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country as any other system or portion of our Government. I have satisfied myself from a long experience that the territorial governments made here are not sufficient or ample or adequate to meet the emergencies and exigencies of a thriving, growing, prosperous people. They are discontented with it, for the reason that most of the persons that are sent to rule over them are sent from abroad. I have often heard it talked of. The judiciary provided for by the organic acts under the territorial government is entirely inadequate to meet the exigencies and demand of any mining country. I speak of no particular person; but I know this from experience. The people of the Territory of Nevada saw before the enabling act reached them the perfect inefficiency of a territorial government to meet its wants, its interests, its demands, and they met and adopted a constitution much like the one we adopted recently, but it failed for the reason that attached to it were officers running to fill the State offices when it was organized.
Now, Mr. President, what is the real condition of Colorado? Is she as poor as my sympathizing friend from Massachusetts thinks she is? Is she so poor that even the distinguished Senator from Massachusetts cannot do her reverence ? She has more tillable land twice over than the State of Massachusetts. She has more acres surveyed than the State of Massachusetts can have surveyed within her borders. She has as many preëmption rights already taken up as would twice cover the State in which the Senator now presiding [Mr. ANTHONY] resides. She paid more taxes to the internal revenue last year than Oregon, a western State, and more than Nevada in some items. The total amount of internal revenue, except from stamps, in Colorado last year, this poor and miserable place, was $130,052 01; in Nebraska, $56,054 50; in New Mexico, $19,042 28; and in Utah, $11,525 93.
Tax of six per cent. on clothing and other articles Colorado.......
$705 59 Nevada...
605 01 Oregon..
591 35 Tax of six per cent. on furniture and other articles
made of wood inColorado.
..$1.372 77 Nevada... Oregon....
335 52 Tax on manufacture of iron castings inColorado...
.$216 61 Minnesota.... Kapsis..
165 99 Oregon... Tax of ono eighth of ono per cent, on brokers' sales
of merchandise and other goods inColorado..
..$1,876 05 Nevada.... Oregon
836 55 Kansas.
369 32 Minnesota
522 62 West Virginia..
883 92 Delaware
1,318 96 Connecticut...
1,201 16 Verinont..
919 36 Maine.....
1,888 28 Colorado paid more on the one eighth of one per cent. on brokers' sales than Nevada, Oregon, Kansas, Minnesota, West Virginia, Delaware, Connecticut, Vermont, or Maine.
It does not seem to me from these amounts that Colorado is dwindling very rapidly. They show most conclusively—and this pamphlet goes on to give the figures in detail--that Colorado is in a vigorous state of growth. It is a fact known to every man who reads that within the last six or eight months there have been developments in the mode of working the ores of Colorado that are inviting the attention of the civilized and scientific world. Their productions from the same ore that they have been turning out these millions upon have more than quadrupled; and to-day, and I speak advisedly when I say it, there is more attention being paid to the mineral wealth of Colorado than that of any other State or Territory of this nation. Why? She is nearer the borders of the surplus capital of the East. Capital has to fill up as it goes. It does not jump over States and Territories to find a distant shore, but it marches straight along with its interests and with its requirements; and Colorado,
of dress in
before twelve months roll round, will have a vote in it. This very fall that he speaks of, I population more than double what it has now. advocated before our people to allow colored I know how these mining countries fill up; I men in Wisconsin to vote, and I voted for it at know how the population surges back and for
the polls. ward like the restless waves of the sea; but, sir, Mr. NYE. That is good. it comes back again to its place. After it has Mr. DOOLITTLE. But let me say to the tried Montana, Idaho, Nevada, California, and honorable Senator from Nevada, there was gone as far as mining enterprise can see a another thing that I advocated, and it was this: mountain, it comes back again; and I know that each State had a right for itself to deterthat last year population was returning to Col- mine the question, and that the Federal Govorado as well as«going westward from it. In ernment had no right or constitutional power my own State I have met men from Colorado to impose on a State negro suffrage; that the who had come to see with their own eyes and right of a State to determine that question for determine for themselves whether it was better itself was one of the reserved riglıts of every
I saw men who thought it was not State, under the Constitution. I give the honand returned.
orable gentleman notice now that if he, or the But, sir, after all, I expect that the trouble men who act with him here, shall undertake with my distinguished friend from Massachu- to impose negro suffrage upon a State of this setts is in regard to this word “ white." He Union, coming from the Federal Government seems to abhor that word; it has a sort of terror as an exercise of authority here, he and any for him. It has none for me; nor "black" party or set of men who advocate it will be either. I have here the amendment which my crushed under the force of public opinion and friend intended to propose to this bill, striking swept out of power and out of existence. I say out the word " white,'' in the constitution of | to the honorable Senator that the rights of Colorado, and requiring the Legislature to give || States are of as much consequence as the rights effect to it. I apprehend that at the time he of individuals. It is not the first time that on offered that amendment he saw none of the this subject I have been misrepresented here visions of this pauper population passing be- and elsewhere. fore him ; he saw no reason to overthrow the Mr. STEWART. Let me inquire of the Senreputation of Governor Evans. There was no ator whether he wishes to be understood that necessity then for the erroneous statistics which an attempt to amend the Constitution so as to have been furnished by somebody. The word effect that end would crush the party. 6 white” it is that has so fearfully disturbed his Mr. DOOLITTLE. I say that any party that equanimity. I have been as ardent an advocate advocatesin the interests of the black, if not as potent Mr. NYE. Mr. Presidentin his advocacy, as has been my friend from Mr. DOOLITTLE. To reply to both the Massachusetts. I have panted for the day that Senators from Nevada at once on the subject we have arrived at now as the hart pants for is more than I bargained for. I rose to correct the mountain stream, and I have lived to see it. my friend from Nevada, on my right, [Mr. But, sir, I am not going to vote against the
Nye.] admission of this State because that word is in Mr. GRIMES. Answer that question. her coustitution ; and why? I hear the tread Mr. DOOLITTLE. I will answer it if the of coming millions. I see that by the logic of Senator from Nevada on my right is willing events, whether this word is in or not, the day to give way. I am perfectly frank to say that is not far distant when we shall see realized any party, political or otherwise, which shall what this paper word " white'' means. Sir, go before the people of the United States upon quicker than we can discuss this question will the idea that the Federal Government or the the phantom“whitedisappear from Colorado. Federal Constitution is to impose upon the The sun will not make his annual course before | States negro suffrage against the will of the you will see white men and black men voting || States, will go to the wall. in Colorado. It is the next step in the prog- Mr. STEWART. That is not the question ress of this great reform, and men who lie I asked. across its pathway will be crushed before the Mr. DOOLITTLE. The question the genmoving power of a determined people. tleman asked was, whether the States will
Therefore, sir, I am not as particular as I accept a proposition to amend the Constitution should have been some years ago.
