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RESTORATION OF TIIE UNION.

eriment,

of representation, the character of the people policy will in time begin to shape itself suf this House that the war between the North and represented, their condition, and their relation ficient for all practical purposes. We will then the South has ship to this Government. No man can be a finally settle a question the like of which we “ Severed their original compacts, and broke all Representative here without a constituency; have never before had in our history, and the the ties that bound them together. The future conand the character of that constituency is the like of which I think the history of no nation

dition of the conquered Power depends on the will of prime element in the investigation of a ques on earth has ever exhibited. It was impos.

the conqueror. They must come in as new States or

remain as conquered provinces.” tion of this kind. sible for man alone to grapple with the con

That gentleman also said, Mr. Speaker, if every Representative in this dition of things all through the rebellion.

"I cannot doubt that the late confederate States Hall who professes to be a Union man-1 | There did seem to be a superior Power that are out of the Union to all intents and purnoses speak of those Representatives who have acted was directing all things, and that same Power for which the conqueror may choose so to consider together on this side of the House during the

them.' will lead us on, if we move with cảre, wisdom, Thirty-Seventh and Thirty-Eighth Congresses, and justice, to a right and a proper conclusion.

And again, the same gentleman said in regard and are acting together now, and those of the

to the late confederate States: same class at the other end of the Capitol--would Mr. HARDING, of Kentucky. Mr. Speaker, "To prove that they are and for four years have upou this question take a distinct and definite for more than four years past it has been my

been out of the Union for all legal purposes, and

being now conquered, subject to the absolute disposal position on the side of the great principle which settled conviction, and I so declared in a speech of Congress. I will suggest a few ideas and adduce a I have indicated, acting upon it and sustaining in this House as early as December, 1861, and few authorities." it with all their powers of mind and heart, there | again in January, 1863, that there were two That gentleman clearly saw the logical neces. would be no difficulty about this question of rebellions, one in the North as well as one in sity of boldly assuming that these States are out reconstruction. The great mass of the loyal the South; and though seeming to differ widely | of the Union. He knew that upon any other people of this Union are ready to sustain their on some points, yet in reality -- leagued together theory it was impossible to frame even a plansi. Representatives upon this proposition. There and unitedly warring to overthrow the Con ble defense of the action of his party in regard is no other way to settle the question.

stitution and dissolve the Union. The only to the southern States. Some of his followers, It is the decree of the providence of God that hope, therefore, of saving the Government and with more timidity, but with less clearness of those men who have been in rebellion shall be | restoring the Union rested on the Conservatives perception than himself, have ventured to disoffensive to the instincts of every loyal man; and Democrats standing equally opposed to both pute his premises, while they agree with him in and it is His will that keeps alive in our hearts extremes. The Herculean task that devolved

his conclusions and action. But all such in. and our memories their true condition, which on them was not merely to suppress and con volve themselves in a web of contradictions. reuders them unfit to be represented in these trol one, but two rebellious; because the suc Some of that party say these States “ are neither Halls. Why, sir, if we can read the acts of a cess of either was the destruction of the Gov. in the Union nor exactly out of it, the territory Being superior to ourselves, it may be reason

at least is in the Union." That is, the people able to suppose that the object of the divine pur President Johnson,in a speech delivered in

of the South are out of the Union, but the pose is to hold us back from the work of hasty the Senate in February 1861, uttered a great lands on which they live are in it. Others say reconstruction and to delay that work until the truth when he said

bóthese States are out of the Union for practiprejudices of members in these Halls shall be

"There are two parties in this country that want cal purposes.” That is, for all the purposes so far removed as to enable them to act justly to break up the Governinent. Who are they? The of self-government and representation in Conupon this great question, when they do act, and nullifiers proper of the South, the secessionists, or disunionists, for I use them all as synonymous terins.'

gress they are out of the Union. But for the settle it upon a basis of equal justice to all

“Who else is for breaking up the purpose of obeying laws enacted by others, and and of permanent peace and prosperity to the Government? I refer to some bad men in the North.

paying taxes, they are in the Union. All this country.

There is a set of men called abolitionists, and they
want to break up the Government. They are dis-

is absurd. They are either in or out of the Sir, some people talk about a "policy" of

unionists; they are secessionists; they are nullifiers.' Union. There is no middle ground. reconstruction. It is said that there is a policy

“Whose allies are the abolitionists Mr. Speaker, if the States of the South are with one branch of the Government. I am of the North, if they are not the allies of the seccs

Cersionists and disunionists of the South? Are they not

out of the Union, how did they get out? glad, sir, to be able to say that there is no dis

all laboring and toiling to accomplish the same great tainly it must have been either by secession or tinct policy with Congress. I declare, sir, that end, the overthrow of this great nation of ours? Their by revolution; no other answer has been or can it is not within the wisdom of man to devise a object is the same."

“We find first the run-mad abolitionists of the North-they are

be given. Will any one at this day contend plain, definite policy by which all these ques secessionists: they are for disunion; they are for dis that the Constitution of the United States gives tions are to be settled. The question aw to the solution. When we turn to the South, we see the red any countenance to the doctrine of secession ? proper course to be pursued with reference to hot disunionists and secessionists at the same work."

Does the Constitution provide for its own dethose men who have been in rebellion is de.

Mr. Speaker, the people of the South have struction? Does it arm each separate State cidedly the most troublesome question with || abandoned and repudiated secession. They with the power of withdrawing at pleasure, thus which legislators were ever called to deal. But, have returned to their allegiance, yield obedi- | rising above the Constitution, dissolving the sir, we cannot dispose of that question until once to the Constitution and laws, and anx Union, and at once bringing to an end the Govwe place ourselves upon the principle that they || iously desire the restoration of the Union. The ernment formed by that very Constitution? No, who are loyal to this Government shall, with

war is over. The southern rebellion is wholly sir, no; the great men who formed that Constituout distinction of race or color, participate in suppressed. But, sir, the northern rebellion tion furnished it with ample powers of self-presthe aduninistration of it. When we are ready || is still rampant and defiant, and there is no ervation. They intended and provided for its to act upon that principle we shall then the hope of the restoration of the Union until that perpetuity; so that, in the language of Pres. more readily and easily undertake the solution rebellion is also subdued, or at least reduced ident Jobnson's message, “no room is allowed of the other great question, which is always to a controllable minority. We had four years even for the thought of a possibility of its combound to be far more difficult until we take the of terrible and exhausting war to keep eleven ing to an end." If, then, as all admit, the right position upon the first.

