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Mr. WARD. I have had an opportunity to Chicago, speak under the apprehension of the infinitely transcending any the Atlantic has examine the bill, and I have no objection to it. effect my remarks or my vote on the bill may known or may ever know. Mr. SCHENCK. I move to reconsider the have
uninformed constituents on the eve Sir, so slight is our power upon that ocean vote by which the bill and substitute were recom- of an election. My constituents, I apprehend, || that the recently pardoned rebel Semmes with mitted.
know my opinions on this subject pretty well. a single vessel destroyed nearly a hundred of The motion to reconsider was agreed to. It was in 1850 that having met with Asa Whit- our peaceable whalers, giving their cargoes,
The question recurred upon the motion to | ney's pamphlet, and sought a conference with gathered by years of dangerous toil, to the flames recommit.
him on the subject of a Pacific railroad along or the waves. It bounds our country for more Mr. SCHENCK. I withdraw the motion to a northern route, I gathered as many as I could than a thousand miles, and our maritime power; recommit, and call the previous question on of the people of Philadelphia in a meeting pre- which could not now protect a mile of it, should the hill and substitute.
sided over by the mayor, and urged them to be seen and felt upon it, and our flag and white The previous question was seconded and the unite with me in applying to the American sails or the curling smoke of our steamers main question ordered ; and under the opera- Congress to grant to Mr. Whitney and his as- should shadow its every wave. tion thereof the substitute was agreed to. sociates just what is proposed to be granted to That ocean belongs to us, and we should con
The bill, as amended, was then ordered to other men by the bill now under consideration. firm our title by the right of occupancy; for be engrossed and read a third time; and being || From that day to this I have never doubted when we cast our eyes beyond its placid surengrossed, it was accordingly read the third | the wisdom of the proposition; nor have I felt | face we behold what is to be our next contime and passed.
less interest in the subject since a dear sister, | quest. The Old World is to be awakened by Mr. SCHENCK moved to reconsider the and a graceful girl of rare intelligence, over American ideas. Its unnumbered people are vote by which the bill was passed ; and also whose childhood I had watched with a father's to be quickened, instructed, and redeemed by moved that the motion to reconsider be laid | solicitude, have been laid in that valley which American enterprise. Some statisticians tell upon the table.
Bryant, who is yet in the enjoyment of lusty us that there are 750,000,000 people in the The latter motion was agreed to.
life, after he had passed life's meridian de- ancient theocratic countries of the East, which Mr. SCHENCK. I move to amend the title scribed by saying
is the West to which the star of our commercial so that it shall read, “A bill to facilitate the
“Where rolls the Oregon,
empire will next take its way. Others put
And hears no sound save his own dashings." settlement of the accounts of paymasters of the
the population at 1,000,000,000; and others Army."
I still have living kindred in that valley; and || at 1,300,000,000. There, where civilization The motion was agreed to.
for the last ten years have been in frequent and dawned and the drowsy past yet lingers, the
constant correspondence with those who dwell first impulses of a new cycle begin to be felt. MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE.
near Puget sound, and have thus learned some- Japan is yielding to the impulses of our age. A message was received from the Senate, by thing of the mighty and varied resources of the The Chinese wall is crumbling away. It was Mr. FORNEY, its Secretary, notifying the House north Pacific slope, the region through which but yesterday that I had a letter informing me that that body had passed joint resolution H. the only river that penetrates the heart of the that our countryman, Dr. Martin, interpreter R. No. 67, providing for the reappraisement of country pours itself into the beautiful but
of the American legation at Pekin, under the the lands described in an act for the relief of sleeping ocean.
employment of the Chinese Government had William Sawyer and others, of Ohio.
I shall discuss the bill in its broad and gen- rendered into that_language our Wheaton's Also, that it had passed bills and joint reso
eral relations. The question is, as the gentle, Law of Nations. Thus that vast and long lution of the following titles, in which he was man from Oregon (Mr. HENDERSON] well said | isolated Power is preparing to enter into directed to ask the concurrence of the House: yesterday, one of the gravest importance that commercial connection with the world. The
An act (S. No. 74) for the admission of Col- has been presented to this Congress. He said ancient civilization of Asia is giving way. At orado into the Union ;
truly it was of national importance. He did the end of thousands of centuries the doctrine An act (S. No. 277) for the relief of William not, however, bound its importance by that of sacred castes is about to yield to the subCook; and
suggestion. It is a question for the world. limer creed of man's freedom and equality. Joint resolution (S. R. No. 74) providing for From Lake Superior to Puget sound! A rail- Muscular labor will soon be done there by the the acceptance of a collection of plants tend- road stretching from Lake Superior to Puget | potent agents we now employ-coal and iron ered to the United States by Frederick Pech. sound, a distance of eighteen hundred miles! || --and the genius of the buried dead, embodied ADMISSION OF COLORADO.
To open to civilization and enterprise an empire || in mechanism, will soon relieve their toiling
longer and broader than western Europe from millions as it now does ours. Their whole Mr. ASHLEY, of Ohio. I ask unanimous
the southern vinelands of sunny Spain and Por- life is to be quickened by modern enterprise, consent that Senate bill No. 74, for the ad
tugal on the one hand, the hyperborean forests and they will swell the numbers of the people mission of Colorado into the Union be taken
of Norway on the other. Yes, sir, an empire on our Pacific slope. from the Speaker's table, read a first and sec
equal to England, Ireland, Scotland, France, But the inviting field of the ocean and the ond time, and referred to the Committee on
the German States, Belgium, Holland, Swit- vast field of enterprise and reward open to us Territories. Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I object. | tugal. zerland, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, and Por- in Asia are not the only considerations that
induce me to support this bill. The laboring DABOLL'S FOG TRUMPET.
