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land, and afford the easier and readier intercourse of for improving navigation, for deepening chan- || provement than achieved our independence But these vast lakes required
nels, for the preservation of barbors, and for cannot be properly denied. also barbors and lights and breakvaters. And were these lavrial objects of national legislation ? To me,
the construction of sea-walls. I believe that In one appropriation asked for here, more certainly, they have appeared to be such as clearly these will be found to embrace substantially than five million people are directly interested. as it they were on the Atlantic border."
all the classes of appropriations which are con And yet the States where they live are mere The l'irst Congress committed the Govern tained in this bill. The years when these children in the Union- urdy young ones and ment to the policy of the bill. The act passed appropriations were made will be found upon hard strikers-they have done some splendid on the 7th of August, 1789, the act referred || cxamination of this same document to cover fighting during these four years past; they have to by Jr. Webster, and which was approved
the Administrations of Presidents Monroe and sent their hundreds of ihousands of men to by George Washington, for the establishment Jolin Quincy Adams, of General Jackson and help save that flag, and we should see to it that of light-houses, beacon-buoys, and public piers, Mr. Van Buren and Mr. Tyler. During the it shall securely wave over their lakes and was a contemporaneous construction of the early history of our Government we had com rivers. Constitution adinitting the power of Congress || paratively no inland cominerce, no lakes valu Sir, re have seven great lakes: Superior, to legislate for rendering the navigation of able for commerce; we had no valley of the Huron, Michigan, St. Clair, Erie, Ontario and inlets, or harbors, or ports of the United States || Mississippi; we had no West; but all that was Champlain. Without estimating at all the rivers easy and safe. There was little internal com wanted was done.
and the canals which connect those lakes, it will merce at that time and our foreign commerce The State of Illinois, if I recollect aright, || be found that there is a straight line of lake was very limited ; and yet, in 1790, Congress was admitted into the Union in the year 1818. navigation of one thousand five hundred and enacted and passed another law. In August, That State, young as she is, was six years old seventy-three miles in length. But that does 1790, an appropriation was made for the secu before a dollar of money was appropriated by mot state the whole truth, for the lake coast is rity of navigation. In March, 1791, in April, || the General Government for the improveinent five thousand miles in extent, of which three 1702, in June, 1791, and in March, 1795, oiher of harbors upon the classic waters of Lake Erie. thousand miles are within the territory of the laws were passed upon the same general sub There have been during these latter years other United States. ject. In March, 1796, the Secretary of the waters which have been dyed red with patriot Leaving the lakes and going to the rivers, Treasury, Mr. Oliver Wolcott, recommended blood; there have been other battlefields than we find that, taking the rivers Mississippi, Vis. an appropriation of $16.000 for fuur new pier's those thereabout where the blood of Union souri, Arkansas, Ohio, and le river, with in tlie Delaware river, and in April, 17:8, a men has been freely poured out to save the their tributaries, we have a length of navigable further sum of $60,000 was recommended for mation. But yet, during all the life of the waters of sixteen thousand six hundred and the same purpose. The reasons given by Jr. nation to come, I believe we shall turn back seventy-four miles. The inestimable national Wolcoit in the report which he made are of to no waters with more pride than to those importance of the navigation of these lakes great significance at this time. They will be where Perry first achieved his brilliant victory, || and rivers cannot be overstated. The whole found in ihe Report on Commerce and Nav. the waters of Lake Erie. It would have been Mississippi valley, with its fourtcen States, igation for that year, volume one, page 390. well if the Government of the United States the cighi States upon the lakes, depend upon
had looked to that lake some years before it these lakes and rivers as their natural ligh: " A question arises whether expenses of the nature
did. In 1824 the first appropriation was made. ways to a commercial market. We can estiproposed ought to be general or whether they ought During the war of 1812, as you know, Great mate the present commercial value of the to bo detrayed by a duly imposed on tonnage ot' ves
Britain proposed to hold command of Lake | products of the West; but we cannnt tell how sels cmployed in the river Delaware. On this point it is respectiully suggested that though it may be dif Erie, and with her squadron there was block ihat value will be multiplied. Yet for many ficult to form seneral rules by which to determine ading the port of Erie. Perry was stationed years from the time when the last general bill in all cases what establishments ought to be supported at the expense of the United States, and that
upon those waters to defend the interests of passed by Congress found its death in the Presthough it is certain that many of the bays, rivers, and
the l’nited States. He then contrived to build ident's portfolio, every dollar of appropriation harbors of this country aro susceptible of improve and equip his small fleet within the harbor at has been earned by the earnest advocates of ments irhich it would be inexpedient for the Gor
that port; the British squadron being outside these improvements before it was authorized ernment to undertake, especially at present, yet it is equally certain that national interests of the first the bar in the deep waters of the lake, and his by Congress and became a law. importance are concentered in the principal com vessels within. His fleet at last was ready, I do not propose to occupy the tioc of the mercial citics which cannot,consistently with public interests, be submitted to the direction oflocal policy.
but the Niagara and the Lawrence could not House now by reviewing at any length the The Scoretary bas considered the river Delaware,
move because there was a bar which the Gov action of Congress upon the subject of river below Philadelphia, as entitled in respect to estab ernment had not yet seen fit to remove.
and harbor iinprovement. And yet it may be lishments for the security of navigation to the same consideration as any part of the coast ad, oining the
happened that the British commander hoisted well to recur to that action briefly, and I prohigh sca. The proposed piers will be useful to forsail and went off dne day with his squadron.
pose to do so. eizn vessels and to American vessels from all the leaving Perry, who had been providing some
In 1808 Albert Gallatin's famous report was States: Cominereial ports upon the river within the jurisdiction of three States will, in proportion to the
means to get his vessels over the bar, to exe made, recommending a grand appropriation extent of their trade, be nearly as much benefited cute his purpose if he could. With the great of $20,000,000 for turnpike roads, canals, and by the estab'ishments which are desired as the port est labor the Lawrence and the Niagara were inland navigation. Within the range of his of Philadelphia."
lightened of their armaments, and means were recommendations were immensely long public Now, we have at this time many “Delaware used. which the skillful commander had before roads and canals running north and south, rivers,'' rivers and harbors in the interior which provided, by which the vessels were litted over || and east and west. There were large approwere then hardly known, but which liave the bar and floated in the deep waters of the priations recommended for improving the navbecome now of as much relative national value lake. Before the British squadron returned, igation of the great rivers. That recommenas the river Delaware was at that time, and the American fleet was prepared for its recep
dation of Mr. Gallatin was not acted upon. the arguments applicable to that river are all tion; and well we know that it was not long It will be remembered that shortly after with ihe same force applicable to those cor afterward that the battle of Lake Erie was that time there were beard in the air the disered by this bill, and every appropriation fought and Perry's victory was won.