I labored giving negro suffrage. I answer no, sir, they to get that word "white" struck out of the will not. Join the issue as soon as you please constitution of the State of Nevada. I was here or elsewhere, and out of New England not a member of the convention.
there are not three States in this Union, neither retained; but I venture the assertion that before | Nevada nor Colorado, nor any of the new States twelve months roll around, colored men will or the old States that will vote foran amendment vote in Nevada. Not half the stride will that of the Constitution of the United States by which be in the progress of Nevada that has been negro suffrage shall be imposed upon the States. witnessed, for when I first went there it was at Mr. COWAN. Nor amend their own. the peril of a man's healthy existence to talk Mr. DOOLITTLE. In reference to that, I about a negro or to claim to be an abolitionist; will not say. There are other States that will but, sir, they have received line upon line, and || amend their own constitutions on the subject. precept upon precept, not from me, but from I simply rose to set my friend from Nevada others, until Nevada to-day is as radical a State [Mr. NYE] right on that question. While I, as the State of Massachusetts. I would appeal as an individual, have advocated the right of to her population with as much assurance of each State to determine this question for itself, being sustained in any step that moves to the || and in the State of Wisconsin have advocated culmination of this great reform as I would to | giving to the colored men there the right of Massachusetts itself. They are a young, vig- suffrage, because the negroes who are residing orous, thriving, daring, noble people, and they there, generally speaking, as a class were able dare do what is right, and they will. Before to exercise that right, and exercise it properly, the tread of this march all bars of prejudice I still insisted that it did not belong to the renare breaking down; and my friend from Wis. || eral Government to impose it on other States consin, [Mr. DOOLITTLE,] when he was laboring as a condition to their being in this Union. to keep the blacks from voting in Wisconsin Mr. NYE. Mr. President, I have said nothlast fall, did not know that there was an exist- || ing upon that question. It seems to be the ing statute on the book that allowed them to nightmare that haunts my friend from Wisconvote.
sin; and I receive his assertion with every deMr. DOOLITTLE. If my honorable friend gree of allowance that is necessary for a perwill allow me, I wish right there to state a fact son that does not seem to express the wishes that has escaped his attention.
of his own State as expressed by the Legislamission, I may as well state it here as at any ture, and therefore I doubt his authority to other point. "Twenty years ago I advocated speak for the public on that question. It is colored suffrage and voted for it. In the State Banquo's ghost with him. of Wisconsin, ever since I have resided in the
Mr. DOOLITTLE. Allow me a word on State, I was willing that colored men should that point.
With his per
Mr. NYE. You have drawn me off, and I arms she comes here and presents herself with should like to proceed with my remarks. the spotless robes of undying loyalty. See it
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Sena- exemplified: here come two men clothed with tor from Nevada is entitled to the floor. the garments that you so much admire. Why
Mr. DOOLITTLE. The gentleman speaks | do you not let them in? The answer is that of my misrepresenting the State of Wisconsin. my distinguished friend has heard it whispered
Mr. NYL. No. You read the resolutions -I never listen to whispers--that we want two the other day that requested you to vote one more votes. Sir, I want twenty and two more, way, and yet you voted the other way. but I want them loyal, and I care not how
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Senators many votes we have if they are of the right must address the Chair.
kind; and I do not intend that we shall have Mr. DOOLITTLE. I will not interrupt the any other here, by my vote; do you? Senator if he does not desire an interruption; Mr. SUMNER. No. but on that point I desire to state to him that Mr. NYE. Very well; then you are safe the convention of Wisconsin last fall unani- and so am I. mously declared in favor of the doctrines to My friend says she grows puorer and poorer; which I have adverted on this occasion.
the vote of last year is less than ever before, and Mr. NYE. Sir, the world has moved mightily he says that that is at war with all the philossince last fall, though the gentleman may stand ophy of the settlement of these Territories. still. We have been moving, and so has his That my distinguished friend thinks so, I have State. But I was not saying anything about no doubt; bat that the fact is exactly opposite Congress imposing negro sufirage on the States. I know. I have seen the time when the State I was simply saying that the logic of events, of Nevada had ten thousand more population which is stronger and more powerful than the than it has got now. You see the saine thingin laws of Congress, is sweeping on to that goal every mining country. They roam and prosby its own resistless power. If they had not pect and develop until there are no more found a legislative enactment in Wisconsin that mountains to find, and then they come back. allowed black men to vote, I should think, the That is the history in a word of mining popugentleman being a fair exponent of that State, lations. Let the hue and cry go up that there that they would have negro suffrage in Ken- || is a richer placer somewhere else, and down go tucky before they had it in Wisconsin.
the pick and spade, away they go, and they go But, sir, to return to Colorado, she lies right to remain until they ascertain that they cannot in the pathway, and is the first stopping-place ! fill their stomachs on east winds, and back from the Missouri river westward to the Pacific. they come to their first love, and there they Her plains are extensive, beyond the concep- stay. tion of the dwellers in northern cities; her My friend was so unkind in his strictures mountains are so high that they literally reach upon poor Colorado as to afflict them with the clouds. In her productive valleys and on grasshoppers. [Laughter.] If my friend is her mountain sides is heard the reverberation spending his time in reading the surveyor genof the pick, the shovel, the mill, and labor in eral's reports to keep up with the progress of all its phases as it pertains to mining. The grasshoppers, he is attending to small business. surplus capital of New York and the eastern .[ Laughter.] I supposed he was engaged in States finds a field for its use, and its opera- | higher, nobler purposes than looking after the tions are expandivg and increasing beyond all march of grasshoppers. (Laughter.] Why, sir, precedent.