We fail, Mr. Speaker, to understand our people of every eastern city have an intense Mr. DARLING, by unanimous consent, sub
relations to the age in which we live, and our interest in this question. The safety of our mitted the following resolution; which was read,
duties to mankind, because we fail to appre; country depends upon the intelligence, the considered, and agreed to:
ciate the grand dimensions and unimagined || virtue, the stability of our laboring people. Resoloed, Thrt the Committee on Commerce be in
resources of our conntry. We would regard | He legislates not wisely for a democratic restructed to inquire into and report on the expediency
ourselves giants did we estimate ourselves in public who does not make it the aim of all his of establishing Daboll's fog trumpet at Sandy Hook, proportion to possessions so grand in a country acts to improve the material condition of the port of New York.
so abounding in multiform resources, so unde- great laboring masses of the country. If we TAXATION OF BANK CURRENCY. veloped, and so sparsely settled.
would perpetuate our institutions we must see Mr. DELANO, by unanimous consent, in
The region through which it is proposed to that the wages of labor are so maintained that troduced a bill declaring certain obligations of
construct this road, exceeding in extent the the children of the laboring man shall grow up the United States and national bank currency
territory of all the nations I have named, also amid the endearments of home and with the snbject to taxation under State authority;
embodies more mineral wealth than they all | expectation that their children shall find more which was read a first and second time, or
combined ever possessed. But what is its con- elegance and refinement in their homes than dered to be printed, and referred to the Com
dition? It is a wilderness. Almost every acre their parents were familiar with in childhood. mittee on Banking and Currency.
of it is still innocent of the tread of a tax col- The construction of a road through our north
lector. It yields our country no revenue. Along ern gold region will open a field that will be a NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD.
the Pacific slope a few thriving villages dot it. constant refuge for the surplus labor of our Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I call for | Some of them will one day be great cities, but eastern States. There will be a refuge for those the regular order of business.
they are now on the borders of a vast wilder- masses of ingenious workmen who are jostled The House accordingly proceeded, as the
each year by lack of adjustment of their numregular order of business, to the consideration Sir, I appeal from the constituents of the bers to the demand for their branch of labor, or of the unfinished business of last evening, be. gentleman from Chicago [Mr. WENTWORTH] are deprived of the advantage of the skill they ing House bill No. 414, to secure the speedy on the eve of an election to posterity and ask | acquired in youth by the invention of labor. construction of the Northern Pacific railroad | gentlemen to view the proposed enterprise in saving machinery; and instead of finding themand telegraph line, and to secure to the Gov- the light in which future generations will be- selves as age gathers on their brow without the ernment the use of the same for postal, mili- hold it. They will look beyond the vast empire means of livelihood rich fields of enterprise tary, and other purposes.
I have indicated. There lies the sleeping but | easily reached will cheer their declining years. The pending question was Mr. WENTWORTH'S broad Pacific, capable of bearing a commerce But again, the depression of our laboring motion to refer to the Committee on Public a thousand times heavier than has ever chafed people springs not alone or chiefly from local Lands.
the waters of the Atlantic; an ocean on which causes. “Beyond the Atlantic ocean there are Mr. KELLEY. Mr. Speaker, I do not pro- our flag is seen floating only from the masts of three hundred and fifty million people in every pose to discuss the details of the bill before coasting craft or whalers wending their slow community of which laboring men are held as the House; nor is it my object to answer the way to the northern seas in quest of hard-earned raw material; and under the grasping influences various objections which were raised to it yes- wealth; an ocean which should bear a com- of capital and the oppression of despotic Govterday; nor shall I, as did the gentleman from merce estimated by values in dollars and cents ernments are held in such bondage that they
are made to subsist, even when they toil most was possible to exclude the lobby of the Cen- annual contribution that would not be felt in assiduously, upon a modicum of the elements tral and Union Pacific railroad from the floor the payments of the country or observed in of life, upon a minimum of the amount that of the House. I did not know that it had been announcing the total of its receipts and paywill keep the soul in a tolerably sound body. here, but I knew that there was not that in the ments? No, sir; there is no Government that Escaping from this subjection they are borne to provisions of the bill which could animate gen- would hesitate in such a case; and I do not our shores by tens and hundreds of thousands tlemen to make such assaults upon men whose | believe that the American Congress will fall each year. They are strangers in a strange characters were indorsed as were those of the so far short of its duty, will hold the copper land, many of them unacquainted with our gentlemen who were so spoken of yesterday. cent so close to its eye, as to be unable to see language and our habits, and are unconsciously Now, sir, what does this bill propose to do? the golden placer beyond, or will sanction the and unwillingly the means of depressing wages. The land was granted by the original act. absurd policy of refusing to make a small But if we give to the company the means to What is the value of that land-not its pros- annual outlay, for a brief term of years, for the inaugurate work on this road we will not only || pective value, but its present market value? | development of resources the future value of relieve the laboring masses of our crowded east- There was a dispute yesterday between a gen- which cannot be calculated. ern cities, but furnish employment for more tleman from Iowa and a gentleman from Obio Sir, great railroads have never been built than the annual influx of those whom we gladly as to whether the representations of its value by the capital of the stockholders. They are welcome, because they strengthen and enrich | made in one of the company's pamphlets were always built by borrowing, or if built by cap. us by their toil. Could we drain Europe of accurate. Sir, its value to-day as a market- | ital paid in, special laws permit dividends to its surplus laborers we would raise her wages able commodity is zero. It is not regarded as be paid from the capital and charged to the conas she now too often depresses ours.
