our The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The joint || now, the question is not definitively settled. part requires that we should consider it imresolution now before the Senate will be post It is an open question still whether the State mediately. I do not know but that the sugponed by common consent, no objection being of Colorado shall be received into the Union. gestion of the Senator from Ohio ought to be interposed. It ought to be closed.
listened to from another consideration besides MESSAGE FROM TIIE HOUSE.
Mr. WADE. I have had some little expe that which he has given. It seems that ColoA message from the House of Representa
rience as to these veto messages, not so much rado has had a very hard time of it. We passed tives, by Mr. McPherson, its Clerk, announced
nor so often formerly as now; but I know very an enabling act, two years ago, saying to the that the House of Representatives had passed
well they have been treated precisely as any people of Colorado that if they desired a State
other measure has been treated here. There the following bills, in which it requested the
government, they might vote upon the propoconcurrence of the Senate:
is no reason that, I know of why they should sition, adopt a State government, and we would A bill (S. No. 379) to establish in the Dis
be considered in any other light than any other receive them. At the first vote after the entrict of Columbia a reform school for boys ;
measure that is important before the body, and abling act was passed, Colorado rejected the A bill (H. R. No. 564) to annul the thirty- they have always been so considered. The proposition. Upon a reconsideration of the fourth section of the declaration of rights of
Senator from Massachusetts says that we have question, however, the people of that Territhe State of Maryland so far as it applies to
proceeded immediately to take them up and story adopted the proposition, and now send the District of Columbia ; and
consider them, and not laid them on the table. us a State constitution, and ask for admission. A bill (H. R. No. 601) to grade East Capi
That is not my experience. When what was The President took the matter into considera. tol street and establish Lincoln square.
called the homestead bill, in the days of Mr. tion, because it suited him, or directly in ac
Buchanan, was vetoed, it lay here nearly | cordance with the provisions of the enabling ADMISSION OF COLORADO-VETO.
three months, if I am not greatly mistaken, act itself, I believe, the President was authorMr. HENDRICKS. I move to take up the before it was finally settled. It was laid on ized by a proclamation to admit the State; bill which was vetoed by the President of the the table, and adjournments took place, pre but instead of doing so, he sent the proposi. United States for the admission of the State | cisely as upon any other question that was tion for admission to us, and said, "I leave of Colorado. I think a proposition of that sort deemed by the body important, and which they this matter to Congress.'' Congress took it ought to be considered.
wished to discuss. I see no reason why we | into consideration. It is true that the Senate, Mr. WADE. I hope we shall not take up should at this time take up this message. I do upon the first vote, like the people of Colothat bill now. I hope it will be permitted to not think we are ready to dispose of it prop rado, rejected the proposition, and left the lie a while before we take it up.
erly at the present time, and I do not think State out. The President said to us that he Mr. HENDRICKS. The Senator from Ohio, the friends of the measure ought to take it up was willing to leave it to us, and whatever we who is to some extent responsible for this at this time.
might do on the subject, I understood, he was measure as chairman of the Committee on Ter Mr. HENDRICKS. I certainly would not perfectly willing to give his sanction to. Howritories, desires not to take up the bill to-day; ask the Senate to consider a bill when it could ever, the Senate, after first rejecting it, reconbut if he is willing to say to-morrow at one not be properly considered; but the Senator sidered the proposition and then adopted it, o'clock, so that all Senators shall know that from Ohio has not stated any reason why the and said to the people of Colorado that they the bill is to come up at that time, I am will Seņate is not prepared to consider this bi.l. could be admitted. This shows a change, not ing to modify my motion, and will move to take It was pressed upon the attention of the Sen- || only on the part of the people of that Terri. up the bill with a view to making it the special ate more than a month ago. It was said we tory, but a change, after reconsideration, on order for to-morrow at one o'clock. Perhaps were in a condition to consider it then. We the part of Congress. Now, sir, let us give a before taking up a measure of this sort, we did consider it and rejected the bill. Then, little time to the President of the United ought to give notice a day in advance, so that again, there was a motion to reconsider, and States. I am satisfied, upon all the prece: Senators may be here. I have therefore no after further protracted debate a different re dents and all the history of Colorado, that if objection to modifying my motion so as to sult was arrived at in the Senate, somewhat he has a short time, he will send us, in the move to take the bill up with the view to make astonishing to some of us. After two debates course of a few days, a message withdrawing it the specialorder for to-morrow at one o'clock. in the Senate upon the bill it finally went to his veto message. Let him have the same I will state to the Senator that I name to-mor the President of the United States. He did time that the people of Colorado had to conrow for the reason that the Senator from Maine not agree with the Senate in its last vote; he sider the proposition, and the same time the has notified the Senate that on the next day | thought the Senate was right in its first vote. Senate had to reconsider it, and in all probahe expects to call up a question which will Now that question is before us, presented bility he will come to as correct a conclusion occupy, , the Senate