I have seen grasshoppers in Massachusetts as The distinguished Senator from Massachu- thick as locusts in Egypt. Grasshoppers go setts talks about her productiveness being only wherever grass grows; and my friend, when he two and a half millions last year. Sir, before establishes the fact that there is a good crop we got counting money by thousands of mil- of grasshoppers there, establishes the fact that lions, it would have made Boston's ears stand there are pastoral lands there; for they never erect to hear of a discovery in the West that go but where there is something to eat. was producing two and a half millions of gold But everything conspires to give Colorado a in a year, and everybody that was out of their forbidding aspect in my friend's vision. With library and out of business would have gone all the noble qualities that I so much admire to Colorado to see the rich mountains out of in my distinguished friend, there is one thing which it was dug; many of Boston's citizens he will pardon me for saying that he has yet to are there now; and they behold with wonder learn-that is a bold assertion for me-he has the rich products that they gaze upon. The got to learn to take defeat gracefully; or in dazzling brilliancy bewilders the minds of those other words, he must learn that to procure sucwho are unaccustomed to such scenes and they cess he is only entitled to use such means and fail to comprehend its vastness; and hence we such arguments as are legitimate to the subcannot be surprised, however much we may ject and to the question to which they are regret; that financial statements are presented applied. that create such misconceptions in others. Ir. President, if you take one step west of Why, sir, the young State from which I come Colorado, what do you find there? You find produces $20,000,000 of silver a year. Colo- there one of the strongest arguments and rearado spared four thousand of her sons to serve sons why there should be the strong governthe country in the tented field, and the Senator ment of a State in Colorado. You find Utah, berates her for her diminished productiveness. with all of her calamity, and with all of the
The sound of the hammer was not heard dangers incident to it, nestled right in there upon the anvil, the plow stood still in the fur- with a large population. Step beyond Utah row, men left their civil avocations, they quit and you find the State of Nevada. To say digging for the rich treasures of gold to hie to much of her would not become me; but I the field where richer treasures were to be pre
assert this of her: Nevada is a State that has served than gold could purchase; and my friend furnished as many troops in proportion to her from Massachusetts really discovers that Col- population as any State in this Union ; she orado is dwindling! No, Mr. President, Col- has done much substantial work; her people orado never showed as many evidences why are a law-abiding people, and they love the she should be admitted as a State as is pre- Union. Beyond Nevada we come to that sented by the very fact that regiment after regi- | mighty barrier, the Sierra Nevada ; leap over ment was sent from her territory to guard and that, and you come to the flourishing State of protect the travel across the plains from the my distinguished friend from California, [Mr. savage and to contend upon the field of strife with the rebels themselves. Sir, I am loath sir, California is no richer than Colorado, in to turn my back upon any population that has my judgment; no richer than Utah, no richer shown sneh devotion to the Federal Govern- than Nevada, Montana, or Idaho. ment as Colorado has done. I assert that she What next do we see? We see the mighty comes liere to-day clothed in the attractive power this nation puts forth, to do what?" To habiliments of loyalty, the proudest vestment link these two great oceans together with hooks with which man was ever clothed; out of her of iron and steel, and already is seen and heard misfortunes and from the smoke and din of from either ocean the steam whistle on the
Atlantic starting for the West, and in July they will be challenged above the clouds of the Sierra Nevada mountains bidding and beckoning them onward to the western coast. Right in this pathway lies Colorado, the first great stopping-place. Colorado, in two years from this time, will have a population that will pay more into the Treasury of this Government than many States whose locks are whitened with years. I know the abounding elasticity of these youthful States. I know with what vigor and strength they increase and go forward, and you cannot keep them from popalating rapidly. Strike the music of the chord that echoes to 6 go,'' and population will flow into them, even from Massachusetts.
Show me where these rich treasures are found, and where, after all, we have got to look for the very material to light from off the shoulders of this nation its wow crushing burden, and I will show you a population in point of intelligence, vigor, and numbers that will be satisfactory entirely to my distinguished friend from Massachusetts, and it will drive out the phantom that seems to haunt him, and it will give certain demonstration by its productions of its ability to be a State. * Poor Colorado" will settle with my friend one of these days; it will show bim that he little knows, and has paid but little attention in his researches, to the treasures of her mighty mountains. Sir, there is a people there who have gone deep down under the mountains, and by their science and their skill, and above all, by their indomitable will and perseverance, have demonstrated to the world that there in Colorado lies wealth untold.
Sir, my friend has one habit that I thought I should never fall into, but I have got to do so now; and that is reading letters. (Laughter.] I have got nobody to telegraph me for the occasion, [laughter,] but I have a letter here by accident. [Laughter.] It is a letter written by the mayor of Denver City, and directed to me; he is now in New York. I will read it:
New York City, March 22, 1866. DEAR SIR: I have just finished reading the report of the discussion in the Senate on the admission of Colorado, and must say that I was very much surprised at some of the statements made. As a citizen of Colorado, I can but regret that such statements place our young Territory and people in a very falso position before the people of the United States as regards our population, mineral wealth, and agricultural resources. I have been a resident of Colorado for the past six years, and from the positions I have occupied, think that I am well posted in regard to all of these matters.
Our population I honestly believe to-day is of permanent inhabitants thirty-five thousand, if not more. I do not think, in so large a Territory, that the vote at any election is a fair index of population. Our people are scattered over the mountains and valleys, and in a number of localities no elcctions are held. I know it was the case at the last (State) election. Men who are receiving five dollars per day will not leave their work and travel eight or ten miles to cast a vote.