marketable by the Government. It has no struction account. Mortgages are often issued What will be the true policy of the builders market value. What will be its value five years upon the franchise and survey; and the first of this road? Willit not be to employ as labor- hence? Who can say? I submit to gentlemen | grading is often done by means of a loan. In ers the heads of families, and to pay them with that this depends upon whether there be made | this connection I ask the Clerk to read a few land and money, and settle the families along || into and through it an avenue or avenues by paragraphs from the admirable letter of Quarthe line of the road, so that the laborer of one which commerce may be conducted and settle- termaster General Meigs. They are full of year will in the next farm his land and supply | ment made possible. Make two or three sec- sound sense and the lessons of experience in fresh laborers with bread? Thus will he who tions of railroad; settle the families of the the railroad development of this and other enters into an engagement with the company a laborers along its route, with the school-house, countries. pauper, or little better, find himself at the end
the newspaper office, and the church in their The Clerk read as follows: of a year or two an independent farmer upon | midst, and the sections of land will be among "But the great reservoir from which man and all the world's great commercial highway. The those that will yield the heaviest taxation;
his necessary supplies are drawn is yet, and for years
to come must be, the Mississippi valley and the Atlanmanagers of the road must pursue this policy, || their gold and silver--for the country abounds
tic coast. The Territories of the Pacific coast are to and will thus create business for and guard || in gold and silver-will flow into and replenish be filled by emigration; they have, as yet, no great their road; thus, too, they will quicken the your exhausted Treasury. But let it remain a manufactories and no redundant population. The mineral and agricultural resources of the coun- wilderness, as it is now, and when we shall
route needed for the opening and improvement of the
country is the route from the East, try, and give to the tax collector, whether at a have ceased to live it will still be untaxed-an "The grants of land made by Congress for this obport of entry or in the service of the internal | unproductive wilderness without an apprecia-ject are liberal and are sullicient in time, probably, revenue department, more money each year ble market value. Therefore there might well men cannot take their capital, the accumulated fruit than this bill is likely to cause to be taken from be an honest misunderstanding or misappre- of years of industry, and devote it to the constraction the Treasury, hension as to its value, to be settled by the time
of a great public improvement, and wait for years for I ask gentlemen, in considering this subject, || and circumstances of the valuation.
the returns. They prefer enjoying the present use of
their fortunes to investing their means in enterprises to rise to its dignity and grandeur. Sir, I am Mr. Speaker, I again assert that I have been which will make largo returns only after their death. a devotce to freedom, but would make every unable to detect any provision in this bill which
"The nation is lasting. The opening of every new
route, the inclosure and cultivation of overy acre of country in the world tributary to my own. I looks like swindling. What are we asked to wild land, contribute immediately to the revenue and delight in every manifestation of my country's | do? Why, when the stockholders shall have resources of the nation: and no means of improving power. I swell with pride as I contemplateits | built twenty-five miles of road, we are to guar.
the great national domain, of increasing by its prod
ucts the national revenue and prosperity, can coingigantic proportions and see how rapidly its peo- anty for not more than twenty years six per paro in cheapness and efficacy with the opening of ple subdue the wilderness, and would, as I have | cent. interest upon a fixed amount of stock per rapid communication by railway with these distant, said, make every nation tributary to its power mile. And what is the offset to that liability?
healthful, and productive regions.
“The country is one fitted to be thoshome of a hardy and grandeur; but I would do it, not by op- || Why, sir, all the money received by the com- race, one in which the principles of liberty and the pressing any people, not by war with any Gov- pany from the sale of lands on the southern spirit of enterprise and industry will live and bear ernment, but by improving the condition of the side of the road is to be paid into the Treasury || their natural fruits." masses of my countrymen and those who may of the United States, to meet or partially meet
"A guarantee of a fixed rate of interest upon the
cost of construction, to be repaid in a term of years, become such, and showing the rulers and the that liability; and when fifty miles or more of is a mode of assistance to their great enterprises, people of the world how speedily free institu. the road shall have been completed, this pro
now common in the highly developed and heavily
taxed countries of Europe. If thoso Governments, tions exalt the poor and the oppressed of all cess is to be repeated; and so, by sections of burdened with the immense annual expenditure of nations into free, self-sustaining, and self-gov- | twenty-five miles, till the road shall be com- standing armies, almost as large in time of peace as erning citizens. It is in our power to do this, | pleted. This is the whole story.
wo have been compelled to support in time of war, and by no other means can we do it so well Yet it has been said that we are asked
find it in the interest of their revenues thus to aid
free travel and transport through countries already or quickly as by passing this supplement and to guaranty the interest of $57,000,000 for provided with navigable rivers and excellent wagon vivifying the charter granted to the Northern | twenty years. This cannot be possible. Some
roads, we may confidently assume that our country
will find ample reward for any such expenditure in Pacific Railroad Company. And, sir, it was of the land will be sold before the road will
opening up a highway for fraternal intercourse benot without some indignation that I heard be completed. But, sir, less than twenty tween our older communities on the Atlantic and the words “swindle' and public plunder" years, perhaps in half that time, there is to the rising settlements on the Pacific - a highway,
too, to which the inevitable laws of commerce will echoed and reëchoed through this Hall yester- be another relief for the Government. From attract the trade of the East-the trade of China, day from the lips of honorable gentlemen, no the completion of the road twenty-five per | Japan, and India--a trade along whose slow and one of whom had any knowledge of facts which cent. of its gross earnings are to be paid into painful track, when it was conducted by bcasts of
burden, and by oars and sails, instead of by the iron justified the use of such language.
the Treasury of the United States, together horse and the ocean steamship, great cities sprung Sir, one of Shakspeare's characters says, on a with all the proceeds of the sale of the land up in the desert sands of Asia and on the coasts of the certain occasion: along the south side of the road for eighteen
Mediterranean. Babylon, Nineveh, Palmyra, Bag"My lady doth protest too much." hundred miles. It is impossible that we can
dad, Damascus, Constantinople, Alexandria, Romo,
Venico, Genoa, and London, are the outgrowths of And I was a little struck yesterday with the ever be called upon to pay for a single year this trade in former centuries." constant protestations of honesty and virtuous the interest on $57,000,000 or anything like Mr. KELLEY. Mr. Speaker, what all other indignation that accompanied those denunci- that amount. The probabilities are that we nations have done, and what they are doing, ations.