States of the South from going out of the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, A policy !” Why, sir, there is one policy, Union. And now we have had four months, every ordinance of secession in the South being if it can be called such, which is easy to under and are threatened with four years of political opposed to the Constitution and seeking its overstand and easy to act upon. It is to trample and congressional war, to drive these eleven throw of necessity must have been absolutely right and justice under foot. It is to receive States out, and prevent the restoration of the || null and void; and being void must be regarded into our breasts the poison whose fatal intlu- || Union.

as wholly inoperative, and therefore could not ence bas been so fully demonstrated. It is to These northern disunionists, the better to work any change in the constitutional relations inoculate upon our Government a branch from disguise their real object and deceive the loyal of the States to the Federal Government. But, that foul Upas which has in the days of the people of the Nortli, have at different times sir, it is not necessary to argue this question at past cast its deadly blight upon this nation. assumed different names. First they are known length. It is well known that during the whole Sir, it would be a very easy thing to incorpo. as Radical Abolitionists, and then Republic. || period of the war, President Lincoln, with all rate again into the Government the evils under ans; next they claim to be Unionists, and then the supporters of his Administration, scouted which we have suffered in the past, and which to belong to the Unconditional Union party. the idea that any resolution or ordinance of did so much to bring upon us the horrors of | Now, their friends in Congress claim to be secession could take any State out of the Union, the recent rebellion.

Reconstructionists, and have their reconstruc and even the men who now show themselves to Sir, in the healing art there are two classes tion committee, composed of master workmen, be practical secessionists then professed to hold of physicians. Those of the one class are able | deeply skilled in the art of breaking up the old that opinion. to heal the outward symptoms of a wound, to Union, clearing away the rubbish, and build Let us next inquire whether the revolution give it a healthy surface, and remove the cor ing a new one. There can be no such thing -the war-took these States out of the Union. ruption which meets the eye, while the virulent as rebuilding or reconstructing the Union un The States, as such, could not commit treason, and deep-seated disease still lingers in a latent less it has been broken up and dissolved. The could not be indicted and prosecuted. There form to break forth soon again with increased | basis, therefore, and central idea of this rev. is no authority in the Constitution, and none severity. But, sir, a physician of the other olutionary movement, called reconstruction, is has been claimed, to make war upon the States, class, with the skill of the wisest surgery cuts disunion. It rests on the assumption that the as such; and there has been no war against deeply and eradicates the festering mass, and Union has been dissolved. It has no other them. A portion of the people in all the souththus by a merciful severity restores lasting foundation or support. They clain that the ern States remained loyal and true to the Union health.

eleven States of the South are out of the during the war. They were not guilty of treaMr. Speaker, when we are ready to act on Union.

son and incurred no forfeiture of any kind. principles right and just we will then find we The gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. Ste All the proclamations of the President in rewill have far less difficulty in the way. All vens] has repeatedly declared in speeches in Il gard to insurrection applied not to the States,

war.

nor to the loyal people, but to that portion only of the South were still in the Union. The Con and subjugation. Who will justify for such a of the inhabitants of the States who were in stitution provides that

purpose

the millions of treasure expended and armed rebellion against the Federal Govern

“Representatives and direct taxes shall be appor

the rivers of blood that has been shed? And, ment. The insurgents in the South made war tioned among the several States which may be in sir, was it not a base and criminal trand for for the purpose of taking their States out of cluded within this Union according to their respective gentlemen holding such sentiments to induce

numbers." the Union, and establishing a separate and in

thousands of soldiers to join the Army and pour dependent government over thein. That was Under that provision of the Constitution out their blood to keep States in the Union that the issue tendered by them; that was the issue | Congress, by law passed during the war, im were already out, as such gentlemen knew, or accepted by the Federal Government, On the posed direct taxes upon each of the States in at least believed? How will such gentlemen 22d of July, 1861, both Houses of Congress the South as States in the Union. Under the answer to the thousands of bereaved widows passed a resolution by almost unanimous votes same clause of the Constitution Congress also and stricken orphans all over the land who have in which they declared that the war was not apportioned to each of the States in the South been thus robbed of husbands and fathers? waged on our part

as well as to those of the North its proper And will not the blood of slaughtered thou“For any purpose of conquest or subjugation, nor number of Representatives in Congress. And sands rise in judgment and call for vengeance purpose of overthrowing or interfering with the rights

in fact nearly every law of a general character on those who deceived and betrayed them? or established institutions of the States, but to defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution, and

passed during the war extended to and in- | Mr. Speaker, the Union was formed by the to preserve the Union with all the dignity, cquality, cluded the States of the South as States in Constitution, and so long as it continues the and rights of the several States unimpaired." the Union. Members of Congress from Ten Union of the States must continue. The Con

The Federal arms were triumphantly success nessee and Louisiana, representing portions | stitution, like a band of iron, encircles, bịnds, ful. No one will have the hardihood to deny | of those States, were received and acted and and holds the States together. It is not possithat every issue involved in the war thus waged | voted in Congress during the war; and at no ble for any State to get out of the Union while was gained to the Federal Government by the period of the war has there been less than the Constitution lasts. If it be true, then, as successful result of the This alone three members of Congress here acting with | gentlemen contend, that the States of the South would seem sufficient to close all debate on us representing the western portion of Vir. are out of the Union, then the Constitution is this question.