tant mutterings of thunder. Soon afterward which we ask for here comes fairly within the Now, Mr. Speaker, one of two courses must a cloud not bigger than a man's hand was principle upon which the old Delaware appro be taken. Either the Government must lift up seen. The eyes of all and the attention of all priation stood. The laws, during our carly its hand from the sca-coast and from lake and were directed to what was to come. The war history, concerned light-houses, buoys, piers, || from river; it must say to the people, “ You with England, which followed. put a stop to &c., but as the wants of commerce increased, have fought for and made the nation and saved | appropriations of that description. But from as the nation grew in resources, other laws its life; but now within your own State borders about 1808 until the presidential term of Mr. were passed applying more generally the same you must protect and take care of your own in Tyler, through contest and through tribulation, principle. In April, 1798, a law was passed | terests;' or else the sea-coast, East and West, and notwithstanding now and then a presito stake out the channel of Warren river, so far as it shall be necessary for the security | dential veto, appropriations to the following Rhode Island, and moneys were appropriated of navigation, and the mighty rivers and the amounts, according to a very valuable report for similar purposes in May, 1802, and March, great lakes of the continent must be cleared of made by Colonel Abert to the lar Department, 1895. After that time during different years their obstructions and their harbors rendered were made: during the presidential term of other appropriations were made for like pur secure, so that they may be entered with safety Mr. Jefferson, $18,500; during the term of Mr. poses in States upon the sea-board and away by the vessels of the United States and by the Madison, $250.800; during the term of Mr. from the sea-board, but all for the general vessels of commerce, and I hope the mem Monroe, $707,621 ; during the term of Jr. John objects indicated in the first act approved by bers of the Thirty. Ninth Congress will upon Quincy Adains, $2,310,475; during the term Washington.
this question be found upon the side of the of General Jackson, $10,582,882 ; during the I have here a report made by General Dela- | people.
terin of Mr. Van Buren, $2,222,544 ; during field at this session, in reply to a communica Sir, if the action of the early Government and the term of Mr. Tyler, $1,076,500. tion which I was directed by the Committee of our early Presidents appropriating moneys
President Tyler, in liis annual message to the on Commerce to address to the Secretary of for roads and canals and the various improve-Twenty-Eighth Congress, made at its first sesWar, and which will be found as Executive | ments of rivers, then of some commercialvalue, sion, strongly recommended to the attention of Document No. 18, and if gentlemen will ex and of harbors on the sea-coast, was pursuant to Congress the western lakes and rivers. Dur. amine it they will find that from 1821 down to constitutional powers granted or fairly implied, | ing ibat same session, however, he declined to 1956, appropriations were made for building the question must be deemed fairly settled, and sign, but returned with his veto, a bill provide piers, for building break-waters, for removing at this time the demands of more millions of ing appropriations for eastern harbors, known obstructions in rivers, for improving harbors, men whose interests are involved in one im. on the records of that day as the “ easteru har
bor bill;"' while he signed a bill for improve sanction of President Pierce, but were passed beway name of Mississippi was put into the ments of western lakes and rivers. At the last by the Senate over the veto in July, 1856, and books by Father Marquette, and the river has session of the same Congress, a joint bill cor two days afterward, I believe, were passed by borne that name and must bear it forever. This ering the East and the West was passed by the House.
bill introduces the name of that same Jesuit Congress. The yeas upon the passage of that There was another bill, first session Thirty priest in another connection. I suppose
that bill were, as the record shows, 105; the nays Fourth Congress, for the improvement of the it is the same man after whom the harbor is were 96. The Senate passed it by 27 yeas to Des Moines rapids, Mississippi river. That named for which an appropriation will be found 11 nays. Among the names of those who sup was not fortunate enough to receive the Presi in this bill, the harbor of Marquette on Lako ported the bill, I find upon the Journal that of dent's signature, was returned to the House on Superior. our distinguished friend from Ohio, (Mr. the 11th of August, 1856, and passed the House Mr. Speaker, I want to ask the attention SCHENCK,] now at the head of the Military the same day and the Senate on the 16th of of the House to some practical and pretty Committee, and also that of the gentleinan | August.
important facts going to show the national from Chicago, (Mr. WENTWORTH.] Within At the end of the first session of the Thirty; || importance of these proposed appropriations, ten days afterward Mr. Tyler's term expired; || Third Congress a bill was passed and returned Twenty-five years ago all the New England and so did the Congress during which the bill to the House of Representatives without his States, with Pennsylvania and New York, had was passed; and thể bill remained unsigned in signature. At the beginning of the second a population of about six million five hundred the portfolio of the President.
session of the same Congress reasons were thousand. A census taken this day, after four I have referred, Mr. Speaker, to the report communicated at length and the same argu years of war, will show in the seven States of of Colonel Abert. His report, as chief of Engi ment presented so often made before and so Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Iowa, Michneers, was communicated to Congress by Mr. often answered by the ablest expounders of the igan, and Minnesota, a population of not less Polk in his first message; and the attention Constitution.
than ten millions. At the Detroit convention of Congress was invited to the suggestions In 1866, we proposed to ascertain, on the which was held in July, 1865. Mr. James F. which it contained. Colonel Abert called | principle of the resolution I referred to at the || Joy, of Detroit, referring to the agricultural especial attention to the lake navigation, and commencement of my remarks, whether, after growth of those seven States, said: described with a good deal of force the wants, four years of war, when loyal men of the East "Contrast now the progress of agriculture between the commerce, and the national value of the and West have given their fortunes and their the two sections. All the Atlantic States named in harbors of the lakes. lives to the support, rescue, and preservation
1850 produced 20,000.000 bushels wheat, and in 1860
had increased the production only 2,000,000 and risen Colonel Abert says:
of the Government, something may not be to 22,000,000. In the same years the lake States "We see the immense wealth and prosperity which done that will enrich the people and the Gov (above named) had producod 40.000,000 in 1850 and these harbors have developed and the immense na ernment at the same time.
88,000,000 in 1860 of whent. Of corn, the former States tional interests which require protection-interests Is this work national or sectional? I cannot,
produced, in 1850, 47,000,000, and in 1860 57,000,000 of commerce and interests of national defense, pro
bushels. The lake States produced in 1850, of corn, tection to vast amounts of property, to pumbers of
of course, examine into the details of the items 185.000.000 bushels, and in 1860 319,000,000, and at the lives, and to a powerful auxiliary in time of war. contained in this bill, but there is no item that
same rate of increase will in ten years inore produce Now, what is the protection which these vast national
about 200,000,000 bushels of wheat and 600,000,000 interests require? Harbors, only harbors, means of cannot be defended upon its own independent | bushels of corn."