Our young Territory sent three regiments to the war and at the close of the rebellion they were mustered out in the States, but most of them after a short visit to their friends are now ou the way back to their homes and property in Colorado. There were also hundreds of inen who went from Colorado to their homes in the States and enlisted, who are now making their preparations to return to Colorado this spring. All of these men claim to belong in Colorado, as they hold property and pay taxes in that Territory to-day.
So much for our population, which I'claim is on the increase daily instead of decrcase. As regards our mineral wealth, I would say that I do not think there need be any question in regard to that. I will give a few facts which have come under my personal knowledge. I was connected with the private mint of Messrs. Clark, Gruber & Co., in the years 1861, 1802, and 1803, and during that time they struck off of their own coin $750,000, and during the same period bought gold dust and shipped cast over $3,000,000 of gold bars, run from dust bought in Colorado. This is the business of one house. There were at the same time four other houses engaged in the same businees, Damely, banking. From the owners of five hundred feet on the Gregory mine there was bought in that time $1,000,000 of gold. Distinguished professors state in published works that Colorado has the largest extent of rich quartz veins of any mining country on the globe. I will say here that ourores are what is termed refractory, and it requires a vast amount of machinery and skilled labor to work them. There have been formed in the eastern cities over seventy-five mining companies, involving a working capital of over ten million dollars. When these companies get in fulland successful operation. I think Colorado will demonstrate to the world that she is a rich gold and silver producing country. Besides gold and silver, we have
rich veins of iron, copper, lead, coal, salt springs, feeling of security and advancement that never it is not the number of inhabitants that make and oil producing territory.
could have existed under a territorial governAs regards business, I will state that the merchants
a State, but the quality and character of the in thecity of Denver sold $12,000,000 worth ofmerchanment.
inhabitants? Wliy do we stand here quib. disc in the year 186). The aggregate amount of busi- My friend is alarmed for the dignity and honor | bling about numbers, when our fathers did ness done by banks in the Territory is $15,000,000 per of the older States. Well, they will take care not stop to cavil? Sir, it is time to drop this annum, As regards our agricultural resources, I will simply
of themselves. I have heard much said against iron standard of having so many or no State. say that the amount of land under cultivation is set New England, and I love her so well that I am When a body of men come here with the forth in the report of the surveyor general. Our soil is rich and productive, and the yield per acre satis
not going to repeat it; but she only occupies power to uphoid and maintain a State govern. fies the most sanguine of farmers. Irrigation is re
a small portion of this continent and she has ment clothed with the garments of loyalty, let quired except on the streams. had twelve most estimable (and it is happy for them come in. In that way you put,
if I From the county of Boulder, one of the smallest
may counties in the Territory, there were raised and sold
the country she has had them) Senators here use the expression, braces into this great temin the city of Denver twenty-five thousand bushels that have stood like a breakwater between the ple of freedom. You bring these elements of grain. This was exclusive of what they retained lashings and fury of rebellion and the stability of strength from State organizations, and my for seed and home consumption. One farmer in the county of Arrapahoe soid his crop in Denver for the
of the Government. Sir, would you have hesi- friend from Kentucky will pardon me when I enum sum of 360,000. The counties of Jefferson, Weed. tated during the rebellion to have two from say that the citizens of Colorado know their El Paso, Hueriano. Conejos, Costilla, Pueblo, and Colorado? Would you have quibbled upon the resources, know the expenses of a State govFrémont arc agricultural counties. This is a simple statement of facts, and I send it to
little point of the honor of the older States? ernment, know its burdens, and knowing you for the purpose of placing Colorado right before
Sir, a great State never is so noble and never them are willing to take them upon themtho honorable body of whirh you are a member. appears so grand as when it reaches out its selves; and who shall be the judge for them I am, sir, very respectfully, GEORGE T. CLARK,
hand to a young, tender State and says, " I will but themselves? Mayor of Denver, and uphold and sustain you; I bid you God speed Mr. President, I have detained the Senate Cashier of the First National Bank, on this journey:
longer than I intended. I hope this vote will Hon. JAMES W. NYE,
Massachusetts was once young; True, that be reconsidered. Upon every principle of Senator from Nevada, Washington, D. C.
was a great many years ago; but she was right, the enabling act was at least an invitaNow, Mr. President, I present the authority young; she is old now, and should not forget tion for them to come. My friend from Mas. of Mr. Clark, the mayor of Denver, and the that time. My friend and I have both been sachusetts says it would have been all well if cashier of the first national bank there, against younger than we are; but there is nothing I they had come a year sooner. Does he not the supposed authority of my friend from Mas- recur to in my past life with half the pleasure || remember the parable? The laborer who came sachusetts.