ginia. Congress has thus, by its recorded ac overthrown, and the States of the North are The gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. Ste- tion, treated, acknowledged, and recognized | also out of the Union; the Constitution holds VENS] says the States of the South are out of those States as States in the Union, and is now all or none. If the logic of the gentleman from the Union. But we answer, the war was waged | estopped to deny its own record. The action | Pennsylvania proves South Carolina or Georgia to keep them from going out; and the war was of the other departments of the Government to be out of the Union, it must of necessity successful. That gentleman holds that the war has been to the same effect.

prove that Pennsylvania is also out of the Union; between the North and the South - severed all The late proclamation of President Johnson and then it follows that the Constitution is overcompacts and broke all ties that bound them declares the wir ended, and those States re thrown and the Union dissolved; and this being together.” But the answer is, the Constitu stored to the constitutional rights, now with the case, Congress has no authority, all its tion was the tie that bound them together. I held from them by Congress. By the procla- || action is usurpation, an unlawful assembly, and The war was waged on our part" to defend and mations of President Lincoln, and of President the sooner broken up and dispersed the better. maintain the supremacy of the Constitution," Johnson, and indeed by the action generally of All the consequences I have mentioned, and and the war was successful.

the executive branch of the Government, those more, necessarily result from the assumption He holds that the people of the South have States have been recognized as States in the that the States of the South are out of the been subjugated, conquered, and are subject Union at all times during and since the war. Union. The theory of the reconstruction party to the will of the conqueror;

or to the abso The Supreme Court of the United States ordered means disunion and revolution, and it means lute disposal of Congress.'' But nothing of that causes brought up from the southern States | nothing else. the kind could possibly result from the war, should be doeketed, regularly called, and tried ; Mr. Speaker, when we discard the pestilent because we have seen that the war was not thus, in effect, deciding that those States are heresies of northern disunionists, and turn to waged for any purpose of conquest or subju. still in the Union. So that at every period of the sound constitutional theory held by loyal gation."

the war, and by every department of the Gov men, that, by the successful result of the war That gentleman, and others of the same ernment, legislative, executive, and judicial, the rebellion in the South has been subdued, the party, contend that the war has destroyed the there has been the fullest recognition of the supremacy of the Constitution maintained, and States of the South and reduced them to mere fact that those States are still in the Union. the Union with all the constitutional rights of Territories or conquered provinces. But the Mr. Speaker, suppose it to be true, as gen the States preserved, we find not the shadow war on the part of the Federal Government tlemen contend, that the eleven States of the of a legal or constitutional difficulty in the way was waged, as we have seen, not to destroy or South are out of the Union, what is the conse of complete restoration, harmony, and peace. overthrow, but to "preserve the States with quence? What does it mean? If it be true When the rebellion in the South was subdued, all their dignity, equality, and rights unim that all ties between the North and the South and the insurgents yielded obedience to the paired," and the war was successful. How were broken, that the States of the South “now Constitution and laws, then the States were in preposterous it is for gentlemen to claim, as are and for four years past have been out of law restored to all their constitutional rights in the result of successful war on our part, ex the Union," a separate and foreign Power, the Union. And they would have been in fact actly what would have resulted if the South then the moment that separation took place | restored months ago, and the whole machinery had been successful on their part.

the allegiance of the people of those States was of national and State governments moving in The war waged by the insurgents in the transferred to their own confederate govern- harmony, but for the fact that the northern South to take their States out of the Union ment. They could no longer claim protection rebellion has thrown itself like a lion across was a failure, yet gentlemen say these States from the Government of the United States, the pathway of restoration, and arrested every are out. The war on our part to keep these because they did not belong to it, and for the movement in that direction. States in the Union was a success, yet gentle. same reason owed no allegiance to it. They Mr. Speaker, if the Constitution and the inen say they are out of the Union. That is could claim protection from the confederaie Union have been preserved, and the States of saying that the success of the Federal Govern government, they were citizens of it, and there. the South are in the Union, as I think has ment was its failure ; and the failure of the fore owed allegiance to it. It follows, there been fully proved, then it necessarily follows southern rebellion was its success. This im fore, that after the separation those called that the States of the North and of the South portant discovery has been made by the supe Union men in the South, who took up arms in are coequals in regard to all the constitutional rior wisdom of the northern rebellion. It was favor of the United States, then a foreign Gor- | rights of States in the Union. This is a selfwholly unknown in the South.

ernment to them, were deserters and traitors, evident proposition, its truth cannot be disMr. Speaker, what has been the public sen and guilty of treason against the confederate | puted, because the Constitution knows no diftiment of the country on this question? When government, to which alone their allegiance | ference, it allows no difference, but places all the confederate armies all surrendered, and

was due.

But for the same reason all in the the States on the ground of perfect equality. the war closed, the whole country throughout || South who fought against the United States And for men to attempt to enforce a difference the northern States was filled with bonfires, || and to sustain the confederate government, in regard to the admission of members of Conilluminations, and public rejoicings. Was it were heroes and patriots. It follows, more gress, or any other right, is to turn revolubecause the war had severed all ties between over, that during the same period, neither Jef tionists and trample under foot the Constituthe North and the South, and separated eleven ferson Davis, nor any oflicer or soldier who tion they have sworn to support. In view of States from the rest? Did the people rejoice | fought under him, could possibly have been the Constitutioil, what becomes, sir, of all we over a dissevered Union? If so, then was the | guilty of treason against the Government of have heard in these Halls from week to week nation drunk. Instead of denionstrations of the United States; it was to them a foreign | about guarantees, guarantees, and bonds to keep joy there was the deepest cause of sorrow; the Government, and they owed no allegiance to the peace? The Representatives of part of the whole country should have been draped in it. Upon these principles, is not the long | States in the Union, with magisterial air turnmourning, while all the bells in the land sounded || incarceration of Jefferson Davis in prison, after | ing to other States in the Union and demand. the knell of the Union. But no, sir, the peo the war is over, an act of cruelty that admits || ing guarantees, dictating the terms upon which ple were not drunk, they rejoiced in the full of no justification ?