may continue to pay something each year we are asked to do, except that they sometimes Sir, I do not know the gentlemen who are until the road shall reach the waters of the assume a positive and enduring liability, while named in or hold the charter. I believe I have | Missouri. I doubt whether we will ever be there will be no ultimate liability here. The been introduced in the street cars to some of called on for a dollar of interest after that immense grant of land, with high market values them, but I know this: that gentlemen whose time; but if we shall, it will only be till the imparted to it by the completion of the rail. word I would take, from Vermont and Massa- road shall have connected the commerce of the road, will indemnify us against loss by our guarchusetts and Maine, and from other States, waters of the Missouri with that of those of antee; for is there any gentleman here who rise and tell me that they know them, and that the Columbia, pouring their way down to the doubts that this magnificent grant of land, they are among the honored men in the com- Pacific. After that, if the laws of population | ma available to emigrants from the East and munities which they represent. And I have hold with us as they have done, the Govern- || Europe, will be adequate security for the loan looked in vain through the provisions of this ment cannot possibly be called on for a of an annual amount of interest, limited as it bill to find that which should induce mem- dollar.
is in this bill? To doubt that it will be ample bers to denounce such gentlemen as swin- Had any other civilized nation such an em- is to deny value to the richest portion of our dlers and public plunderers, and men who are pire, opening to its people such resources, mar- country, or that increased wealth will follow desirous of getting their arms into the Trcas- itime, mineral, agricultural, and bucolic, would enterprise and industry bestowed on raw maury up to the elbow." I find no provision that it hesitate to embark a few million dollars to terial. justifies any such remarks ; and it was in this develop and populate it? Would it shrink Sir, it is said that this measure will, if not connection that I asked yesterday whether it from so strengthening its commerce by an bankrupt the country, at least impair its credite
Do you bankrupt a country by increasing its | if they ask a grant like this for a southern Pa- Now, Mr. Speaker, if we pass this bill, if we productive industry? Do you bankrupt a coun: cific railroad, my voice shall be raised to give | give this subsidy which they now demand in try by expanding its habitable territory and them subsidies greater than are asked here, money, we still have no security, but they come carrying civilization to a broad empire teem- With the Atlantic and the Pacific connected | again next session, or at the next Congress, ing with resources, but now a wilderness? No, upon our northern boundary, upon the central and ask for more--more soup. sir, it will not bankrupt the country. It will | line embracing Illinois, Missouri, and my own We have all kinds of agencies made use of enrich it; it will expand and strengthen its || great State, and on a southern route, there will here to put these bills through Congress. I credit. In the darkest hours of the war I stood be no monopoly coming here to impel gentle- was a little startled, and my nerves somewhat here and advocated the grant of land to the men to insinuate slanders against those who disturbed, in common with my colleagues, as I Central Pacific railroad, and I then said in may present great undertakings to the consid
suppose, yesterday morning, after the debate substance to those who listened to me, “Let || eration of Congress and the nation.
had commenced upon this bill, when a mesus proelaim to the nations of Europe that now, My arguments, Mr. Speaker, have been of a senger came around quietly to our seats, and in the very agony of our country, we project general character. They may all be familiar to laid before us a formidable-looking document and launch for completion an enterprise for gentlemen. But they have been uttered in the from the Board of Trade of the city of Chicago, which none of them have the territory. Let | interest of my country and mankind; and in aid || containing a series of resolutions adopted by us show them that, while our country is torn of those interests I hope this bill will be passed. that board in favor of this particular bill. Upon and almost rent asunder by civil war, such is Mr. FARNSWORTH obtained the floor, but the envelope I noticed the stamp of the Board the confidence in its power and endurance that yielded to
of Trade of that city; but they were without we engage in enterprises which may not bless Mr. STEVENS, who said : I only want a sin- post-mark. They had not come through the us, but of which our posterity shall reap the gle moment. I ask the gentleman from Illi | ordinary channel of the post office, but were rich reward, and the very commencement of nois [Mr. WENTWORTI) to withdraw his motion sent here by express to the lobby agent of this which will bring to us millions of dollars with to refer to the Committee on Public Lands, so railroad company here, to be delivered to memwhich to pay for their construction.”
that I may move a substitute for the bill. He bers from the West upon the eve of action upon The war is over, and I now appeal to gentle- can then renew the motion. I only want the it, for the purpose of influencing their votes. men to increase the resources of the country by substitute before the House.
Since that time one of my colleagues has developing a region greaterin length and breadth Mr. WENTWORTH. I wish to say that my received a letter from a gentleman in Chicago, and natural wealth than western Europe, and sole object in moving to refer this bill to the which explains how it was manipulated and making it populous, thrifty, productive, and a Committee on Public Lands was to provoke | how these resolutions were procured to be market for the consumption of the products of || inquiry. I am sincerely desirous that every passed by the Board of Trade. I will read a other regions, and above all by making it the member upon this floor shall discharge his || portion of the letter: great highway of the world. Let the capital- || duty, if he thinks proper, by referring to the
“CHICAGO, April 22, 1866. ists of England, of France, of Frankfort-on-the- || Committee on Public Lands any amendment "COLONEL WENTWORTH: You will see by the action Main, and elsewhere, understand that their | he has to propose. All I have desired, and all taken by the Board of Trade yesterday that attention bills of exchange, representing and moving the that I now desire, and all the gentlemen who
has been called to the Northern Pacific railroad.
Colonel Rowland sent me a letter and some papers commercial wealth of the world, traverse the | are considered as the opponents of this bill from Washington, asking me to present them to the continent of a democratic republic that can desire, is that it shall be discussed. The whole directors of the board : and as I went in to do so I convert its wilderness into teeming farms and trouble between us and those who are trying
found a Mr. Hill, from Boston, explaining the wishes
of the company. After he got through I read the thriving cities by taking their paupers and the to force this bill through, is that they do not letter and submitted the documents, consisting of the most abject of their people and elevating them mean that the people shall understand anything
charter, an appeal to Congress from the northwestern
members, a map of the route, and an act which has into sovereign citizens of a free republic, and about this bill. I am determined that they
been reported to the House of Representatives by the you will not impair the credit of the country. shall. I withdraw my motion.
Railroad Committee to assist the construction of the I can conceive no enterprise which would Mr. STEVENS. I now submit a substitute Northern Pacific railroad." more surely guaranty the speedy and easy pay- for the bill.