“Now, thero entering places of security to load and unload and ground. There is no one which does not rest are ten million people interested in these products, for shelter in time of storms. Our Atlantic coast, upon estimates carefully made at the War De and to them the matter of access to market is of tho more favorably situated in some respects, calls for
first and last importance."
" It protection in the form of costly fortitications and of
partment. If it shall be necessary, I hold is not the possibility of getting to market through numerous troops. Our lake coast, as extensive as myself prepared, in behalf of the committee, avenues now open but the expense of so doing which that of the Atlantic, is deficient in harbors and places to justify each specific appropriation.
is involred. Every additional avenue aids the facil of refuge. It calls comparatively but for small pro
ities and diminishes the expense." tection in the way of fortifications, but it calls for
I want now to speak of two items, one con * With the millions of the West the avenue to market protection from storns and for facilities to enter the cerning the Mississippi river, and the other is a vital question. When close upon the Mississippi barbors."
corn is burned for fuel, because the expense of sendconcerning the St. Clair flats.
ing it to market is more than it is worth; when from Well, sir, Congress did attend to the recom There are fourappropriations for the improve Illinois, on an average, it costs the rarmer three mendations of the President, and to the sug ment of the Mississippi river, one at its mouth,
bushels to get the fourth to market in New York,
and much more than that to lay it down in Livergestions made in that report; and during that one at the Des Moines rapids, one at Rock
pool; when from all the lake States it costs half of Congress a bill was passed to protect the Island rapids, and one for the procurement all the flour and wheat to the farmer to get the rest national interests referred to. There are now and use of snag boats to remove obstructions into the markets of the world, it has become high
time for the Government to look a little to the prosome three or four gentlemen upon the floor in western rivers.
tection of his interests.' who supported that bill. Among them I find I say that it is a national disgrace that the the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. Schenck) and Mississippi river has been left so long compar:
But, Mr. Speaker, although these seven
States that I have named are all more or less his colleague, (Mr. Delano,] the gentlemanatively valueless; not absolutely, for it would from New York, [Mr. GOODYEAR,] the gentle not be possible that the “ Father of Waters''
interested in these Mississippi river improve.
mnents. there are five States whose interests man from Chicago, [Mr. Wentworth,) and could be made absolutely valueless, notwiththe gentleman from Kentucky, (Mr. GRIDER.] standing the fact that there are at the Des
are directly and vitally concerned. I refer Jefferson Davis voted in the negative. Moines rapids, the Rock Island rapids, and
to Missouri, Mlinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and
Minnesota. There were forty-nine appropriations con possibly higber up and before you reach St. taine in that bill. All of them except four Paul, obstructions which, during a great por
In presenting to the House the national im. teen were for improvements of the same char tion of the year, greatly, and at times wholly,
portance of these appropriations, I certainly
cannot do better than to refer to some facts acter as those which had been approved by | impede the navigation of the river. It is not
which were laid before the convention held in General Jackson during his presidential term. only the largest of North American rivers, but,
Mr. Polk vetoed the bill in July or August, if we consider it in reference to its tributaries | February, 1866, at Dubuque, Iowa. My friend 1846, and another smaller bill, which was passed and to its wonderful commercial facilities, it is
from Iowa [Mr. Allison] has furnished me toward the close of the next session, found its the greatest river in the world. The remotest
with a copy of the proceedings of that convendeath in the drawer of the President. source of the Mississippi river is no less than
tion; and I will read some extracts from a At the next session, December, 1847, bring-three thousand one hundred and sixty miles speech made by Mr. Robb, of the Dubuque ing it down to the first session of the Thirtieth above the Gulf, at Lake Itasca. For how many
Produce Exchange: Congress, an elaborate message was sent to centuries that river has poured its waters into
"The importance of this question, and the magni
tude of the interests involved in its solution, will more Congress, in which former arguments against the Gulf no man knows, but history tells us that
clearly appear on an exainination of the productivethe protection of national interests of com in 1520, a century before the Pilgrims landed ness of the five States named. In 1860 tho whole merce were repeated at great length. In 1848 at Plymouth, the Spanish mariner Pinedo number of acres of improved land in all the Statos
and Territories was.. sailed around the Gulf and saw what he called
163,261,389 the House passed another bill covering the
Of thissame general ground. It was reported to the a "little sea," and a mighty river entering in, Missouri contained. ............ 6,246,871 Senate on the last day of the session, after which he called the “river of the Holy Ghost."
3,780,253 having passed the House, and failed there for
3,746.036 want of time. by early Spanish and French mariners in the Minnesota..
27,579,030 There was a valuable bill passed in 1852, 1) sixteenth and seventeenth centuries among
Or a fraction less than one sixth. and in the report which I have referred to whom were Narvaez, De Soto, Marquette, and
"The total value of crops for 1864 is estimated by from General Delafield will be found the ap La Salle, its stream has rolled for two thousand
the Agricultural Bureau of the Department of the propriations contained in that bill. miles, passing at several points over ledges of Interior to have been......
.$1,564,543,690 Since then there have been several special rock where navigation is made impossible at
Of this sum-
..$214.488.426 bills, notwithstanding the vetoes of the Presi- | times, and is always unsafe and dangerous. Wisconsin
51.938.852 dent, which have become laws. I hold in my At these rapids the rocks must be removed if
71.100,481 band three bills passed during the first session no better way can be found to make safe the
13,163,123 of the Thirty-Fourth Congress, one to deepen navigation and protect the commerce of the
403,692,474 the channels over the flats in St. Mary's river, | Mississippi. It was Father Marquette, a Jesuit Or more than one fourth of the value of the entire Michigan, another to remove obstructions to priest, who gave or rather who fixed the name
crops of the country. But these estimates of valuo
are the estimated value of the various products in the navigation in the mouth of the Mississippi river which the Indians had before that time given States where produced. In this way the value of at South Pass and Pass à l'Outre, and the other to that mighty river. The men wbo thought
articles in the above States appears to a great disad
vantage, because being so far from market, they are for deepening the channel over the St. Clair | they had discovered the river attempted to
rated much less than the same articles
in other States, lats, Michigan. These failed to receive the Il fasten upon it other names, but the old Ojib especially those near the sea-board. The same is true
39TH CONG. IST SESS.-No. 144.
of the estimated value of the live stock, which, on to undersell the English farmer in his own market, corn from Illinois to New York was sixty-five the 1st of January, 1805, was......... $990,879,128 and eventually compel him to seek other pursuits. and three quarter cents, and the cost of trans. Of this-
Wheat could be shipped from this point to New York Illinois had...
for thirts-three cents per bushel by the way of Newporting the corn crop of Illinois to New York Missouri..