they will graciously deign to allow their Repassurance that all the States were saved, the And again, sir, upon this theory, it follows resentatives seats on this floor, assuming to supremacy of the Constitution maintained, and that after the separation and for four years || inquire into the political and moral history of the Union preserved.

past," the war on our part was not to keep the Representatives sent here by States in the Mr. Speaker, during the whole period of the States of the South in the Union, for they were Union! If the Representative is found loyal war Congress, by its action, declared the States || already out; but was a war for mere conquest ll inccording to their standard, inquire whether

were

the State that sent bim is loyal, but if so, then loyalty to the Constitution, and show it engaged Now, suppose the people of Massachusetts demand guarantees that the State will remain in revolution to overthrow it.

should elect and send here Wendell Phillips as loyal for all time to come. Sir, this is the The Constitution defines, limits, and fixes the their Representative, a man who has been senseless jargon we have heard here ringing || qualifications of members of Congress. As to steeped in treason for twenty years; and yet in these Halls until the true friends of the this House the Representative must be twenty: who doubts that the very men who are alarmed country are weary of it.

five years of age; must have been seven years at the idea of seeing a southern rebel liere, Jr. Speaker, the gentleman from Pennsylva a citizen of the United States; and when elected would nevertheless take by the hand this great nia [Mr. STEVENS] is always consistent, though, an inhabitant of the State in which he is chosen. rebel leader of the northern rebellion, and welas I think, always wrong in regard to the status | Everything else is left to the judgment and dis come him to a seat by their side in this House? of the southern States; still he seldom, if ever, cretion of the people who elect him. If the But at the same time their loyal nerves would reaches a conclusion at war with his premises. || Representative sent here has the age, citizen be shocked if a southern rebel were in the But this is far from being true as to others who | ship, and residence I have mentioned, then House. How righteous these political saints act with him. Some weeks ago the gentleman | the Constitution declares lim qualified.' Con are; almost as righteous as were the Scribes from New York [Mr. RaYMOND] favored us gress has no power to add to or take from these and Pharisees! with a speech in reply to the gentleman from qualifications. To do so would be to change Mr. Speaker, when a Congress like this, repPennsylvania. The first part of that speech the Constitution. Congress can judge of but resenting only part of the country, arrogates to was a successful attack upon the position of cannot fix or make qualifications. It is plain, itself the power to ignore the Constitution and the gentleman from Pennsylvania " that the || therefore, what is meant by that other clause | fix its own rules for the admission of members southern States were out of the Union, con of the Constitution, which says "each House from other parts of the country, it is manifest quered provinces, and subject to the will of | shall be the judge of the elections, returus, and that Congress, and not the people, choose the Congress. The gentleman from New York qualifications of its own members." Now, Representative, because unless he will suit their established the reverse of that proposition; when a Representative from a State presents wishes and strengthen their party the door of and he went on to say:

himself here, this House has power under that Congress is closed against him. There can be "I regard these States as just as truly within the

clause of the Constitution to judge of what, no plainer act of revolution to overthrow rejurisdiction of the Constitution, and therefore just as of his character, of his loyalty, of the loyalty publican government than this. And yet, sir, really and truly States of the American Union as they were before the war."

of his constituents? No, of none of these; that is precisely what has been going on here In regard to our action or dealings with those by the Constitution as to age, citizenship, and but only whether he has the qualifications fixed for more than four months of this session.

This body of Representatives from the northern States the gentleman said :

residence, and whether the election and returns and middle States have, in fact, for the time * We are to be guided and governed, not simply by are according to law. This is all that is meant being, nullified the Constitution and seceded our own sovereign will and pleasure as conquerors, by that clause of the Constitution; and with from the other States of the Union; and are but by the restrictions and limitations of the Constitution of the United States, precisely as we are re

the gentleman from Pennsylvania I say, "It now, as to the legislative branch, carrying on etrained and limited in our dealings with all other seems amazing that any man of legal educa a separate government to the exclusion of the States of the American Union." tion could give it any larger meaning.

other States, based on this act of secession. We listened with great interest and pleasure Mr. Speaker, when it is earnestly insisted They have what they call “a reconstruction to these sound constitutional views so ably pre. here that the plain provisions of the Constitu committee." This committee matures plans sented and defended by that gentleman. But tion should alone control this House in admit and adopts rules for the larger body; it answers it was with pain that we heard the gentleman | ting Representatives into this body, whether | all the purposes and more nearly resembles in the latter part of the same speechi declare, sent from the South or from the North, the one of the secession conventions of the South that before allowing their Representatives seats Constitution as to both being the same, gen than anything else seen in this country since in Congress, he would require of these States tlemen seem alarmed, and say, “The South 1861. Sir, was not President Johnson right "certain conditions in the nature of gnarantees may, send here men who were leaders in the when he charged, in the Senate in February, for the future." They must repudiate their rebel army." And in holy horror they exclaim, 1861, that the abolitionists of the North “ war debt; abandon and renounce the principle "Are we to take by the hand and welcome to nullifiers and secessionists??? They are now of State sovereignty; guaranty the proper seats here rebels whose hands have been stained || demonstrating the truth of the charge, though treatment of the freedmen ; "he would exact with loyal blood?” But in reply it might be acting under another name. of them all needed and all just guarantees for | asked, “Will you, then, stain your souls with But certain gentlemen say if the Representtheir future loyalty to the Constitution and perjury by violating the plain provisions of atives from the South are allowed to come laws of the United States." And he further the Constitution you have sworn to support, into Congress there is danger that laws may be said:

and thereby make yourselves as gạilty and repealed which they desire to perpetuate, and "I would exercise a rigid scrutiny into the charac

criminal as you say they are?!! But let us not other measures distasteful to them enacted. ter and loyalty of the inen whom they may send to be too much alarmed, but examine the question Well, suppose it should be so, what do you Congress before I allowed them to participate in the a moment. There would be more reason to propose to do about it? You answer, you inhigh prerogative of legislating for the nation. believe gentlemen sincere in the alarm they tend to provide against it," you