I do when I recollect an instance when I have at the eleventh hour got the penny, too. I know Sir, I claim that it is the sound and wise stretched out my hand to a young man to aid the embarrassment of the question of time. policy of this nation to have the strong power him over the thorny pathway of professional Our election was fixed on the same day with the of State governments across this continent. life. Sir, the States were not born at once; Colorado election under the enabling act; and There is something in State ties. I never be- but the Constitution clothes them with the gar- | nothing but using the telegraph and unusual lieved in this late quasi dissolution of States; ments of age; from the moment they are born exertion enabled us to distribute intelligence but there is nothing that binds us so closely | they are the equals of the older States. It is to our distant mining posts; and some of them together in mutual interest as State ties. I well it is so. Why should they not be the did not know it. What then? The convenbelieve that as a principle it is true; and the || equals of the old States? They are bone of tion met. We supposed that we must be adtime so much longed for by the distinguished our bone and flesh of our flesh, offspring, mitted before the election in the fall, or our Senator from Kentucky who last addressed you shoots ingrafted upon the main stock of the work would be void; and I telegraphed my. will soon rome when reason takes the place || parental Government. Sir, I do not think self sixteen thousand eight hundred words, the of frenzy in the rebellions States, when their New York would be scared, frightened out of constitution of the State of Nerada; and Nejudgınents shall surmout their prejudices, when her propriety, if Colorado slould have a couple vada was born by telegraph. [Laughter.] I they shall have ceased to do evil and learned of votes here. New York stands upon her own received across the trembling wires, from the to do well, when it will be an acknowledged base as firm as the everlasting hills, and so will pen of the immortal Lincoln, that Nevada was fact that State ties are stronger and more pow. Colorado. Sir, I care not how many votes born; and a shout went up that_made the erful than national pressure from outside. I there are here; I anticipate the time, and that mountain-tops and valleys ring. Do you not want to see a row of States across this conti. not far distant, when State line after State line suppose he knew what he was about? Clearly. nent that will vibrate with one thrill from the will join, and there will not be an inch of the || Why did he not kick us out because the word qniet waters of the Pacific to the restless waters mountains and plains from the now dreary | white was in our constitution? It will not of the Atlantic. I want a State bond of sym- | glaciers of Montana or Nevada to the eastern- do. Colorado had had as many telegraphs pathy from ocean to ocean that will hold the most boundary of the States beyond the Mis. as we happened to have, and had used them East and the West in bonds which the world sissippi that will not boast of a State govern- as much, she would have been born in time. cannot sever. I want the people inhabiting ment standing as an equal with New York and But, sir, this question of tine, I take it, is a this vast expanse to be protected by State gov. Massachusetts upon this floor, and neither of matter of small consideration. Here was an ernments because they will make that which is them will be degraded by the association. invitation to this feast of States; and she has now a wilderness "bloom and blossom as the Sir, this business of making States is a large come up to the feast as soon as time would rose."'. They will bring to the earth's surface business; it has frightened the men down South. allow. She has come up as soon a: she could a wealth that will astonish the world.
While they were engaged in hurling States out, attire herself in State garments for the feast. Give these people the fostering care of State some of us were engaged in bringing States in. | My friend meets her by talking of “grasshop. governments, and they will convince foreign This Government in its form and plan will pers." (Laughter.] When she asks for bread, creditors that whatever obligations may rest never be perfect till there is not a territorial the bread of national life, he gives her a stone. upon the shoulders of the Government, they are dependency in it, till State line touches State Sir, that will not do. I insist upon it, that my always on a specie basis. Sir, higher than that, line over our broad and expansive continent. friend from Massachusetts must be beaten now; they stand on bullion. Give them State gove | And furthermore, if I may be pardoned, I and I trust that the lesson will teach lim to ernments that will protect the miners in their see symptoms of States from another quarter. take it gracefully, and I assure loin in the distant mountain homes, let them feel that they When this Fenian speck shall have blown away, utmost kindness that this word “white'' will are not in danger from the wrath of the wild the Canadians like wise men may seek shelter not hurt anybody. savage nor froin the neglect of their Govern- under the protecting ægis of the tree of liberty Mr. President, I trust that this vote will be ment, and the population will be so thick as to that was planted here by our fathers. Sir, the reconsidered and reconsidered now, and that drive away the last phantom that baunts my St. Lawrence is not wide enough to divide the Colorado which sojustly deserves to stand within friend's mind-the grasshoppers—from Col- continent between monarchical and republican the circle of States will not be kept out any orado. Sir, give Colorado a State govern- institutions, New Brunswick and the other | longer. ment, let her have a voice in the national British Provinces are certain to come in and Mr. MCDOUGALL. Mr. President, "I am councils with which she will be in unison of to tend toward an eastern preponderance by not an orator as Brutus is." In the matter of sentiment, and her growth will be more magi- and by, as time rolls itself around.
rhetoric, of euphony, and elocution, the gentlecal than anything produced by the lamp of I hope, Mr. President, that this vote will man who last addressed the Senate is my mas. Aladdin. My friend has always turned, I sup- be reconsidered. Colorado deserves better ter infinitely. Of all these things I say nothing; pose, eastward for light. Go West; go out than to be rejected now. My friend says the but of myself I must say something because I there, and what will he see? The tales upo: enabling act is dead. Well, suppose it is dead, did on a previous occasion vote for the pending which he has feasted, that he has read as fa- does Colorado die with it? Because a statute
I did it spontaneously, without carebles, are excelled by the realities. You find has lapsed, are you to kill everybody that ful consideration. After careful consideration, in Colorado a people that beat the mountains went where the statute existed? I pay but I think it is not just or right, not consistent with fine. You find in these new border Territories | "little attention in the discussion of this ques- our system. The reason on which I before and States a population that level the mount- tion to the mere fact of the existence of that acted spontaneously was that I desired to build ains and fill up the valleys. They stop at enabling act. States have been brought into up a western interest, which is the interest that nothing. Give them protection, and I repeat this family of States without any enabling act my country belongs to. After careful considthat the growth of Colorado will astonish the and with less population than Colorado has eration, I do not think that the Territory of world. I have seen the difference between a got. The State of Arkansas, when it was Colorado is so populated and has such a numState and Territory; and although the mantle admitted, had but eleven thousand white popu- ber of permanent inhabitants as to justify her of a State government has rested a little more lation in it; and why do we stand here now, representation by two Senators in this Senate than twelve months upon my State, there is a at this late day, debating such a point, when ll Hall. Its population does not come within the
39T Cong. Ist SESS.-No. 135.
rule that has been regarded as the true rule by liness. Now, one object of the construction of ment was settled in the Supreme Court against all careful, considerate statesmen for many the Niagara ship-canal is to enable the United the technical objection that as there was no cbb years. The spontaneous vote I before gave I States in case of war, if need be, to make use and flow of tide those inland lakes could not am bound to change, for I think that then I was of our large upper lake ileet of vessels, which be covered by the ægis of aduiraliy. wrong, and now I will try to be right. I shall could be speedily fitted for such use. On On- In delivering the opinion of the court, the therefore vote against the reconsideration. tario our merchant marine is outnumbered. Chief Justice took the broad ground that, tide
Mr. IIENDERSON. I move that the Sen- On the upper lakes we greatly outnumber the or no tide, these lakes were, in truth, great ate do now adjourn. Canadian or British marine.