It then goes on to state that the resolution ment of our national debt than the develop- Mr. WENTWORTH. I renew my motion. was adopted, and adds : ment of that empire which is drained by the || If any gentleman has an amendment to offer I “You understand the object of all this. It is to Missouri and the Columbia, by the applica- am willing to yield for it to come in.
influence the vote of yourself and other mombers tion of the rule invariably practiced in build- Mr. SPALDING. I give notice I shall move
from the State in its favor." ing railroads, to wit, the use of credit while to lay the bill upon the table.
Mr. WINDOM. Is not that a common thing? capital is being made productive by the con- Mr. HIGBY. I rise to a question of order. Mr. FARNSWORTH. The gentleman asks struction of the road. I apprehend that the Was not the Committee on the Pacific Rail- me if it is not a common thing. I believe it is; money could be obtained without this legisla- road created for the very purpose of consider: and it is common for any lobbyists who want tion. I apprehend that an application to Sir ing this subject ?
to pass a particular bill to affect the commerce Morton Peto and other British capitalists, with The SPEAKER. The committee was raised of the country to manipulate Boards of Trade a stipulation to make this road a link in a grand for that purpose, but the House has the right and get these resolutions indorsing their prointernational road, would bring the requisite to refer any bill to any committee it pleases. jects. capital. But I want no international railroad The gentleman from Illinois has a right to move
Mr. WINDOM. The gentleman evidently binding us still more closely to the Provinces to refer this bill to the Committee on Public
does not understand that letter. This mare's of our proudest and most powerful enemy. I Lands or to the Committee on Appropriations nest is a great deal like some others that have do not want the British line practically brought or any other committee.
been discussed about this bill. He says these down from the forty-eighth to the forty-second Mr. FARNSWORTH. Mr. Speaker, I de- papers were sent here by express from Chicago degree of latitude. This should be an Amer- sire the House as well as the country to under- to some lobby agent to be scattered through ican road, and should be under the guardian- stand I am in favor of a Pacific railroad. I
the House. The fact is that these papers came ship of the American Congress. It should be am not only in favor of one Pacific railroad,
here to Mr. Hersey, of the Post Office Departin the hands of American men, so that if the but of several, whenever the commerce of the ment. I suppose they came by express. He colonists make lateral roads, those roads shall
country demands it. Two years ago, when the is in no sense a lobby agent in this House; he feed our main line, and if discriminations are original bill was passed chartering this Pacific is employed in the post office in the House of to be made as to rights or rates over the road, Railroad Company, I voted for it. I have not Representatives. In that way they are placed they shall be made against those who are not examined the Congressional Globe with refer
on the desks of members of this House. our fellow.citizens, and not against the inter- ence to the debate that took place at that time,
So far as Mr. Hill is concerned, who is repests of our country or countrymen.
but I have a distinct recollection when the bill resented as coming from Boston to represent I implore gentlemen to rise above the petty was reported by the gentleman from Pennsyl
this railroad company, he is no other person and local considerations that have animated
vania, (Mr. STEVENS,] chairman of the Com- than the secretary of the Board of Trade of this debate so far. I ask them to contemplate mittee on the Pacific Railroad, some member, that city. The city of Boston being interested this as a great national scheme. perhaps myself, asked whether it provided
in this road and desirous of receiving the benEspecially do I ask them to guard the coun
money should be drawn out of the Treasury efits to be derived from it, sends its secretary try against a monopoly whose footfalls were, in for the construction of this road. Finally a of the Board of Trade to Chicago and calls the my judgment, heard here yesterday. It is said
provision, which I will read, was introduced. attention of the board to the subject, just as New Jersey is but a province of the Camden It is in the third section:
the city of Chicago sent the secretary of its and Amboy Railroad Company. Men say that
"And provided further, That no money shall be
Board of Trade to the city of Boston a short the Pennsylvania Central road governs that drawn from the Treasury of the United States to aid time ago to influence that Board of Trade in State. I have heard similar suggestions in re- in the construction of the said Northern Pacific rail- favor of the Illinois ship-canal. That is all gard to some of the States of New England and
there is in this mare's nest. the West. I hear it stated sometimes that the Upon that provision being inserted in the Mr. FARNSWORTH. I do not see that Illinois Central railroad domineers the State of act, myself, and I have no doubt many other the explanation takes away from the force of Illinois. We have granted a charter and a lib- gentlemen, voted for the bill who would not my statement at all. A lobby man was sent eral donation to one Pacific railroad, and we have done so without some such provision. from Boston to Chicago, an agent of this incormust relieve ourselves from its power as a mo- But it seems that provisions of this kind inserted | poration, for the purpose of manipulating the nopoly by adequately aiding other roads. I am in the organic acts creating corporations of Board of Trade there, and there he met anin favor of a northern route, and should I stand this sort are no protection to the Government. other lobbyman, one Colonel”' Rowland, an here when the country is restored and the loyal They come again and again, and, like Oliver adventurer, who obtained the title of coloneh meu of the South are represented in this Hall, Twist, they ask for more, more.