6 do not inIt seems strange that the gentleman from express if they had not refused seats to Rep tend to submit to it.” Then you do not intend New York, starting out from premises exactly || resentatives sent here from the South who to have a government controlled by a majority the reverse, should nevertheless be found in

are men of acknowledged loyalty, men who of the people of the whole country. You inhis conclusions hand in hand with the gentle were in the Union Ariny and periled their tend to establish an oligarchy on the ruins of man from Pennsylvania, ready to vote and act lives in defense of its flag: If the South sḥould | republican government. You are now seekwith him in holding the States of the South send a man here guilty of treason or other high ing to accomplish your purpose by civil revo** subject to the absolute will and disposal of crime, who had neither been tried, punished, lution, but you are preparing the elements that Congress.” Possibly that gentleman, after nor pardoned, any one of you could have him may bring on a fearful and bloody conflict. Of assaulting and carrying the outer works and arrested and sent off for trial, and so avoid one thing rest assured: the people of this counstrongholds of his adversary, became panic | his presence. Possibly, sir, a similar case try will never long submit to a government of stricken, and when victory was within his reach might arise in the North, and what then would any form that does not allow the voice of the surrendered to the gentleman from Pennsyl be the action of those gentlemen? We all know whole people to be heard in its management. vania. It would have been cruelty if the Penn that for many years before the war there were Mr. Speaker, the northern rebellion, or dissylvanian had imposed harder terms, for the large numbers in the North of open and avowed union party of the North, at every period and surrender was unconditional.

disunionists and traitors, laboring from year || under all its assumed names, has been, and Now, sir, it is plain that if Congress can to year to dissolve the Union. Take a single now is, substantially the same. Always too require of a State in the Union any guarantee | example. Some time before the war a society || busy with the sins of others to repent of its or any condition not provided for in the Con of these disunionists met in Boston, Massachu own; always aggressive and intolerant; always stitution, as the ground upon which the State setts, and passed this resolution :

moved by a rapacious lust of power; its vital shall be allowed representation in Congress,

Resolved, l'hat the one great issue before the || principle of action, its motive power, is native, then any number or kind of guarantees and country is the dissolution of the Union, in compar inbred, political depravity. I'o gain political conditions may be required; so that the right ison with which all other issues with the slave power

power it assumed the garb of philanthropy, are as dust in the balance; therefore we give ourof the State to representation is made to depend selves to the work of annulling this covenant with shed hypocritical tears over the negro, and wholly on the sovereign will and pleasure of death as essential to our owninnocence and the speedy struck for the abolition of slavery. Its ceaseCongress, and therefore the State may be exand everlasting overthrow of the slavo system.

less agitation of the slavery question from year cluded from representation altogether if Con In support of the resolution Wendell Phillips || to year culminated in a war between the North gress shall think proper to do so. Sir, it is said:

and the South, the most desolating and sanseen at a glance that all the guarantees and

"I entirely accord with the sentiments of that last | guinary the world ever saw. Taking advanconditions mentioned by the gentleman from resolution. I think all we have to do is to prepare tage of the war thus brought on, it accomplished New York are in utter contempt of the restric

the public mind by the daily and hourly presentation the abolition of slavery, tions and limitations of the Constitution. No

of the doctrine of disunion. Events which, fortu-
nately for us, the Government itself and other parties

And here, sir, passing by that enormous one here would for a moment think of saying are producin; with unexampled rapidity, are our best || public debt that has doomed the white race to to a State of the North, “Give us guarantees aid."

the grinding and oppressive slavery of taxathat you will remain loyal in future and we will And even during the war, Phillips, in a speech tion for generations to come; forgetting the allow your Representatives seats with us, but in this city, boasted that he had spent nineteen million of brave white men that have fallen not otherwise. Such a demand by Congress years to take nineteen States out of the Union ; and perished in camp and battle-field; passing would be the highest evidence of its own dis and there are many such men in the North. by their maimed survivors, with the multiplied

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TIIK NATIONAL DEBT.

thousands of widows and orphans that fill and land with kindred blood, and blasted the coun have security for the future. Those lately in sadden the land; passing by all this, let us try with desolation, as if smitten by the light- | rebellion are now clamorous to become again pause and consider for a moment what abo. nings of heaven.

a part of the governing power of the nation; to fitionisin has done for the black race. Four By their fruits you shall know them.” help mold our policy ; to help enact our laws, million slaves, by nature far inferior to the Radicalism in the North sowed and cultivated Five years since they scornfully abdicated the white race, never accustomed to think or pro. the seed, and the fruit was a harvest of blood. seats they held in these bigh places, and invide for themselves, depending wholly on their To conceal its horrid visage, radicalism put on sulted us who remained true to our allegiance masters for homes, support, and protection, a the robe of pbilanthropy, and four millions of with declarations of a purpose never again large portion of them aged and infirm men and the black race are robbed of home and pro to share with us in a common Government. women and helpless children; all of them are tection, and doomed to extermination, while | They left of their own will and against ours. suddenly robbed of food, clothing, home, and the whole race of free white laborers through- || They must return in accordance with our will protection, and turned out naked, homeless, out the whole country are sold into the galling and upon our terms. The victory won by our and penniless to struggle for existence as best slavery of taxation, cut off even from the hope brave soldiers and sailors must bear its fruits, they can with a superior and highly cultivated that their children after them will be emanci and the vanquished must relinquish all the white race.