Orleans, while the average cost by present transpor city would be $116,440,522 69. Iowa......
tation from the Mississippi river to New York is The whole crop of Illinois in 1865, taking Wisconsin..
sixty-five cents per bushel. Here is a saving ofthirtyMinnesota.....
two cents per bushel. This on thirty million of our the corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat,
273,363,730 | surplus crop of fifty million bushels annually raised, potatoes, tobacco, and hay was of the value of Or more than one fourth. Ajusterstandard by which would mako the chormous sum of $9,600,000."
$116,274,321; that is to say,
the whole crop to measure the productiveness of these States would be a comparison of the amount of their respectivo Now, the total value of the crops for 1864
was worth $166,201 69 less than the cost ol products, since the value is so largely affectod by the throughout the country is shown to have been transporting to New York the corn crop alone distance from market. “The great staples of agriculture are whent, corn,
$1,564,543,690. Of that immense amount the of 1865. beef, and pork. Comparing these, we find that the five States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Now, with an unobstructed navigation of the total number of bushels of wheat produced in all Iowa, and Minnesota produced in value more Mississippi, that corn crop could be landed in the States and Territories in 1861 (except the cotton States, whose production was almost nominal, prol)
than one fourth part. But that statement does New York city, at a saving of $63,311,709 0). ably not more than one sixth of what it was in 1860) not show the whole truth, because these values
In this estimate I have allowed thirty-five and ..100,695,823 are values which are estimated in the States three fourths cents as the cost of getting a bushel Illinois produced....
of corn down the Mississippi. But I received 3,291,514
where these cereals are produced. Wisconsin........
But in Boston, Massachusetts, corn last a letter this morning on that subject, some Iowa.......
year was $1 21 per bushel; in Illinois, it was portions of which I ask to have read. Minnesota....
The Clerk read as follows:
OFFICE St. Louis LEAD AND OIL COMPANY, The total number of bushels of corn produced duced more than one fourth of the value of 142 SECOND STREET, CORNER WASHINGTON AVENUE, ..530,451,103
St. Lou's, April 20, 1800. Illinois produced.
My Dear Sir: I am in receipt this morning of a Missouri..
letter desiring me to transmit to you some informaWisconsin.
shown if values were more equalized than they tion regarding present rates of freights from St. Louis Iowa....
to New Orleans, &c.
The present rates by steamers on grain and flour to 214,986,768 there are in the State of Iowa twelve million
New Orleans are: eighteen to twenty cents per bushel Qr nearly one half.
acres of unimproved lands where the plow has for grain and seventy cents per barrel for four. The whole number of cattle and oxen, January 1,
I am interested in a company laiely formed for the 1865, was.. .7,072,591 never entered.
purpose of transporting freight by barges towed by Illinois had.
powerful tow-boats. Within the past three weeks we Missouri.
more truly or clearly the national importance bare sent out three tows of about fourthousand tons Wisconsin
each, and have been splendidly successful. A preju.561.338 of these improvements; but still I desire to pre
dice has always existed among our sicanboat inen Minnesota..
and underwriters against this method of transportit2,526,979
prepared from documents subsequently pub tion, but it has been entirely overcome by the asionOr more than one third. The total number of hogs was.
ishingly successful operation of our tbeory; our boits ..13,070,887 lished. I want to call the attention of the House
making their trips in perfect sifety and in less time Illinois had.
to one single crop, and that is the corn crop than is generally required by pisecuger steamers. Missouri...
We are now taking freight to New Orleans at fifty Wisconsin....
cents per barrel for fiour and twelve to fiiteen cents ..1,423,367 In Maine, the corn product in that year was
per bushel for grain, and if the navigation of the Minnesota..
1,692,020 bushels; in New Hampshire, 1,468, upper Mississippi was not obstructed by rapids, and 4,896,506
090 bushels; in Vermont, 1,796,356; in Mas the lower river by snags and sawyers, it could unOr more than one third.
doubtedly be carried at these price with profit, from The entire population of the United States in 1860 sachusets, 2,363,245; in Rhode Island, 497,418;
St. Paul to New Orleans, over two thousand miles. ..31,143,322 and in Connecticut, 2,265,818; making an ag The advantage to the whole country by this method Illinois contained........ ..1,711,951
gregate of 10,082,947 bushels as the corn crop of transportation can readily be perceived, and its Iowa......
operations can be greatly facilitated and cheapened 1,182.012 of these six States for 1865. Now, if you add
by the improvements contemplated in your bill: and Minnesota.
to that the corn crop of New York, Pennsyl I cannot conceive how any person having the interWisconsin..
vania, and New Jersey, you will have an aggre ests of the whole country sincerely at heart could for Or about one seventh. gate of 170,638,279 bushels as the corn crop
a moment oppose it.
W. II. PULSIFER. "Thus it will be seen that these five States possessing that year of these nine States. The State of only one seventh of all the population and one sixth Illinois produced in the same year 177,095,852
Hon. T. D. Eliot, M. C., Washington, D. C. of all the improved land, nevertheless in 1864 produced more than one fourth in value of the entire bushels; that is to say, 7,000,000 bushels more Mr. ELIOT. The produce of the five States crop: more than one fourth in value of all the live than these nine States. Ohio yielded 94,119, of Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, and stock; more than one third in number of all the cattle and hogs, and nearly one half of all the wheat and 614 bushels; Michigan, 17,520.305; Indiana,
Minnesota in 1865 in cereals and potatoes was corn grown in the United States. Here we find four 116,069,316; Missouri, 52,021,715; Wisconsin, in bushels, 466,629,652. The produce of the and one half millions of agriculturists along the up 13,419,405; Iowa, 62,997,813; and Minnesota, same articles in the nine States of Maine. New per Mississippi, producing in a single year from one
5,677,795; making an aggregate of 538,851,845 Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode third to one half of all the production of the leading staples of an estimated value of $077,056,201." bushels.
Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey,
Now look at the values of corn in 1865: and Pennsylvania, was 321,434,367 bushels. “A glance at the commerce of the Mississippi will
That is to say, the nine eastern States proshow how necessary it is that this work should be
Maine done immediately and effectually. Thirty ycars ago
duced less than the five Mississippi States by steainboats engaged in the river trade aggregated
1 21 1,732.729 145,131,285 bushels, and yet Ilinois, the oldest but a few score. Now there are over a thousand.
1 15 2,070,300 of the five States named came into the Union " In 1865 the imports of St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louis
1 10.5 2,611,385
Rhode Island ville, and two or three minor Mississippi towns were
1 221 609.949
in 1818, Missouri in 1821, Iowa in 1846, Wisof the value of $730,000,000. As the export trade of
1 225 2,775,627 consin in 1848; while Minnesota did not begin these places was about cqual to their imports, we
to be a Territory until 1819, and was not a State have for the entire commerce of these points nearly
until 1857. $1,500,000,000. But this does not include the cominerce of New Orleans, Memphis, Dubuque, and Ohio.