as the people of Colorado and the Senate of
the United States. now able to say. It is proper that within a know of no reason why the Senate is not pre Mr. FESSENDEN. I voted against the reasonable time the message of the President | pared to consider it. The Senator from Ohio admission of Colorado, but I am quite willing of the United States should receive the consid- | gives no reason. The question of the admis to leave the question of when this veto meseration of the Senate, and I do not think that sion of a State into the Union is a very grave sage shall be taken up,, within reasonable we ought to wait until the Senate has disposed and important one. It loses none of its gravity | limits, to the friends of the measure. As I of the reconstruction proposition. Therefore and importance by the fact that it is now ac differed from them with very great reluctance, I think it is right that we should either to-day companied by the veto of the President of the and was disposed, if I could, to vote with or to-morrow take up this Lill. My present United States. It is due, I think, to the them, I am certainly not disposed to press its motion is to take it up; and then if it is taken dignity of that message that it should be con consideration at a time which is inconvenient np I shall move to make it the special order | sidered at an early day. For this reason I to thein and against their wishes. I am willfor to-morrow at one o'clock.
have moved to take the bill up with the viewing that they should take their own time, and Mr. WADE. I hope the bill will not be of making it the special order for to-morrow. shall therefore vote with my friend from Ohio taken up now.
I do not think we can at this Mr. WADE. Tbe Senator asks me why I on the motion to take up this question, lie time definitely fix a proper time to consider am not ready to take up this bill now, and I being chairman of the committee which has the bill. The Senate is very thin. I believe am very frank, as I am on all occasions, to the bill in charge. I think it is proper to several members are now absent. I do not tell him the reason. I am a friend to this comply to a reasonable extent with his wishes know when they will be here. When it is taken measure, notwithstanding the veto of the Pres on the subject. up the Senate onght to be full, and I cannot ident. I have come to the conclusion that this But I rose merely to say that I can see no say that that will be to-morrow or the next Territory ought to be admitted as a State for occasion for the suggestion that by deferring day. I do not think it is best for us at the a good many reasons that might be assigned, the consideration of this bill a discourtesy present time to take it up, and I hope we shall but which it would not be proper to argue would be committed toward the President. It not do so.
now. I wish to deal with this question as I do so happened that the message was not read Mr. SUMNER. There are one or two of with all others that I am in any way intrusted upon the day on which it was laid on the table. the Senators who are now absent who are to be with the charge of. . I do not think the bill is It was suggested by a Senator at that time, here to-morrow, which is the time proposed by as likely to be successful if we take it up now who was desirous that it should be read on the Senator from Indiava for the consideration as it would be if we were to postpone it a little that day, that not to read it then would be not of this question. I think that we may expect longer, and when I have a measure at heart treating the President with that respect which to-morrow a reasonably full Senate.
that I'intend to pass I intend to take every was due to him as President in relation to the inclined to think, still further, that we oright not honorable means that I can to pass it. I do message itself. It also so happened that beto postpone the consideration of the question. not think it is politic now for the friends of fore that suggestion was made I had made a I do not think that a veto message of the Pres the bill to take it up. That is all I have to say motion to go into executive session; and I ident has ever before in our history been so about it. As one of the friends of the measure replied at that time that nothing like a want long postponed. It has been considered from I hope it will not be considered now, and for of respect or a disposition to treat the Presiday to day, and discussion has been allowed to the reason I have given.
dent with disrespect existed, so far as I was go on until a conclusion was reached. I am Mr. HENDERSON. The Senator from concerned. I see that the idea has been caught pot aware that any message of that character | Indiana thinks that this matter ought to be at and that some presses have taken pains to has ever been laid upon the table and there considered immediately because, he says, a represent that there was intentional discourtesy allowed to sleep as if it was not to be proceeded month ago the Senate considered the measure on the part of the Senate,
berupdays what rengel of time none of us is the United States for our consideration of
Now, sir, I wish to repel that idea here, and || by many as an intentional one, as a matter of But, Mr. President, it is not proper now to utterly. It so happened that when that mes. discourtesy to the President.