As must have been foreseen pated. Thus has the sun-dial of prosperity and causes of the war. They must not only abanby all bui blind fanatics, already many thou- | happiness of this great country been set back | don slavery, but the principle of slavery, and sands of them have perished and died from half a centnry. And now, sir, the same party, must secure the rights of freemen to all the disease, exposure, cold, and hunger. Thou under another name, and with the cry of liberty | freedmen within their borders. This is the sands more all over the country are now per on its tongue, is earnestly striving to subvert | natural and inevitable result of the war, and ishing, starving, and dying. Even here in this the foundations of republican government,

from it there is no escape. They must repu: city, the voice of suffering and hunger appeals laboring to centralize, consolidate, and build diate the rebel debt, renounce the claimed right to us from all the abolition pens, where hun up a frightful Federal despotism, under whose of secession, and be willing to accept as the dreds of them are huddled together in rags and dark and deadly shadow self-government and true theory of our Constitution that which the fifth, perishing and starving. Only a few days all State rights would utterly sink and perish. war has settled in conformity with the purposes ago you appropriated $25,000 to save from Sir, the people have been too long deceived of its framers. They must cultivate a spirit starvation, a few days longer, the miserable || by the hypocritical professions and fair names of loyalty to the Union, and prove it by their inmates of these abolition pens in this city. | assumed by the northern disunionists. They works. To do less is but to mock the nation's And you call these wretched victims of your should remember that under the mask of the heroes who fought and died for us. policy "freedmen." And the act by which you best names the worst crimes have been com This much I am prepared to require, and I placed them in this condition, you call

mitted. In the name of liberty and equality": know in doing so I will be carrying out the cipation."

But "the iron pen of history will France was deluged in blood, while all law and views of the constituency who sent me here, record it as the most monstrous act of cruelty | all liberty lay prostrate beneath the iron tread and who in disaster and danger never wearied that ever darkened the annals of any of the of tyranny. And in other days, in the outraged of showing how tenderly their hearts anıl how nations of the earth." Sir, the country begins name of religion, martyr fires were kindled, I closely their fortunes were intertwined with the to see now that abolitionism and not the Con and men of whom the world was not worthy' destinies of the Republic. siitution is indeed “,

a covenant with death" consumed at the stake. to the negro.

Sir, the times are alarming. The horizon is Not content with the ruin they have wrought, full of dark and ominous clouds. Let the true

This war has entailed upon us a debt of these pestilent agitators seize on the fact that friends of the country, of every name, unite

nearly three thousand million dollars, with an slavery is abolished, and make that the basis

with the Democratic hosts of the North, rally | annually aceruing interest of at least one hunof a new conflict. They are now everywhere around and sustain the President in his patri | gation. It is due chiefly to our own citizens,

This is a sacred oblistriking for negro equality, warring against the otic and noble stand for the liberty of the peolaws of nature, seeking to blot out all distinc ple; and the northern rebellion will be crushed

who, with a spontaneous liberality beyond all tions, and crush down the white race to politi- and subdued, our blood-bought heritage of con

example, opened their coffers at the invitation cal and social equality with the blacks; all for stitutional liberty wrested from its deadly grasp,

of their Government in its hours of darkness the purpose of gaining a new recruit of negro and the Constitution with the Union restored

and distress. No honest man will countenance voters to aid them in ruling and governing the and preserved.

the thought of repudiation in whole or in part. white people in the South and border States.

The debt must be paid to the last dollar. It The natural tendency of this movement will be

will be so paid, and one more will thus be added to engender a bitterness of feeling and burning Mr. MOORHEAD. Mr. Speaker, in rising

to the long list of unfulfilled prophecies which antagonism between the whites and blacks that to discuss the duty the Government owes to

croakers during the war spread throughout the

land. may break out in a war of races, resulting in the Labor of the country, I do not wish to be the extermination of the whole remnant of the understood as seeking to avoid the consider

But the payment of the interest, the paynegro race in this country. But taking for their ation of other duties that devolve upon this

ment of the ordinary expenses of the Govern. Better reign in hell than serve in hea- | Congress, in connection with the restoration of

ment, and the creation of a fund for the gradven, ," these mad, restless spirits rush on to the national authority over the lately rebellious

ual extinction of the debt, involves system another conflict, reckless of all consequences, States. These latter are of the highest mag

of taxation which, in all its ramifications, opens determined to rule or ruin. Sir, the country nitude. None higher have ever devolved upon

a wide field for the exercise of the highest will see after awhile, begins to see now, that any body of legislators; and none of equal qualities of statesmanship, the great purpose abolitionism, not slavery, was the sum of all importance have rested upon an American Con- | being to harmonize this duty with the developvillainies;" and the poor deluded negro will gress since the close of the session of the body

ment of the resources of the country, the enfind too late that his master was his best and which placed the Government in operation,

couragement of its labor, and the improvement kindest friend, and the abolitionist his worst The patience and patriotism, the wisdom and

of the condition of the people. and most cruel enemy.

prudence, the skill and courage of those fathers Mr. Speaker, the rebellion in the South can of the Republic have been vindicated in the plead in extenuation much provocation long l growth, glory, and strength of the nation. An Some advantages lighten this task. The and patiently borne, but the northern rebel. equal meed of praise will be ours if, like them, enormous extent of our soil, embracing every lion can urge no such plea. Radicalism in we do our duty faithfully, wisely, and well. variety of climate and production, the fertility the North was the source and origin of all the To this end we want not baste. On the of the land, its wealth of timber and minerals, terrible convulsions and bloody horrors this other hand, cautious watchfulness should pre its abundant water-power, its facilities of country has suffered. The South, with all its