[Here the hammer fell.) other important towns. Include the trade of these Michigan...
604 10.706,850 Mr. RICE, of Maine. I move that the time points and the aggregate value of the trade of the
40 2-5 44,918,823 Mississippi and its tributaries, the Ohio and Missouri,
of the gentleman from Massachusetts (Mr. Illinois..
29 51,800,5:36 in 1865 was more than $2,000,000,000, a sum equivalent Missouri.
Eliot] be extended for fifteen minutes. to threo times the whole foreign commerce of the Wisconsin,
46 6,209,726 No objection was made. United States."
18,899,314 “Remove these obstructions and the producers of
Mr. ELIOT. The five Mississippi States to Minnesota.,
511 these States will then have a convenient and ade
2,872,561 which I have referred are all of them younger quate outlet to the markets on our own sca-board and
$204,275,147 than the State of Ohio, a great deal younger, of Europe. They can market their grain in London and Liverpool, be successful competitors of European
and yet the first child born in the State of Ohio producers on their own soil, and eventually control
The whole value of the Illinois corn crop is now living in a very serene old age in his the price of breadstuffs in the yery center of the was $51,800,536. The whole value of the crop native State; and he does not now number so world's trade. In Europe land is scarce, and rents ruinously high. The consequence is that our farm
of the six New England States was $11,887,334, many years as may be counted by our friend, ers, who have cheap lands and mechanical labor, can and yet those six States produced only one the patriarch of the Pennsylvania delegation, produce grain with profit at figures that would ruin seventeenth as much as the crop of Illinois, [Mr. STEVENS.] the European farmer. The only obstacle that prevents the western producer from underselling and
while the value was between one fourth and Now, weon the sea-board want to have cheaper by successful compotition driving foreign producers one fifth.
corn; and the people on the lakes and western from their own markets, is tho want of cheap trans Now, sir, to get a bushel of corn from Illi rivers want to get more money for their prod. portation. For the past five years the average price nois to Boston would cost eighty-one and a uce. per bushel of wheat in London and Liverpool has
The surplus produce of those States in heen $1 37 in gold, or $1 90 of our own currency. The quarter cents; that is to say, it would cost the a few years will not only feed all the Atlantic English farmer cannot produce it at a less cost with difference between its value in the Boston mar States, but there will be enough left to affect any profit. The land is inostly held by the nobility, who exact as a rental therefor forty per cent. of the
ket and its cost at home; to carry the corn the price of food in Europe. productions. Improve these rapids, and grain can be crop of 1865 from Illinois to Massachusetts I now want to say something in regard to the sent from Dubuque to New Orleans for twenty cents would cost $143,890,379 75.
St. Clair flats. Let us see if that matter is and thence to Liverpool for seventeen cents, including cost of transhipinent, thus netting our farmers
The price in New York was ninety-five cents national and important or not. I have in my at least $1 50 per bushel and giving them the power
per bushel. The cost of getting a bushel of hand a valuable report upon these flats, made
by Colonel Graham, which will be found in argest propellers aground on the flats at one time, volume five of Senate Documents of the third working all the powers of their engines to cxtricato session of the Thirty-Fourth Congress, in the
themselves. The water being shallow, the action of
their whoels digs up, as it were, thesand under them, year 1858. I read the following extracts: and deposits it in small hills or ridges in thechannel, "Tho immense amount of commerce before alluded
on which the next passing vessel is likely to stick
fast. to, and which is shown by the accompanying statistics to be dependent upon this channel for its prosperity,
"The navigation of the rivers connecting Lakes ougbt not to be subjected to so long a delay in sccur
Erie and Huron has always been attended with inuch ing its practical benefits.
risk, and often with serious loss, owing to shoals, "The States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
sunken rocks, and swift currents, even before the
vessels were anything like the size they moty are. Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, and tho Territory of Minnesota, have their shores washed by
This has made it necessary to bring to the aid of sail
ing vessels tow-boats to tow them through these thegreat inland seas; whose intercommunication by
rivors. These boats take in tow from two to seven ship navigation is much interrupted by the want of a safo and sure channel ovor these flats.
vessels, and in passing over the flats tho tuy, or some “The States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
of the vessels in tow, are very apt to stick fast on
some of these ridges, formed by the propeller wheels, a portion of Michigan, on the ono side, are crippled
orowing to the narrowness of thcchannel, they strike in their important commercial relations with the
on one bank or the other, and, not having room to remaining portion of the State of Michigan, and with the States of Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, and
work these vessels, the consequence is, those astern the Territory of Minnesota, on the other side, by this
are sure to come in collision with those aground, intervening obstacle.
causing, in the aggregate, an immense amount of "Something would seem, then, under the purview
damage, all of which would be avoided by having a of the Constitution, to be necessary to be done in
sufficient breadth and depth of channelthrough which order to regulate the commerce between these States.
to do the business. The channel is now so crooked Viewed in this light the subject becomes one of great
that it requires an expert pilot to take any ordinary
sized craft over. public concern. The value of the articles of com
"The extent of the bar or flat is very insignificant, merce and navigation which passed over these flats during the two hundred and thirty days of open
and the amount of money required from the GovernDavigation in the year 18:55, say between the middle
ment is a mere trifle, when compared with tho imof April and the 1st of December, will be presently
portance of the work sought to be accomplished. shown to have amounted to the immense sum of
“The entire length that would be required to cut the $250,721,455 50, that is to say, two hundred and fifty
channel would not exceed one mile. Your commit
tee are informed by competent engineers in the Govnine millionsseven hundred and twenty-one thousand four hundred and fifty-five dollars and fifty cents,
ernment employ that thesmall sum of $200,000 would
give a channel three hundred feet wide and fifteen or per day during the navigable season $1,120,223 72.
feet water. The improvement, then, when undertaken should be executed with a degree of permanency and celerity
“While your committee fully agree with and heartcombined commensurate with its importance and the
ily indorse nll the schemes proposed by conventions magnitude of the interests involved.