God only knows how-an adventurer, as I
happen to know, who has been manipulating road was liberal, in view of the vast quantities of pany; they estimate the land upon one side this thing through the country for the last six material for its construction found along the route,
of the road only at $32,000 per mile; and that months as the agent of this incorporation. A
including exhaustless mines of iron of the best qual-
is the amount of stock upon which they ask the gentleman now in Chicago who had happened And the estimate at ten dollars per acre as the Government to guaranty the interest. Well, to meet him once in the city of Washington, value of the land is reasonable, when those lands are
sir, if the land upon the south side of the compared with the grant made for the construction got him to present the question to the Board of of the Illinois Central railroad.
road is worth at the rate of $32,000 per mile, Trade of Chicago. He met this Mr. Hill there, "The lands granted to this company have not been I
suppose the land on the north side of the accidentally, of course, who had been sent from culled and selected, but are emphatically new lands, road is worth that also. I suppose no gentle.
while the Illinois grant was of lands which had been Boston on this errand at precisely the same many years in the market, much of them having man will claim that there is any difference in point of time. Between them they presented been graded down to twelve and a half cents per acre; the value of these lands, between those on the the case to the Board of Trade, an ex parte yet no sooner was the road completed than those
south side of the road and those on the north shilling lands at once rose in value to twenty dollars, presentation, of course, and the resolutions thirty dollars, fifty dollars, and even $100 per acre,
side of the road. Then the lands already were adopted. You all know how these Boards and from them that road was now in successful oper- granted to this company are worth at the rate of Trade act upon matters of this kind. They
of $64,000 a mile. aid and assist sister Boards of Trade of other
means at their command, this road could easily be Well, sir, if they have a grant of lands worth cities in every matter that appears to be in the completed and in full operation, with a telegraph $64,000 per mile, why, in the name of common aid of commerce. They do not investigate accompanying it, within seven years; and at this rate,
sense, are they asking Congress for aid in the costing, as already estimated. $120,000,000, the prowith particular scrutiny the bill presented, but ceeds of the lands would yield to the shareholders,
shape of money? Sir, I am not going to con. take it on trust as it is presented to them by after reimbursing the whole of the original outlay, tradict the statement of this railroad company. the agent of the bill and adopt the resolutions
more than one hundred per co upon the capital, I shall not take issue with them as to the value
leaving out of view the earnings of ihe road." offered for the purpose of influencing mem
of this land. I am inclined to think that the
Mr. FARNSWORTH. The House will nobers of Congress. Now, I desire to say that a
lands are worth the amount named, or very measure which is just in itself, and which com
tice from this report of the railroad company
that they estimate the cost of constructing this they want this subsidy or guarantee? Why, mends itself because of its justice to the good
Then the question recurs, why do sense and reason and patriotism of the people road at $60,000 per mile. And they further
sir, they want it for the same reason that the of the country, requires no such adjuncts; it say, that after the road is built and equipped,
other company wanted land. They want it requires no such lobbying; it does not require there will be left a clear profit to the railroad
for the purpose of speculation. They want it that these missives should be placed upon the
of $353,600,000, without any subsidy from the desks of members of Congress upon the eve Government in the shape of money.
that they in turn, like the other company, may
sell out. of voting upon the measure in order to interest
Gentlemen say that this report was got up them in it. when they wanted to sell out. I presume it
The gentleman from Vermont, [Mr. WoodAnd so the other report was got up when
BRIDGE, ) in giving yesterday a history of the And, sir, when I find these galleries filled
transfer of this charter from the one company with lobbyists; when I find these papers comthey wanted to get some money from the Uni
to the other, stated that the present company ted States Treasury. And if you cannot rely ing to my desk day after day, sent in, as they
were induced to make this purchase because are, by men who are lobbying for the bill, that upon the reports of the railroad company itself,
efforts to buy this charter were being made by as to the value of the franchises of this road, is in itself enough to throw distrust upon the I would like some gentleman to tell me upon
capitalists and others in Canada, who were measure. A just measure does not require what we can rely.
promised the aid of capital from England to these outside influences in order to aid it or to
construct this road. Well, sir, if their charter, commend it to the judgment, the good sense,
I also hold in my hand the report of the Committee on the Pacific Railroad of this House, I give them, was so valuable as to induce capi:
without any such assistance as this bill will and the patriotism of the Representatives of the
made in 1860. The report was made by Hon. people.
talists in Canada to attempt its purchase, it Cyrus Aldrich, of Minnesota, a man well acI have made a computation of the amount
will of course become more valuable when this quainted with the value of these lands, and of of money for which the United States will be
company get this further aid from the Governthis route, and who, I think, is one of the corcome liable under this bill, and I find that that
ment of the United States. Capitalists in porators of this road. In that report the comamount, to be precise, is $69,015,000. That
Canada, England, or anywhere else do not seek is the amount for which the Government will
to buy a railroad charter unless they think there
"The undersigned, the Committee on the Pacific become liable if you pass this bill. Railroad, do not doubt that much of this distance can
is money in it. They do not engage in such I propose now, sir, to examine the question be built for $25,000 per inile, including a full equip- | undertakings for the good of the country. Men and see if there is any propriety, if there is any
do not build railroads out of regard for the weljustice, if there is any reason whatever, why the
Now, if you can build a good portion of this fare of the country. Capital does not seek Government should assume this great responsi
road at $25,000 per mile, instead of $60,000, investment upon the principle of benevolence. bility.
as the railroad company estimates, and if the || You cannot find any benevolence in a man's The original charter provides that this rail.
rate of $60,000 a mile would leave a net prod-pocket. The pocket nerve is not a benevolent road company shall have twenty miles of land
uct of over $350,000,000, what would the net nerve. It does not vibrate to the touch of chara strip of land twenty miles wide wherever || product be at the rate of $25,000 per mile? ity. The pocket nerve is a sensitive nerve. It the road passes through a State and forty miles
Mr. GRINNELL. I do not believe that is, too, a selfish nerve. Capital can only be
estimate. wide where it passes through the Territories--to
tempted to make investment where it will be a aid in the construction of this road. This grant
Mr. FARNSWORTH. I believe it just as benefit to the holder. These men who are lobwas made absolute; it was an absolute grant
much as I believe anything presented to this | bying here are not lobbying for the good of the of the land to this railroad company. What
House upon this subject, for it is official in country. I never knew a man to come to value does the company itself place on these
some respect. We have not had much else | Washington and lobby for a bill of this kind on lands? I hold in my hand the report of the
that was official. I do not know why we account of the interest which he took in the first board of directors that was organized
should not believe this as well as any of these welfare of the great West, although he may have under that charter, and I will send it up to the
made that a pretense. We find men from New Clerk's desk to have an extract read.