cede every step

We want not rashness. On intercommunication by rail and river, and the errors, made no aggressions on the rights of the other hand, the most thorough self-posses substantial bomogeneousness of the people the North. It never intermeddled with, nor sion should guaranty the soundness of every are elements of great consequence; and their sought to control, the domestic institutions of link of policy. We want not cowardice. On coexistence will enable us, by diffusing the the States in the North. The South claimed the other hand, a manly courage should impel public burdens among our vast and varied only to exercise that control over its own do us to see our dangers and should nerve us to interests, to make them rest lightly on every mestic affairs it freely conceded to the North, ineet and surmount them. On these points I One thing, however, is indispensable, and which was secured to both by a conimon have very few theories. I do not distract my. namely, that we have the amount of labor Constitution. But the radicals of the North, self over the many perplexing suggestions necessary to reach these resources, combine without the hope of benefiting that section, which this great debate has elicited on every them into products, and form within ourselves and with no temptation save the gratification hand. To me it is comparatively unimportant || the chain of production and consumption which, of a fallen, depraved, and malignant spirit, which line of argument may ultimately be es in its inevitable and constant round, casts its denounced the Constitution as “a league with tablished. I content myself with knowing that || blessings upon all classes and pursuits. death and a covenant with hell," and made the rebellion has been triumphantly suppressed, Europe is sending us the bone and muscle of lawless and unprovoked aggressions from year chat the flag of the Union has been vindicated, her population. Emigration is adding almost to year on the constitutional rights of the and that the nation is not to be severed. I incalculably to our wealth. Each season we South. This led to the formation of two bit-know, further, that it is a duty we owe both to receive not less than one hundred thousand ter sectional parties, one in the North and one the dead and the living to require from those hale and hearty emigrants, worth more to 11s, in the South. And, as foretold by the Father whom we have overcome on the bloody fields in my opinion, than the importation of $100,of his Country, these sectional parties soon of battle some guarantees for the future. If we 000,000 in gold. Each laborer, as he digs in brought on a horrid conflict that reddened the do not demand indemnity for the past we must tbe mines, or works in the mills, at the fur

TIIE VATION AND ITS LABOR.

motto 6

DISTRIBUTION OF THE PUBLIC BURDENS AND THE

NECESSITY OF PROTECTIOX.

one.

30
10

90
50

8
2

6

1 00

50

50

7

10

80 50

17

3

nace, the plow, the loom, the anvil, adds to ble contest which resulted in the passage of See, besides, the incidental benefit derived the nation's wealth by increasing the market the free-trade tariff of 1846.

from the presence in this count:y, rather than value of the article upon which he is engaged They charge, further, that with the cost of in Great Britain, of mezifacturing establishor preparing for prodnction from the soil. | freight, insurance, and incidental charges added ments. The Cambria Iron Works at Johns. This labor at once becomes part of the nation's to the present duty, there is a discrimination town, Pennsylvania, paid their employés, in capital, and enters into the computation of the of at least seventy percent. upon the manufac 1861, the enormous sum of $1,399,899 82; and nation's revenue.

turers' price of rails in favor of the American in 1865, the still larger sum of $1,535,580 24. The more constant its employment the more manufacturer. This can be easily refuted. The The population maintained by this establishconstant and important its results. If unex foreign rail bears no share of the indirect bur ment consumes annually, 2,000 head of beef erted, it is lost forever, both to the laborer dens levied by Government, and pays only the cattle, 3,000 head of sheep, the product of not and to the nation. Thus the interest of every || import duty. The English and Welsh iron less than 4,000 hogs, and 20,000 barrels of part of the people is the interest of the whole; workers receive at this time an average of about wheat flour from the States of Illinois, Wis. and the duty of the laborer to work has its fifty cents per day, making the net cost of a consin, Iowa, and other parts of the great counterpart in the duty of the nation to help ton of rails abont twenty dollars. The net cost Northwest. him work. The two are interdependent. The of a ton of rails may be fairly computed at An iron-works, to produce from the ore man cannot maintain himself without it. The forty days' labor. Including the miner, mill 10,000 tons per annum, employs the labor of State cannot be prosperous unless its “bone men, mechanic, clerk, and manager, the aver 1,200 men, which supports a population of and sinew' be employed and prosperous. So age rate of wages paid to men engaged in this 6,500 of all ages and both sexes, who, by the we find the unanswerable argument for protec country is two dollars per day, making the cost ascertained rate of political economists, contion in the very necessities of our nature, of the rails eighty dollars per ton. Four fifths sume fifty dollars per head in agricultural prodwhich we dare not disregard, and which we of this are expended in living as soon as earned. ucts. The rail-mills of the country in 1865 must respect if we would live and thrive. On which the subjoined calculation, which has produced 353,017 tons. If we make the liberal INTERFERENCE OF FOREIGN INTERESTS.

been verified and may be accepted as substan deduction of 123,015 tons for rails rerolled, Interceted parties seek to drive the American

tially correct, shows the amount of tax received and throw all the labor employed in rerolling Congress from the discharge of this plain duty | by. Government, which, be it remembered, re out of the calculation, we have 230,000 tons as

ceives nothing of this upon the foreign rail: the amount of production, sustaining a poputo its people; and, as formerly, the impulse now comes “from over the water." I have Table showing the indirect tac paid by labor on a ton

lation of 150,000, who consume annually in just received, Mr. Speaker, from a constituent,

of rails.

farm products alone, $7,475,000. This is the

Articles Taxed. this circular, which has been extensively dis

Value. Tax. special branch of the iron business which tlie Sugar

$2 00 tributed throughout the western States, I learn.

foreign trade in railroad iron” desire ConCoilee It is so instructive upon this point that I insert Buckets, tubs, &c.

gress to sacrifice for their benefit, on the pre

2.4 it entire:

Sirup.....

1 50

text, also, that a few hundred miles of railroad, Matches (Confidential.)

to be constructed this year or the next, may he Tea..

1 50 25 New York, March 19, 1866. Soap, 6 lbs.

7.2

spared from borrowing a thousand dollars or DEAR SIR: We the undersigned irou merchants in

Vinegar..

2 so more per mile than might be required if Brooms..

60 New York, representing, we believe, the entire foreign

2.7 they succeed in their design of destroying it. trade in railroad iron, and also a portion of that of Carb. oil, gas, candles, &c.

But the circular seeks to create a jealousy llardware, queensware, &c.

2 00 40 our own country, beg respectfully, but carnestly, to

Patent medicines, doctoring, &c.

1 25 15

by alleging that it is the manufacturers of call your attention to the efforts being marlo by the

Muslins.....