and Boards of Trade to enlarge our canals, build new 'It is making no more than a reasonable allow
ones, and open up greater facilities for getting the ance for the effect of the obstruction to commerce now
yast produce of the West to tide-water, they cannot existing at St. Clair flats to say that had that obstruc
but think that this work of enlarging the channel tion not existed the value of the merchandise and
over the St. Clair flats is of quite as great importance
as any that bas been or can be proposed. produce that would have passed in 1855 would have
"Asitis, one vessel can entirely close the channel by been full fifty per cent, more than it actually was, or that it would have amounted during the navigable
strikingon one bank and swinging across the channel,
thus effectually scaling it up, so far as the passage of season of 1855 to $376,751,558 95. This would have been an average value per day of $1,638,050 25, or per
other vessels is concerned; and your committee bave
known within the last two years a large propeller day more than three times the estimated cost of the work to be done in a permanent manner, and with
closing entirely the channel for four days, making it a channel-way six hundred feet wide and full twelve
impossible for any loaded craft to pass or repass, and feet deep. It should be borne in inind that such a
detaining at one time more than two hundred loaded channel would admit as free and safe a navigation
vessels for that length of time. Your committee
would recommend that an appropriation of $200,000 at night as during the day. In the present state of the flats no navigator over thinks of attempting to
be asked from Congress to accomplish this much
needed work. pass them, except by daylight. This cause of detontion, added to that of vessels grounded often for sev,
"Your committee would also recommend that an eral days before they can be got afloat and tugged
appropriation be asked from Congress of a suficient
amount of money to build three range lights on the over, actually shortens the navigable season to quite one half of what it will be when the improvement
flats, in accordance with the recommendation of Col
onel William F. Raynolds, made to the Light-House shall be completed in the manner that shall best obviate all the difficulties."
Board, which would enablo vessels to pass over the
flats as well at night as in the day. The necessity for Now, what are these St. Clair flats, and
these range lights is proven from the fact that tem
porary ones have been kept there by private subwhere are they? · Lake St. Clair, which con scription since the channel was opened. If not for nects by means of the Detroit and St. Clair them there would be large accumulation of vessels rivers the three lakes of Huron, Michigan, and
above and below the flats during the night, and at
the earliest daylight each would try to be the first Erie, is eighteen miles in length, and has a over. They would meet on the flats in such numbers mean width of about twelve miles. The St. and to such an extent that there would be an almost Clair fiats are at the head of the lake. At the
interminable jam, and the damage from loss of timno
and collision would be incalculable. point where the river widens itself into a lake “Hereafter your committee will show the number and forms the lake, sands brought down by the
of vessels, with their cargoes, that have passed the flow of the river are accumulated. The flats
flats during the season of 1865, with the valuation of
the same as near as possible. In some instances we or sand-bars are made in that way; and a have been obliged to estimate the value of cargoes, channel of about one mile in length must be but feel assured that our figures are below rather cut through. For the last ten years nothing
than above the actual value.
When we think that there are no less than fifteen has been done by the Government; nothing States of our Union directly or indirectly interested since the date of the report from which I have
in the commerce of the lakes, it seems as though just read.
they could, by a united effort, demand of our Gov
erninent that this barrier or obstruction should be At that time a channel was cut through one removed, and that demand should not go unheeded. hundred feet wide and thirteen feet deep. That
“With the foregoing remarks your committee beg
leave to offer their statistical report, and would earchannel is said to be to-day about fifty feet nestly recommend that the report, or so much of it as wide and ten half feet deep. Now, the is necessary, may be laid before the different Boards value of the commerce which during the last
of Trade around the lakes, asking their coöperation
in bringing this important subject before Congress, year passed over those flats was more than one with a recommendation that the appropriation of hundred and forty-six million dollars. But $200,000 bo made to remove this barrier, and a further that is exclusive of the value of the vessels,
appropriation of $10,000 per year he made to keep
the channel open and clear for all times. which amounted to $250,541,846; making the total value of the property which passed over
NUMBER OF STEAMERS AND VESSELS ON THE LAKES IN
1865. those flats in one season to be $396,546,896.
Valuation I desire to call the attention of the House to
No. Tonnage. . Gold. a statement of this commerce over the flats. Steamers.
151 55,811 $2,105,000 Propellers....
289 94,092 This statement, prepared by Mr. Edmund
156 66,529 1,963,200 Trowbridge—a brother, I believe, of my friend Brigantines.
21,874 418,400 from Michigan-conveys a very full and a very
..1,108 220,385 5,521,900 minute idea of the value of this improvement:
.1,778 468.691 $14,317,500 "At the time the above appropriation was made, Add 40 per cent. for gold....
5,738,000 1857, the average carrying capacity of the vessels on the lakes was from ten to twelve thousand bushels
Total of grain, but the rapid and enormous increase in the
$20,086,500 commerce of the lakes.has made it necessary to build much larger vessels, and now it would be safe to say Average valuation of each vessel, $11,292. the average capacity of each is doublo that amount. In the class "schooners" is included schooners, scows, Then the grcatest amount of water that vessels could sloops, barges, &c. These 1.778 vessels are manned draw was from nino lo ten feet, but now froin twelve by 17,780 seamen, at a daily cost to the owners to thirteen and a half feet.
862,230 "It is no uncommon thing to see several of our And cost for the goason.
Actual number of vessels passed the flats from the 1st
day of April to the 14th day of December, as roported to Commodore William II. Gardner by the light-house kooper during the lay-time, is......16,706 To which inay, safely be adoled one third for passing in night, which said keeper did not
include..... Making entire number passing for the season......22,2741 Which is apaverage of those passing daily of cighty
sis. Atthe above valuation in vessels, for cach vessel we have the daily valuation in vossels without cargo passing
... $971,112 And forthcscazon we have the value of vessels that pass the flats
$250,546,896 It is estimated that there is an average of two vessels
detained on the flats cach day, at an acturiloss to the owners in time and expense of getting off, each $150, making $300 per day, and for the season of two hundred and fifty-eight days........ $77,400 This in addition to the damage tone to vessel and
cargo, which damage can safely be put down at $50,000 for the season, making on the aggregaten loss to the owners of the property of.. ... $127,100
It is estimated that forty thousand passengers are transported over the fats each year,
Your committee can forin no definito idea of the loss to tho passengers who from time to time are detained there, but think such loss may safely be put down at many thousands of dollars perannuin, all of which loss would be avoided by having a sullicient channel through which this enormous amount of property could pass in safety.
The following isthe amount of property transported over the flats during the season of 1865: Articles.
Amount. Price, Total value. Flour, bbls....... 857,458 $800 $6,859,661 00 Wheat, bus..... .16,831.883 1 50 25,252,324 50 Corn, bus..... 23,968,905 66 15,753,477 30 Oats, bus......
8,572,953 45 3,857,828 85 Rye, bus...
809.038 75 606.778 50 Barley, bus.
747,447 1 25 934,308 75 Bacon, Ibs........ 2,905,520 19 552.618 80 Becf, bbls......
41.901 14 00 587,314 00 Pork, bbls.
69,069 30 00 2,072,070 00 Lard, tbs..
2,617,175 23 601,950 25 Tallow, Ibs
1,034,780 13 00 134,521 40 Butter, Ibs..