discuss the merits of the question. In the absage came in we were engaged in a debate and The Senator is aware of the fact that when sence of any sufficient reason why the bill the consideration of a bill. The message was the Senate pass a bill, and the House of Rep should not be considered, I think it is due to not read but was laid on the table of course, resentatives amends that bill in important par. || the importance of the question, to the imporand we proceeded with that bill to a late hour ticulars, and sends it back here, we consider || tance of any executive communication, that we in the day, when we were all fatigued. The those amendments at an early day; perhaps || should consider it at an early day; If the Sen. time arrived at which we usually adjourn, but | because it comes up in the course of business, ate decides otherwise, I am individually entirely it was absolutely necessary for certain pur- || but also, I think, for the reason that there is a content. poses to have an executive session that even question in dispute between the two Houses,
Mr. WADE. I did not intend to say any. ing, and I moved an executive session, not and that question ought to be settled. Then thing more about this matter, but the Senator willingly but because it was necessary, think when there is a question of difference between from Indiana has insinuated that I have vacil. ing we could dispose of the matters that re the President and the Senate, that question of | lated a good deal on this question. I agree quired immediate attention then. Then was. difference ought to be settled at an early day, || that my course upon it has not been entirely interposed the question of reading, the veto I think, as a question of business.
what would seem consistent to one unacmessage.
To the suggestion of the Senator from Ohio quainted with all the facts of the case. I voted thought at that late hour it was hardly worth || I have no particular objection, of course. He | against this bill at first, and on the reconsiderawhile to take up a message which was to be has a right to select a time when he thinks he tion I voted for it. I gave no reasons for my listened to at any rate with respect and atten can carry his measure instead of losing it. I last vote, because I do not care so much about tion, and have it read at that period of the do not quarrel with him about that, and on giving reasons generally for the course I take evening, but it might as well come up in the this particular question I think the opinion of here. I suppose that my reasons are to be regular order of business the next morning. I the Senator from Ohio is entitled to a great judged by my votes. My votes always manifest think still that was the correct course. I utterly deal of weight. A year or two ago the Senate the strongest reasons. Whoever searches the repel the idea for myself and for all others of passed the enabling act upon the assurance record will find my opinions much oftener from the slightest intention on the part of anybody given to the Senate by him that there was a my votes than from anything I say in the Sen. (because I know that it did not exist) to do any. large population in Colorado, he thought about But I think I had very good reason in this thing that was at all out of the way, or im sixty thousad or over, and that the current of case to change my vote between the time I first proper, or disrespectful to the President of the
immigration was setting in very rapidly into voted against the bill and afterward on the reUnited States. As is well known, I am not in
consideration voted for it. Although I was the habit of treating any officer of this Gov. large population, fully justifying the admission upon the committee that reported the bill, and charged with public duties large population, fully justifying the admission
endeavored to obtain all the facts within my with any disrespect whatever, either in words month or so ago, the Senator said that in all || reach, I found that I had not got hold of all the or acts, and I believe that to be the general that he was mistaken, that he was misled, and facts that really existed in the case, when the disposition of the Senate itself.
that there seemed to be a much less population || bill was reported. When the bill was reported I only notice this because it shows a dispo there than he had supposed. Clearly the evi- I differed from the other members of the comsition to make a mountain out of a mole-hill, dence justified the opinion that the Senator mittee on Territories who thought that there and construe what was merely an ordinary pro then expressed, for no man can question that were sufficient reasons for permitting the State ceeding in the course of business into some there is much less than sixty thousand inhab to come in. But after that vote was given we thing that was not intended or in any way de: itants in that Territory, and at that time the had a great deal of additional light thrown upon signed; and, I will add, on the suggestion of Senator thought it to be his duty, without hav the subject from the records of the different my friend from New Hampshire, [Mr. Clark,] ing either the fear or respect of vetoes before departments of this Government showing the that these questions are not questions of court his eyes, to oppose the admission of Colorado | population to be greater than was supposed esy, at all; they are questions of business. We on the ground that the population of the Ter when the bill was first up, and when that vote pass a bill; we send it to the President; when ritory was so inconsiderable. The other day was given, and that the wealth and the ability he gets ready, within a certain time which is
when the bill passed he was not able to show of the Territory to maintain a State govern. limited, he returns the bill to us, if he sees sit, us that there had been any increase of popu ment were infinitely greater than any member with his objections. When we get ready and lation since he said to the Senate that the pop of the Senate had before supposed. I believe think that the time has properly arrived to con ulation was too small to justify the admission. the fact to be that no Territory in the West had sider them, we consider them and come to our It is possible that if we postpone this bill now
shown at the time of its admission as a State a own conclusions. It is a matter of business the Senator will again change his opinion. The greater amount of wealth or equaled the deliberation in which the good of the country Senator from Missouri (Mr. Henderson] sug amount of taxation paid in this Territory. is involved, the ordinary course of legislation, gests that if we give the President an oppor I shall detain the Senate but a moment fur which has reference to the good of the whole, tunity he may change; but I have more reason ther, for I am not going to argue the question and not a mere courtesy to an individual, to hope that the Senator from Ohio, having nor enter into a lengthy explanation as to my whatever may be his position, whether he hap already occupied three grounds upon this ques votes on the subject. I wish simply to ask pens to be the President of the United States, tion, may occupy a fourth directly if we give | whether ever before in the history of this Gov. who objects to a bill, or whether he happens him some time. But I think the question ernment there was a veto by a President of a to be a chairman of a committee who may have ought to be considered.