2 50 12 iron-masters of Pennsylvania, through their Rep

Pennsylvania who are making this effort. Why resentatives in Congress, to procure an addition to Hosiery, &e.......

single out the Keystone State for special menChecks, &c....

2.6 the already excessive duty on rails. With the cost of

Calico and ginghams.

3 75 18.3 freight, insurance, and incidental charges added to

tion?. In 1865, the total production of rail. Cloths, cassinettes, and fanncls.. 3 75 the present duty, there is a discrimination of at least

road iron in the United States was 353,017 Manufactured clothing.

2 00 12 seventy per cent. upon the manufacturers' prico of

tons, of which 189,123, or more than one half, Boots and shoes...

4 00 2 rails in favor of the American iron-master. It strikes

Beef, pork, and other meats...

.10 00 us this should be quite enough to secure bim a profit.

were made in other States; and of the thirtyTaxes, stamps, &c......

1 00 But it does appear strange that with a deoline in gold,

seven mills in the United States, about two labor, and the cost of living, an attempt should be

Whisky, 1 gallon .......

400 $2

thirds are in other States than Pennsylvania, Beer, 1 gallon...

40 made, aided by a political money influence, so power

60 Smoking tobacco, 1 tb.

35 ful as to warrant à fair chance of success to advance

as appears from the following table: Chewing tobacco, 1 lb

1 00 40 the price of rails, under the name of protection to

States.

No, of mills. Cigars......

75 home industry, to a price which would prevent the

Sundries..

2 61

Massachusetts development of now enterprises and materially in

New York..... terfere with the repairs and reconstruction of the

New Jersey railroads of the South and West. It would appear

$50 00 $5 83
Pennsylvania

.14 as if the entire railroad, commercial, and agricul

Maryland. tural interests of tho country were to give way to the

Articles not Taxed.

Rent......... advancement of the one interest in Pennsylvania,

West Virginia $100

Ohio....... which has under the present tariff increased its ca

Flour, { bbl...

Butter and cheese.. pacity for production so considerably, and yet claims

100

kentucky. Lard.

Indiana. legislation to almost make its business a monopoly.

Illinois.. We commend this matter to your careful consid Vegetables, eggs, &o...

5 00

Michigan.. eration, and beg that you will use your influence

Not taxed......... with your Ropresentative in Congress, and endeavor

15 20

Tennessee.. to give them full information on this subject, and ask

Taxed.....

50 00

Pennsylvania contains but a portion of the them which will produce the most revenue to the Government, ono mile of railroad, or the duty on

$65 20

great bituminous coal-fields of the Union. She one ton of rails,

bas less than Illinois or Ohio, and not more J. BOORMAN JOHNSON & CO., Amount tax........

$5 83

than several others of the States; and New
DEHON, CLARK & BRIDGES,
M. K. JESUP & CO.,
To sum up this table and tell the whole story

York, Michigan, Missouri, Tennessee, and
G. T. M. DAVIS,

Virginia have each of them more, and some of JAMES TINKER, at a glance, remembering that it requires one

them far better, iron ore than Pennsylvania. NAYLOR & CO.,

ton and forty-three hundredths of pig metal DABNEY, MORGAN & CO.,

and seven bushels and seventy-two hundredths Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, GeorR. & J. MAKIN, PERKINS, LIVINGSTON & POST, of coal to make a ton of bar iron :

gia, Kentucky, Arkansas, and probably Ala

bama, have excellent ores, and either coal or And others. Table showing the total direct and indirect taxes on a

wood on the spot, or easily accessible for all ton of rails.

Rate, Tax. future requirements. The same fact is stated The gentlemen who signed and sent out this Pig-iron..

1.43 2.40 $3 43 of Utah and Montana, and is probably true of circular frankly state that they represent the

Coal.

7.72
06

other Territories. In the face of the truth, Rails.

1.00 3.60 3 60 entire foreign trade in railroad iron. No per: Add 12 per cent. to make gross ton..

then, that eleven States besides Pennsylvania son, then, need be mistaken as to the objects

are already manufacturing railroad iron, and Total direet tax

8 40 they, propose. They desire to build up the

at least six others, beside the Territories, have Indirect tax paid by laborers.....

5 83 foreign iron trade, out of which they live, and

within them the leading materials in abundance to break down the domestic iron trade, by

Indirect laxes paid by manufacturer.

for its manufacture, the assumption of the cirwhich thousands of American working.men

Tax on income, stamps, licenses, oil, steel, brass
castings, machinery and repairs, bricks, sum

cular that this is solely a Pennsylvania interearn their bread and maintain their families. and leather belting, freights, and the innu

est, as against the rest of the country, is simply They charge that a political money influ merable other itemsconnected with the man

absurd. ence” is at work to achieve protection to home ufacture and sale of iron, will add at least..... 200

How strongly the true interests of some of interests. It is upon the records of the nation

16 23

the western and southern States are linked to that the last victory of the foreign trade, won in Import duties on 2,240 pounds rails......... 15 68

this iron question may be further indicated. 1846, was with the aid of British gold, and it

Excess of revenue tax over tariff.

Some of them have resources in iron superior

55 is at least as probable that the same interests

to Pennsylvania, or to all those at the comare now using the same means as that those in This calculation has been, I have said, made mand of Great Britain. Some of the largest the home trade are. I make no charge, for I with care, and I believe it to be mainly correct. iron-works in western Pennsylvania transport have no facts, but it is mere impertinence in How different, then, is the relation of the for the ore from which their product is made from these foreign agents to attempt to cast an im- eign and domestic manufacturers from that northern Michigan and southern Missouri. A putation in view of the ascertained expendi stated by the gentlemen who represent the rail-mill in Pittsburg gets its ore from Lake ture made by their own friends in the memora foreign trade of the country.

Superior. One of the largest mills in the State, 39T4 Cong. IST SESS.--No. 142.

25 15

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ANSWERS TO THE CIRCULAR.

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