865,21+ 30 259,561 20 Lumber, M
.177.619,000 22 50 3,996, 127 90 Salt, bbls
510,962 2 25 1,217,164 50 Shingles, M. ..33,756,000 6 50 219,414 00 Lath, M.
...21,248,000 3 00 63,714 00 Staves, M..
4,818.000 18 00 87,264 00 Shingle bolts, cords .. 1.874 12 00 22,488 00 Tan bark, cords........ 3,517 8 00 28.136 00 Merchandise, tons.... 160,951 400 00* 64,391,600 00 Hay, tons.....
18 00 77.832 00 Plaster, tons......... 13,654
65,270 00 Coal, tons..
376,379 10 00 3,563.790 00 Cedar posts, number, 51.000 10 5,100 00 Telegraph poles, No. 24,266 1 00 21.266 00 Pig iron, tons.
12,460 50 00 623,000 00 Grindstones, tons...... 462 20 00 9,240 00 Hoops, M........ .14,367,000 6 00 86,202 00 Square tiiber, cubic feet......
1,700,000 195 00 331,500 00 Iron ore, tons.
237,92 9 00 2,141.838 00 Copper ore, tops........ 13.812
4,97-4,012 00 Stone, cords.
1,522 8 00 12.176 00 Wood, cords.
56.000 4 00 224,000 00 Saw logs, feet.... ..50,000,000 12 00 600,000 00 Cattle, number
3,528 75 00 261,600 00 Water limc, bbls. 18,018 1 80 30,132 10 Plaster, bbls.
3,059 1 25 3,823 75 Brick, M...
4,865,100 10 00 48,650 00 Bar iron, tons
7,099 100 00 709.900 00 Wool, lbs
481,200 35 169, 170 00 Highwines, gallons... 533,835 2 25 1,201,241 25 Powder, tons....
589 600 00 353, 400 00 Cheese, ibs...
65,787 12 8,223 37 Candles, tis.
132,786 25 33,196 50 Soap, tbs...
531,900 06 32.091 00 Apples, bbls...
6,402 4 00 25,608 00 Dried apples, Ibs. 42,931 13 5,190 03 Sugar, ifs..
340,014 16 54, 102 21 Coffee, the.........
105,800 38 40,554 00 Tea, Ibs......
69,510 1 25 86.925 00 Vegetables, bus. 16,652 1 00 16,652 00 Vinegar, galls.
14.010 00 Tobacco ..
100,000 00 Nails, kogs..
4.582 7 00 32,074 00 Limc, bbls.
8,001 2 00 16,002 00 Hides, lbs... .11,258,567 10 1,121,850 70 Machinery, tons..
1,221 300 00 300,150 00 Beer, bbls..
4,834 7 00 33,838 00 Malt, Ibs
133,021 53 7,316 15 Window glass, boxes, 1,610 7 00 11,480 00 Horses and mules, No.
150 00 94,800 00 Seed, bus.....
40.000* 600 240,000 00 Oil cake, lbs...... 3,315,000
50,175 00 Broom corn, is
50,493 75 Hogs, number
16.975 00 Pig lead, lbs...... 1,968,000 10 190,800 00 Sheep, number....
3,488 00 Railroad iron, tons.... 17,741 100 00 177,410 00 Marble, tons
3,114 130 00 404.820 00 Fire brick, number..... 376,069
9 33,816 21
enable the naval and commercial vessels of young and rapidly growing State of Minnesota || that amendment. It proposes wholly new the United States to navigate safely the lakes should not participate in the largesses of the legislation. and the rivers of the West, and to enable the Government; and as I cannot ask for definite The previous question was seconded and the great agricultural interests of the country to | appropriations without a previous survey and main question ordered; and under the operaadd to the national wealth their heavy contri examination to ascertain the amount requisite, tion thereof the amendment was agreed to. butions and to find a market. The harbors I therefore offer these amendments to the bill, The bill was ordered to be engrossed and named in this hill are all national, and their so that these rivers can be examined and we read a third time ; and being engrossed, it was improvement is a matter of national concern. may know distinctly, when the next session of accordingly read the third time. I therefore, in behalf of the committee, invoke | Congress convenes, just what amount of appro
Mr. ELIOT demanded the previous questhe common voice of this House in favor of || priation will be necessary.
tion on the passage of the bill. this legislation. There is no party question The bill also contains a provision for a sim The previous question was seconded and the involved in it; but in giving to it our support ilar survey of the Mississippi river between Fort || main question ordered ; and under the operawe both provide for the common defense and | Snelling and the falls of St. Anthony. The || tion thereof the bill was passed. promote the general welfare.
importance of the work contemplated in such Mr. ELIOT moved to reconsider the vote Mr. ROSS. I ask the gentleman from Mas a survey cannot be overestimated. It would by which the bill was passed; and also moved sachusetts to yield to me that I may offer an carry the navigation of the Mississippi river up that the motion to reconsider be laid upon the amendment.
to the foot of the great falls of St. Anthony and table, Mr. ELIOT. I will hear the amendment. make continuous navigation in an almost direct The latter motion was agreed to. Mr. ROSS. I desire to move to amend by line north and south from that point to the Gulf
PROVOST MARSUAL GENERAL FRY-AGAIN. inserting at the end of line eighty-eight, page of Mexico. The head such a mighty valley 5, the following: cannot be unimportant. Around it are already
Mr. BLAINE. I ask to send to the Clerk's That $200,000 be appropriated for the improvement || clustering great cities-St. Paul, the capital || table to have read the letter the reading of of
and commercial center of the State, and the which was objected to this morning. Mr. ELIOT. I cannot yield to allow that twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Anthony,
Mr. CONKLING. I do not object, but only amendment to be offered. As gentlemen around possessed of the greatest manufacturing facili- || ask, if the matter relates to me, to have opporme are pressing me to permit amendments, I ties to be found in the entire Mississippi valley;
tunity to reply onght to say that the bill contains no appro and where already the hum of woolen and cot
Mr. BLAINE. I wish to repeat what I said priation which does not rest upon careful esti ton mills is heard, with the clatter of innumer.
before. mates made at the War Department and upon able lumber mills. From these three great
Mr. ROSS. I object to the gentleman from recommendations which have emanated from cities, now growing rapidly, and yet to spread | New York making a speech. there. I want to say, further, that there is not over the intervening country until their expand.