bill for the admission of a State. You may charge of the bill, or anybody else who is inter One word in reply to the Senator from Mis trace every Administration from the time that ested in the bill and desires to be heard upon souri. He intimated that the President, in States were first admitted till now, and this is it, or that a particular course should be taken. communicating this business to the Senate at the first instance when an Administration has It is for the Senate to decide; and on all these an early day of the session, had said that the seerfit to veto a bill which Congress had passed questions, as an individual I am to act with subject was referred to Congress and that he admitting a State into this Union. There has reference to the question itself, and not with would abide by the decision of Congress. The been no uniformity in regard to the practice of reference to what may be the wishes of others President, in that communication, did not say || Congress in the admission of new States, and in relation to it. When it comes before me, 80; it does not authorize that construction to consequently they have been admitted some as a Senator I act in my own time and in my be put upon his communication. The Presi. times with a largerand sometimes with a smaller own way, if agreeable to the majority here, || dent first states the facts; then he says: population, and that has hardly formed any which upon each question has a right to de
“The proceedings in the second instance for the
criterion. It has been said, and I think propcide. And now, sir, I say that if we should formation of a state government having differed in erly said, as a general thing, there should be conclude that the proper time for the consid
time and mode from those specified in the act of eration of the objections of the President to March 21, 1864, I have declined to issue the procla
about population enough for a Representative mation for which provision is made by the filth seo
in Congress; but that rule has not been adhered the bill has not yet arrived, it is to be con tion of the law, and therefore submit the question for to; we have vacillated one way and the other strued, so far as I am concerned, and I trust the consideration and further action of Congress."
just as the circumstances of the case seemed to all others, into a mere opinion that we will That is all. No opinion is expressed by him, | require. But the question is one peculiarly consider it at another time when we are better no intimation expressed by him. The Presi- || within the jurisdiction of Congress, and less prepared in our own judgments to take it into | dent could issue no proclamation upon that || than any other within the province and obserconsideration.
proceeding out in Colorado. The law did not vation of the President of the United States. Mr. HENDRICKS. In the main I agree anthorize it; it was not justified by any law This is the first instance where the people of a with the Senator from Maine in his suggestions either of the General Government or of the || Territory wanted to come into the Union and upon the question of business. I think it would | Territorial Legislature; it was an irregular pro- | where Congress had passed an enabling act for be better that we should consider all such ques. | ceeding, a party proceeding, gotten up by the || that purpose, that the President has turned tions as questions of business rather than ques chairmen of the committees of the different round and put his veto upon the bill for their tions of courtesy. But the Senator is aware political parties of the Territory, and the elec- | admission, so as to keep them ont. You can. of the fact that it is usual, because perhaps tion was not such as is usually held. Dele not find any other instance in which it has been the
question is a grave one, and because of the gates to the convention were appointed by || done, and you will probably never find one weight that is given to an executive communi county conventions, as if you were appointing again. We have not been very exacting of the cation, to consider veto messages and bills delegates to a political convention in a State Territories when they desired to become States. accompanying them at an early day after they or Territory. It has none of that regularity | Generally, whenever the people of a Territory are communicated to the Senate. A very lengthy which we expect in such grave proceedings || have come together and said they were able to postponement of it is likely to be understood /l when a State is to be brought into the Union. maintain a State government, Congress has