inland seas, bordered by different States on one The motion was agreed to; and the Senate It may be said that there is no speck of war side and having on the other a long foreign adjourned.
on the northern frontier at the present time; frontier line of three thousand miles; that on
that therefore this is but a contingent danger them already existed a great and growing comHOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. to be provided against ; that we can guard merce between numerous States and a foreign
against that, if need be, by volunteers or mili- nation; that on these lakes hostile fleets had TUESDAY, April 24, 1866.
tin that may be called into service. I an- encountered each other; and admiralty juris. The House met at twelve o'clock m. Prayer swer that the experience of the war out of diction had already necessarily been, indirectly by Rev. HENRY W. Bellows.
which we have come, shows that even with a at least, extended and recognized. The Journal of yesterday was read and half million or million armed men we could To such importance and magnitude had comapproved.
not, or did not, guard effectually the Baltimore mercial interests and rights thus early grown JACOB P. LEESE.
and Ohio railroad or the Baltimore and Cum- (1851) that he held, substantially, it would be Mr. BIDWELL asked unanimous consent to
berland canal, so as to prevent forays or raids. contrary to the first principles on which the offer the following joint resolution:
Such an experience shows that the great and Union was formed to confine admiralty rights Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatircs long canal of the State of New York, so neces- and privileges to States bordering on the Atof the United States of America in Congress assembled, sary and so important to the West and East, is lantic, and to tide-water navigation therewith That the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby author- liable to be pierced and broken at any time by connected, and to deny such rights to the citiized aud directed to pay to Jacob P. Leese, out of the a hostile invasion.
zens who border on the lakes. appropriation made for the payment of judgments
Certainly the to be renderel hy the Court of Claims," under the
There is another feature in this case. Be- Chief Justice intimated such was not the intenact approved June 25, 1861, the amount of his claim, tween Chicago and Ogdensburg, there are some
metion of the framers of the Constitution, one as fixed by a decision of the Court of Claims, rendored December 24, 1860.
fourteen hundred miles of natural navigation, object of which, with them, was a perfect Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I object.
with the single interruption of the falls of Niag. 1) equality in the rights and the privileges of the
Canada on its side has constructed the citizens of the different States, not only in the TELEGRAPII TO THE WEST INDIES.
Welland canal, forty-two miles in length, with laws of the General Government, but in the Mr. ELIOT. I ask unanimous consent to
a second opening on the lake, shortening it to mode of administering them. That equality does report from the Committee on Commerce Sen
thirty-two miles, with twenty-eight locks of the not exist if the commerce on the lakes is denied ate bill No. 26, concerning telegraphic com
dimensions of one hundred and eighty by twenty- the benefits and the protection which the Conmunication between the United States and the
six and a half feet. This will proposes to con- stitution secures to the States bordering on island of Cuba, and other West India islands,
struct a canal around the falls of Niagara, the Atlantic. Of course I refer to Chief Jusand the Bahamas. Amendments have been
making the distance but eight miles, with much tice Taney's opinion in the well-known case made to obviate all the objections which were
larger capacity in prism and in size of locks. in Howard's Reports, known as the Genesee raised when the bill was before the House. Thus, in case of difliculty with Canada, instead of
Chief case. Mr. SPALDING. I object, and call for the || having one hundred and fifty miles to guard to Now, sir, if it is found that the present averegular order.
prevent interruption of commerce between the nues of commerce and trade are inadequate,
East and West, we should have only eight miles and it has been found by observation and by NIAGARA FALLS SIIIP-CANAL. to protect.
instrumental examination that only within the The House accordingly proceeded to the con- Now, Mr. Speaker, it may be said that this State of New York is there that natural dip or sideration of the special order of business, is now a minor consideration. I admit that it || depression of land lying north of the mountain being the call of committees for reports, the has not the importance which it once had. But ranges and south of the frontier line, then we pending question being the bill reported by the when it is considered by this House that on must look at existing outlets or easements of Committee on Roads and Canals, providing for those inland lakes there floats a commercial trade and commerce in operation or projected a ship-canal around the falls of Niagara, upon interest twice greater than the entire foreign || within the boundaries of that State. which Mr. Van Horn, of New York, was enti- commerce of the United States, it is manifest Now, within that State is the New York and tled to the floor.
at once that there is on these lakes an interest Erie railroad, which does what it can; the New Mr. HULBURD. By an agreement between that should be cared for. While we are making || York Central railroad, which also does what it the gentleman who reported this bill [Mr. Van || appropriations year by year to build and fit can; and there is the New York and Erie canal, Horn, of New York,) and myself, I will oc- up and strengthen fortifications to protect our three hundred and fifty miles in length; adding cupy the remainder of his time.
Atlantic coast, is there not a reason why, in a ten per cent. for the six hundred and fourteen I desire to call the attention of the House | military point of view, we should have respect feet rise and fall of elevation, makes a working to the importance of a ship.canal around the to the great interests of the North and of the length of four hundred and fourteen miles; a falls of Niagara on the American side, not only West to be seriously affected and impaired in canal of narrow prism, of numerous locks, and as a military measure, but as a coinmercial case of war by a direct interruption of com- which is simply able to receive and carry boats necessity. mercial communication ?
of two hundred and twenty-four tons burden. In the latter view, it is needed and demanded An order in council now shuts at any time the It has been stated by the official authorities by some fifteen States of this Union. There Welland canal against American bottoms, and of that State that for three years the capacity are directly interested in its construction some since the termination of the reciprocity treaty of that canal has been tested to its utmost to ten million people.
this may be done without a moment's previous | provide transportation for the products of the I propose to occupy the brief time allotted notice, as there are no treaty stipulations to pre- States of the great West' connected with or me in first asking the consideration of the mil- vent it. Besides, the Canadian authorities dis- bordering the upper lakes. itary aspect of the question.