Mr. CONKLING. The gentleman does not one point concerning which petitions have come ing populations mingle and merge in one great
want a letter to be read relating to a member from the people, so that the Committee on metropolis, shall descend to the tropical valley
and then not permit that member to reply. Commerce has had jurisdiction of the question, far below them, there teeming with a crowded,
Mr. ROSS. I withdraw my objection. which has not been carefully examined; and happy, and free population, all the great pro
Mr. BLAINE. I want this letter read for I believe that in every instance where the peo ductions of the temperate regions, lumber and
the double purpose of vindicating myself from ple have desired the action of Congress, and wool, wheat and cattle, the productions of the
the charge of having made an untruthful statewhere it has been possible to obtain from the field and the manufactured goods of the mill.
ment on this floor, and to give, in the broad Department such estimates as would enable It is right and just that the navigation of the
American sense, fair play and opportunity to the committee to determine with any accuracy great river should reach to the very foot of the
a worthy officer to be heard in a forum where what was wanted, appropriations have been falls and receive the cargoes of its floating pal- || he has been assailed. reported. But it would not do to open the bill aces from the very doors of its factories; and
I wish further to say that if, on investigation, to amendments which are loose in their form I trust the time is not far distant when even
I had found I was in error in the statement I and founded on mere guess-work. above the falls the Government can be induced
had made touching the member from the Utica Mr. DONNELLY. I ask the gentleman to make an appropriation sufficient to deepen
district of New York (Mr. Conkling] and from Massachusetts to yield to me for an and improve the river up to the falls above St.
Provost Marshal General Fry, I would, mortiamendment which I can explain in a few words, Cloud. We owe it to the West that, where | fying as it would have been, apologized to the and which I think will not be objectionable to nature has done so much toward the construc
House. Whether I was in error or not I the gentleman.
tion of a mighty highway, no niggardly policy | leave to those who hear the letter of the ProMr. ELIOT. I will hear the amendment. should govern us in relieving it of any partial
vost Marshal General. Mr. DONNELLY. I propose to add after | impediments to navigation.
The Clerk read as follows: the word - Maine" in the sixteenth line of the Mr. ELIOT. As this amendment proposes
WAR DEPARTMENT, fourth section the following: simply a survey, without any additional appro
PROVOST MARSHAL General's BUREAU,
WASHINGTON, April 27, 1866. “At the Zumbro river, Minnesota, at the Cannon | priation I do not object. The gentleman from river, Minnesota.'
SIR: I have to thank you for repelling as you did, New York [Mr. Van Horn) has an amend
in the House of Representatives, on the 25th instant, Mr. Speaker, these rivers penetrate into one ment of a similar character, which I am will the very extraordinary assault upon me by Hon. of the richest agricultural regions of my district; || ing shall be adopted.
Roscoe Conkling. of New York. It was a defense of regions overflowing annually with great crops of Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. My amend
me in a forum where I had no opportunity to be per
sonally heard, and I am enabled to say that your asgrain and whose importance is annually increas ment is to add, “of the harbor and the mouth sertions touching Mr. Conkling's difficulties with this ing. The Zumbro river can be, I am assured, of the Eighteen Mile creek, at Olcott, New bureau are amply and completely justified by the facts
which this letter will disclose. made navigable for steamboats for forty miles York."
My official intercourse with Representatives in Confrom where it enters the Mississippi river; and Mr. PIKE. I desire to offer an amendment gress during the past three years has been constant thus develop immensely the country for a space of the same character. It is to insert, "of
and in many cases intimate, and, with the solitary of twenty miles around it, while it will have a the St. Croix river above the Ledge."
exception of Mr. Conkling, it bas been marked, so
far as I remember, by mutual honor and fairdealing. beneficial effect upon the growth of the entire Mr. ELIOT. I have no objection to that. Mr. Conkling being thus an exception, it is my pur, region in which it is situated, and the towns Mr. ROSS. I desire to move an amend pose to give a brief summary of his connection and upon the Mississippi to which it is tributary.
intercourse with this bureau. ment of the same nature, to add, “from the
In the summer of 1863 Mr. Conkling made a case The Cannon river can be greatly improved, mouth of the Illinois river to La Salle."
for himself by telegraphing to the War Department and it is the belief of many in my State that a Mr. ELIOT. I have no objection to that.
that the provost marshal of his district required legal system of water communication can be created, The SPEAKER. These different proposi
advice, which he was thereupon empowered to give.
In April, 1865, Mr. Charles A. Dana, then Assistant reaching, by canal, from the mouth of the tions will be considered as one amendment. Secretary of War, without notifying me, bad Mr. Cannon river through streams and water-courses The amendment was read, as follows:
Conkling appointed to investigate all frauds in enlistto the Minnesota river. It will be for the offi.
ments in western New York, with the stipulation that Insert after the word “Maine,” in the sixteenth
he should be commissioned judge advocate for the cers who make the survey to determine how line of the fourth section, the following:
prosecution of any cases brought to trial, and he was far so great an enterprise would be practicable
At Zumbro river, Minnesota; at Cannon river,
so appointed to prosecute, before a general courtMinnesota: of the harbor and the mouth of tho at this time, or if not, how much of it shall now
martial, Major J. A. Haddock. Mr. Dana vested him, Eighteen Mile creck, at Olcott, New York; of the St. by several orders issued in the name of the Secretary be attempted. Of one thing we can be assured, Croix river above the Ledge; from the mouth of Illi of War, without the sanction of Mr. Stanton, with that such a work would have the most enormous nois river to La Salle.
the most extraordinary powers. Among these was and instantaneous effect in settling and devel
Mr. ELIOT. Inow callthe previous question. the right to examine tho dispatches in all telegraph oping all that rich region of country, second to
Mr. SPALDING. I ask the gentleman to
offices in the western division of New York, which
enabled a violation of the sanctity of personal and none in the United States in fertility and || give way that I may offer a proviso which will business correspondence. For his services in this conintrinsic value. not interfere with these appropriations. I
nection Mr. Conkling received, on the 9th of NovemThe Legislature of my State has memorialpropose to insert at the end of the bill the ber last, from the United States the modest fee of
$3,000. Whether he received, as it has been reported, ized for both these improvements, and has following:
from his district $5,000 more for the
same service, and asked for land grants to aid them. I prefer
Provided, That the Secretary of War shall at all
whether he received additional fees from guilty parties times be authorized to place the public works of
for opposing proceedings at Utica, I am unable now that an appropriation should be made in money; the United States mentioned in this act in charge of
to say, but, as hereafter shown, he was as zealous in and as it is evident by the appropriations custom-house officers or other agents of the Gov
preventing prosecutions at Utica as he was in making already made by this bill that it is the inten ernment living near to said works respectively, who
them at Elmira; and the main ground of difficulty betion of Congress to make liberal advances for shall protect the same from unwarrantable obstruc
tween Mr.Conkling and myself has been that I wanted tions or injuries of any kind, without additional exposure at both places while he wanted concealment the development and improvement of rivers charge for their services.
at one. I suppose there can be no doubt among highand harbors, I can see no reason why the Mr. ELIOT. I cannot possibly yield for
minded men as to the character of Mr. Conkling's course in this matter. Whether his action in oxer