Mr. STEVENS. If the statement the gen- England exhibiting suddenly a marked interA MEMBER. It has been read.
tleman has had read is true, would it not be an est in the welfare of the poor West, showing a Mr. FARNSWORTH. Well, it will not hurt
excellent security for the guarantee asked? great anxiety that the West should be benefited. anybody to read it again, but I doubt if it has
Mr. FARNSWORTH. Well, if it is not Mr. DAWES. Let me suggest to the gentlebeen read. This is the report of the first board
true that the land is worth anything like the man that ever since I can remember New Eng. of directors, the report of Mr. Perham, the
estimate, then I ask the gentleman from Penn- land men have been helping to build railroads president of the road, in reference to the value
sylvania [Mr. STEVENS] what security you || in the West. of the lands and the cost of construction. I
would then have. The lands are certainly Mr. FARNSWORTH. But the gentleman send to the Clerk's desk and ask to have read worth something or they are not.
will not tell me that New England men who what I have marked showing the value of the
Now, let us turn over the pages of another | have helped to build railroads in Illinois have land and the cost of the road.
pamphlet. Gentlemen say this was got up for || done so for the sake of Illinois. Massachusetts The Clerk read as follows:
the purpose of selling out; but let us take up capital has gone to Illinois and sought invest
a pamphlet which was got up for the purpose ment there for the sake of Massachusetts capi. To construct this road, Congress, by an act of the last session, made a most munificent grant of twenty
of securing votes in this House and see what | tal. I know that the people of New England square miles of land, or twelve thousand eight hun- it says. It was read yesterday at the request are a great and benevolent people. I kuow dred acres for each mile of the road through Wiscon- of the gentleman from Ohio, [Mr. DELANO;] but that they are distinguished for their works of sin, Minnesota, and Oregon, and forty square miles, or twenty-five thousand six hundred acres, for each
I will call the attention of the House to it again. charity, which are numerous and frequent. I mile of the road through Dakota, Montana, Idaho, The bill under consideration provides that have great regard and great veneration for New and Washington Territories, making an aggregate the Government, for guarantying this interest, || England. I love it, not only because it is the of forty-seven million three hundred and sixty thousand acres for the whole grant.
shall be secured by a lien upon the lands on home of my ancestors, but because its virtues "These lands, when the road shall be built and the the south side of the road; or rather a lien entitle it to respect and reverence. But, sir, business fairly started, including town and station
the sites, would certainly averago ten dollars per acre,
proceeds of the sales of those lands. the moneyed men of New England are like making thesum of $173,600,000.
Now, in the pamphlet in which this company moneyed men everywhere else ; and when they "Supposing the construction of the road should cost appeals to Congress for further aid this land invest money in a railroad project they do it $60.000 per milc, the entire cost at this rate would be $120,000,000, leaving to the shareholders an excess of
is estimated at a value of $32,000 per mile. because they think it will pay. They do not clear profit from the lands alone of $353,600,000.
And mark you, that estimate includes only one do it from benevolent motives. So, too, when "This estinate of $60,000 per joile as the cost of the half the land that we have granted to this com- the people of Canada, or any other place, offer
their money for the purchase of a railroad from Salt Lake to the head of navigation on the Mr. HENDERSON. That would not be in charter, they do it because they think there is Columbia river. If it is necessary, therefore, I good faith. money in it. They do not in such matters act that we shall have a railroad to Oregon and the Mr. FARNSWORTH. My friend says that from motives of benevolence.
waters of the Columbia river, it is much more would not be in good faith. Sir, who is to Sir, if the people of New England are so feasible to build a branch road from Salt Lake judge whether it is or not? The surveyor goes full of regard for the interests of the people of City to Salt Lake, and then from the other end | on, and the company says it is in good faith. the West, I advise them to invest their capital of Salt Lake extending through to connect with The surveyor produces his instruments and rather in the construction of a canal which the head of navigation on the Columbia river. chains; you see they are surveying. Who is shall furnish transportation for some of our There you have a good country. Such a route to judge of the good faith? Is my friend from grain, relieving our plethoric and overburdened passes through the Territory of Idaho, a rich, Massachusetts (Mr. Dawes] to judge of the granaries. By such a work as that, millions | growing, and flourishing Territory: You get survey? of people would be benefited where only thou- then from the main stem or the main trunk of Mr. DAWES. The American people are sands would receive advantage from this the Central Pacific railroad two arms to the to Northern Pacific railroad. Pacific ocean, one to San Francisco and the
XIV. FARNSWORTH. The great American Mr. DAWES. We propose to do both. other to Portland, Oregon.
people are to judge, says the gentleman from Mr. FARNSWORTH. 'Well, sir, the Treas- But at the same time I think it is not practi- || Massachusetts. Upon what evidence are they try is not just now in a condition to warrant cable or feasible to undertake at this time to to pass their judgment? Here is a question of us in trying to do everything; and as there is build more than one road to the Pacific. I forfeiture. They shall forfeit their charter it sometimes a choice of evils, so there is a choice | repeat what I said before, I am in favor at the they do not commence the work in good faith. of benefits. When we cannot do all at once earliest practicable moment when the country || They commence a survey, and whether it is in the various works which commend themselves demands it of building two, four, or ten rail. | good faith or not nobody can tell but them to our judgment by the good results expected | roads to the Pacific. I am willing to make a selves. from them, we must select that which will || liberal grant of land to aid in the construction Mr. DRIGGS. If the survey is never made accomplish the greatest good, and do that of those roads. But I am not willing to give and the work never commenced, of course there first.
my vote to render the Government liable to will be no obligation on the part of the Gov. Why, Mr. Speaker, many people seem to the extent of $69,000,000 in the present de ernment to issue the bonds. I cannot see how suppose it is practicable and feasible for the ranged financial condition of the country. I that affects the question. Government to undertake to build three sep- am not willing to put the Government under a Mr. FARNSWORTH. I see how it affects arate railroads to the Pacific ocean. The argu. liability of $69,000,000 for what I consider at the question before us distinctly. I have not ment is made here, inasmuch as we have granted | the present time unnecessary.
the slightest idea that this company propose subsidies to the Central Pacific railroad, that This is aside from my objection to this bill, to build this road. I suppose they come here therefore we should treat all others in like which is that it is a speculative measure.