criminate already against American commerce When the State of Illinois has but one eighth It is well known that by the treaty between by refunding to Canadian vessels ninety per of her land under cultivation; when the other this country and Great Britain neither nation cent. of the duties, and exacting one hundred States of the West have but one tenth of their is allowed to have more than one armed vessel per cent of the duties paid by American ves- land under cultivation, with present facilitieson Lake Ontario and two on the upper lakes. sels, unless these American vessels discharge and there is no immediate prospect of their But by means of its natural rivers and the their cargoes at Montreal or some other Cana- increase-what is to become of the products construction of different canals Canada or the dian port, or go out to sea by the way of the of these States ten or twenty years hence, when British Government can at any time build and Gulf of St. Lawrence. These are reasons, in they shall have, perhaps, the half of their tillaaccumulate giboats or other war vessels and a military point of view, which to my mind ble acres under cultivation? Where will they precipitate them upon the lakes; and all this have a direct bearing on the propriety of the find an outlet? Shall we be told that they can preparation it can make in its own waters and construction of this canal by the Federal Gov- go down the Mississippi? That may answer of course without infringing the international ernment.
for certain portions of the cereals of the West, treaty. It was stated a year ago, whether cor- In a commercial point of view it is stated, wheat, &c., but it is very well known that there rectly or not I cannot say, that Great Britain and with truth, that the commerce of the lakes is a serious objection to that route by reason then had a hundred gunboats ready, if need has vastly, rapidly increased. In 1840 the first of the heat of the climate for the transportahe, to throw them upon Lake Ontario. It must vessel leit Chicago with three thousand bushels tion of corn to and its export from the port of not be forgotten that Lake Ontario is the key of wheat for the East. Five years afterward New Orleans. If I recollect aright, never in porition of the lakes if we are at war with the shipping trade of the lakes with the East any single year has the export of corn from Great Britain, or, what is the same thing, was so large that Congress was called upon and the port of New Orleans exceeded two hunwith Canada.
passed a special act extending the admiralty | dred and fifty thousand bushels, while the Erie We had upon that lake a single vessel only and maritime jurisdiction of the Federal dis- and Oswego canals of the State of New York to nieet that force; and we by the terms of the trict courts to the lakes and navigable waters alone have transported a million and a million treat.y could have no more, and we had no connecting the same.
and a half bushels a year. rivers or large canals upon which we could Six years later, in 1851, the constitutionality But even if the Mississippi river was deep build and store more, and have them in read- of that act was raised, and after solemn argu- enough, and its channel rendered navigable for boats all the year round, still there would be absurdity of a serious apprehension from that this differ from the original bill. This will proan objection in it on account of the climate, quarter. Canada bas expended millions in vides for the chartering of a company direct by because the corn would heat and become dam- constructing the seven canals around the rap- the Government who shall or may accept tho aged, and of course depreciate in value. ids in the St. Lawrence river between (gilens- i benefits offered and construct the canal, with
The products of the liest must, therefore, burg and Montreal. In this canalling and all the restrictions and provisions that are cus: find an outlet by northern and eastern routes, locking thirty-two and a half miles only one tomary in such cases. The bill first present :d or it must be burned for fuel or distilled into hundred and sixty of the two bundred and I provided for the construction of the work spirits or fed to stock or rot upon the ground, thirty-six feet of the elevation of Lake Ontario through any company chartered by any State, as it has sometimes doue of late.
above Montreal has been overcome, leaving a which company should be governed by similar Now, by the construction of the Niagara tidal and channel current of seventy feet fall to regulations and suliject to the same restrictions ship-canal, eight miles in çxtent, the expense be surmounted by the steam and sail of inland as in the bill now preseuted. of transportation is greatly lessened; and there or upward-going vessels. She has expended | The concluding sections of this bill are the will be several outlets from Lake Ontario to millions upon magnificent docks and wharves same as in the original bill. differing only so far the sea-board and the great depot of this con- to accommodate trade and commerce at Mon- as necessary to make thein conform to the tinent, namely, New York city. Therefore, treal; but thus far they have attracted there || charier granted, and to confer upon the com: there will be no danger of accumulation there. no forest of shipping. At a vast expense she pany so chartered the necessary power for the
But, as my time is limited, I will pass to has dredged the channel of that river to a depth | government of the corporation and the manage. another point. The State of New York, stand- of twenty feet and to a width of three bundred ment of its affairs. ing midway between the West and the East in feet, miles and miles below that city, yet does Mr. Speaker, as I propose to speak upon this that respect, by or through her canal officers, " that way out” remain diflicult and danger- measure hereafter, I will not occupy the time strangely assumes the position that this canal ous, and comparatively unfrequented, and for- of the House any longer at present. will injure the revenues of the Erie canal, and ever will, in consequence of bad shores, sunken Mr. J. V. IIUMPHREY here addressed the therefore it shonld not be constructed. But in reefs, and perpetual fogs. The perils of this House; but before concluding, the morning another breath they admit and insist that the untoward thoroughfare most strikingly appear hour expired. [His remarks will be found caual interests of the State of New York have in one item of the recent past. In the last few || complete in the Appendix.] been quite remunerative and productive, cost- years the Montreal Atlantic Steamship. Com
MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. ing in round numbers, interest, loans, damages, pany have lost seven, if not eight, of their fine, enlargement, “ pauper laterals,”' &c., all told, new, and well-appointed steam-packets in the
A message from the Senate, by Mr. TORXEY, $100,000,000; and that between eighty-three and intricacies of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. What
its Secretary, announced that the Senate had eighty-four of these inillions have been returned fact more patent and potent of the perils passed, without amendment, a bill (II. R. No. to the treasury of that State, leaving only some of this dreaded rival route? There reinains
500) entitled "An act making appropriations fifteen or sixteen millions of disbursement ex- one other significant business item, illustrating
to supply deficiencies in the appropriations for pense and unreturned. The Erie canal proper the disfavor with which this route is viewed by
the public printing for the fiscal year ending has paid for itself and $9,000,000 more. What shippers and insurance men.