We to get this provision put into this bill in order manner. I do not see the force of that argu- were told by the chairman when he reported to sell out their obligation in turn to some other ment. Whether it was right and proper or not this bill two years ago that land and land alone company perhaps more greedy still than them. to make the grant to the Central Pacific rail- would build this road ; that this company only selves. The question might have been asked road does not affect the propriety of making | wanted land; that they would not call upon
two years ago, who will buy this? We find it this grant. If it were wrong to make the grant Government for money.
is bought for $160,000, although no ground has to the Central Pacific railroad that does not We find that that company was organized ; || been broken. Now, if this charter was worth make it right to make a grant to the Northern and we are told now, not by authority, but by $160,000 before a spade was put into the ground, Pacific railroad. If it were right to make the what I suppose may be regarded'as the author before a mile of the road was located, what grant to the Central Pacific railroad it does ized mouth-piece of the company here, by the would it be worth after the Government assumes not follow that therefore we should make a gentleman from Vermont, (Mr. WOODBRIDGE,] | $70,000,000 of indebtedness to aid in its congrant to any other.
that that company has sold out their charterstruction, and after we all know these other In my judgment the country does not de- for what little money they had expended. But provisions are in the bill which will give them mand it, nor is it feasible or practicable at the I have seen no official report of any moneys a still longer time to operate? Why, sir, it will present time to undertake the building of more expended by this company. I have seen no be worth, as they say themselves, millions upon than one road to the Pacific. I do not believe || report of any survey made by the company. I millions. I would rather have this franchise it is practicable or feasible to build a railroad suppose it does take money to raise the wind, after this bill has passed for speculation than four or five hundred miles through a country as it is called. I suppose money is expended to have the property of William B. Astor or not inhabited. I do not believe you can ever in getting up companies, in getting their char- the gentleman from New York, [Mr. DODGE.] build or run a road over a country for that dis- ters, in lobbying, in traveling over the coun: [Laughter.] tance where there are no inhabitants. As fast as try to procure the indorsement of Boards of It is for this reason I do not believe there the country becomes inhabited, as fast as it is Trade. If these are the expenditures to which is any good faith in this company. At the peopled, then they may want a railroad. As the gentleman referred, to reimburse which they same time I am not attacking the officers fast as it is peopled the lands will come into sold out this charter, I wish he would say so; here, nor do I propose to do so. I believe market and become valuable. But to under- but as for any other expenditure in the way of many of them are good men, but they have take at the present time to put roads through, survey or the locating of the road or the com- been manipulated like these Boards of Trade to force them through in the short space of mencement of work upon the road, we have and these men who have been going through time contemplated by this act, is impractica- | certainly no knowledge of it.
the country: ble.
They have not commenced the work. That Mr. HENDERSON. I would ask the genNor do I believe, Mr. Speaker, that the || is shown by the provision which they have in- tleman if he did not in times past have a commerce of the country at the present time serted in this bill that the commencement of personal difficulty with Colonel Rowland. demands more than one road. I think the a survey in good faith shall be taken to be Mr. FARNSWORTH. I am not aware that Government had better with the $17,000,000 || the commencement of the work within the if there were anything of that sort it would called for by this act dig a ship-canal across meaning of the bill. The original bill provided have anything to do with this bill; but I assure the Isthmus to connect the waters of the At- that the charter should become void and that the gentleman that there is nothing of that lantic with the Pacific. It certainly would be they should forfeit all right under it if they || kind. I simply know from personal observabetter to do that than to build a second road. did not commence the work within two years. tion that this man Rowland is a mere adventHeavy freights will not go by land to the “Work”-it is generally understood what that urer, and I state it upon my responsibility as a Pacific. Heavy freights will seek water
To commence making the railroad- || member of this House, and can prove it, either communication. They will always be trans- that is commencing the work. They come now “here or elsewhere." (Laughter.] I use ported by water.
to Congress and ask that we shall insert in the words either in a "technical” or an unMr. WENTWORTH. I understand that in their charter a provision that when they send technical sense. [Laughter.] I have only the summer season there is to be water com- out a surveyor in good faith to commence the spoken of him because he has been the agent munication by this line across Lake Superior, || survey that shall be considered a commence- of this enterprise, and when they come to me and that in the winter season it is to be north ment of the work, although they may not break through such unclean channels I am not going of Lake Superior, ground for years afterward.
to vote for schemes of this kind. It makes Mr. FARNSWORTH. There is to be water Now, sir, I would like to know, I wish some me distrust the whole thing. communication in the summer season only. It | gentleman would tell me, who is to be the Mr. HARDING, of Illinois. I think I will be very much better to build a ship.canal || judge as to when they commence this survey understood that there was security for the across the Isthmus, for then you will have water in good faith ; who is to be the judge of the money advanced by the Government in the communication all the year round for ships to bona fides of this survey? Is it the President lands granted upon the southern side of the sail from ocean to ocean.
of the United States or the president of the road. Now, I dispute that. I have examined Another reason why I think it is not neces- company, or is it Congress? And if Congress the bill, and according to my anderstanding sary nor practicable to undertake the construc- is to judge of this, upon what evidence are we there is no security for the Government contion of another Pacific railroad at this time is to base our judgment? The commencement tained in it. The bill contains no limit upon this: it requires only three hundred miles of rail of the survey in good faith? Why, I suppose, the terms of sale of those lands, nor as to the to make a complete line of water and rail com- then, if they hire a surveyor and send him out character of the persons who may buy them, munication from Salt Lake City to Portland to survey a mile of land on the supposed route, nor as to the rates at which they are to be sold. in the State of Oregon. All you require is the it is such a commencement of the survey of the If they should be sold to individuals connected construction of three hundred miles of railroad road as is sufficient to save the charter. with the corporation, it would be a substantial