For ten years,
June 30, 1866." right, then, has the State of New York to claim between 1815–55, the charge for freight from
SPEAKER'S TALLE. that that canal, with its narrow prism and its Montreal to Liverpool averaged twice thic charge Mr. MeRUER moved that the House proyet more restricted locks, should require, as from New York to the same port.
ceed to the consideration of business on ihe it does, that the commerce of the West, how- Of the river and Canadian ports proper this Speaker's table. ever great, shall be forced through it to market, may be said: less than one eighth of the lake The motion was agreed to. whether they desire it or not; at allevents, such freight went down to Montreal, notwithstand
CATIARINE MOCK. portions of it as cannot go down the Mississippi, ing drawbacks and reciprocity. During the and such portions of it as are too bulky and first six years of the operation of the reci. The first business on the Speaker's table was weighty to be transported upon the railroads? procity treaty only twelve thousand tons, in | Senate amendment to the bill (H. R. No. 219) The very statement shows that no wrong is done forty vessels, found their way to the lower St.
entitled "An act for the relief of Catharine to the treasury of that State if the national Gor- Lawrence, and none of these. it is said. stemmed Mock;" which was referred to the Coinmitiee ernment makes this a national work. the upward current by returning to the waters
on Invalid Pensions. Jir. DAVES. I am very desirous of vot- where they were built and loaded. In 1863
JUDICIAL ROCEEDINGS ing for this bill, but I am not able to find just but a single vessel cleared and entered Amer.
The next business on the Speaker's table the precise condition of the bill before the ican ports, through this channel, from foreign
was Senate amendmeats to the bill (H. R. House. I desire to ask my friend how efficient countries. In the words of Secretary Chase, its provisions are to give the United States notwithstanding the careful and inviting legis entitled' An act relating to habeas corpus and
No. 238) entitled " An act to ainend an act control over this canal so as to make it a lation of Canada in regard to tolls and tonnage | regulating judicial proceedings in certain cases,' national work. I am led to make this inquiry duties,!' "the united efforts of the two Govern
approved March 3, 1863." because the general drist of this bill is to make ments have proved of little effect in opening a
Mr. WILSON, of Iowa. I move that the & donation to such corporation as may be channel preferable to that made up of the
House non-concur in the amendments of the formed by any State to carry on this work, lakes, the canals, and railroads of the United
Senate and ask for a committee of conference. and I observe that the State of New York has States."
Mr. ROSS. I call for the reading of the incorporated a company for this purpose, the The idea that this can become a rival route,
amendiments. act of incorporation containing this provision : ice-locked as it is nearly seven months of the The aniendments were read, as follows:
"The said corporation may accept upon any terms year, in addition to all its other disadvantages, and conditions not inconsistent with this charter or
On page 1, line two, strike out the following words: in opposition to our open sea-board, is too prethe laws of this State, from the Government of the
"Or othar trespasses or wrongs done or committed ;" United States, or of any Stilto, any grants of land,
posterous to be seriously considered. But- so that tue clauso will read: bonds, moneys, or credit which may be made to it, [Here the hammer fell.]
Any searchi, seizure, arrest, or imprisonment made, for the purpose of constructing the canal and works Nr. ALLISON. I design to yield a portion
or any acts clone, &c.
In line nine, after the word "so" insert the words connected therewith, and may hold and dispose of such lands for that purpose. When completed, the of my time to the gentleman from New York,
done or.” State of New York shall have the right to purchase [Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY.]
In line ton, strike out the word "is," and insert in the sail canal and the works connected therewith,
licu thereof the word " was.".
Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. Will my by paying to the said corporation the cost of con
In the same line, after the word "addressed," siructing the same, with interest computed to date colleague yield to me for a moment?
insert as for whom it was intended." of the purchase, with the further addition of ton per
Mr. J. M. HUMPHREY. I will.
In line fourteen, after the word "act," insert the Cent, thereon."
words," of March 3, 1863.
After line fifteen insert the folloring: I desire to know whether in this bill you further cousideration and consultation with the But no such order shall, by force of this act or the hare sufficiently guarded against any such con- friends of the general project of a ship-canal
act to wbici this is an amendment, be a lefuse to
any suit or action for any aci donc or omitted to be tingency as is provided for in that section of around the falls of Niagara, I am directed to done after the passage of this act; nor for any act the lav of New York, and that by no possibility present the bill I now send to the Clerk as a ding with malice, crucliy, or unnccessary severity. this shall be anything but a national work. substitute for the bill I offered on Tuesday Mr. WILSON, of lowa, called for the pre.
Mr. HULBURD. If one of my colleagues last, understanding that the gentleman from vious question. had been here he would have offered an Wisconsin [Mr. Paine] will withdraw the The previous question was seconded and the amendment that would remove that difficulty, amendment which he offered, in the nature of main question ordered ; which was upon the taking it away from any State and giving its a substitute to the bill first introduced by me. motion of Mr. Wilson, of Iowa, that the House construction and its control exclusively to the The first seven sections of this bill are the non-concur in the amendments of the Senate General Government.
same as the corresponding ones of the former and ask for a committee of conference. I wish to answer one other objection, and that bill, with two exceptions: first, the alternative The motion was agreed 10-ayes sixty-seven, is, that if this commerce finds its way in large is given to use inclined planes. if upon careful noes not counted. vessels into Lake Ontario, it will go away from investigation it is found that they will be ad. Mr. WILSON, of Iowa, moved to reconsider New York on down and out to sea through visable, and work to the best interests of the the vote just taken: and also moved that the the Gulf of St. Lawreuce.
Government and the company; and second, a motion to reconsider be laid on the table. Sir, those who are acquainted with the obsta- clause is inserted in the seventh section vesting The latter motion was agreed to. cles in that pathway to the ocean--obstacles the title of the land taken by the United States The SPEAKER subsequently announced the that no time or expenditure of money or induce- in securing the rig?it of way, when the damages appointment of Messrs. Wilsox, of lowa, ments of drawb:ucks can, in my judgment, ever adjusted as provided in the bill shall be paid. | Mckee, and Boyer, as the committee of consurmount-would langh to scorn the utter Then follow the main provisions which make ference on the part of the House.