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postulated an uninterrupted series of triumphs, whereas a of the conquered provinces of Kulm, Kujavia, Masovia and single reverse was likely to be fatal to it. Thus the frightful Great Poland. The firmness and humanity which he displayed disaster of Nördlingen (September 6th, 1634; see SWEDEN: in this new capacity won the affectionate gratitude of the History) brought him, for an instant, to the verge of ruin, and inhabitants, and induced the German portion of them, notably compelled him, for the first time, so far to depart from his policy | the city of Thorn, to side with the Swedes against the Poles. of independence as to solicit direct assistance from France. But, During Charles's absence in Denmark (1657), Oxenst jerna, in well aware that Richelieu needed the Swedish armies as much the most desperate circumstances, tenaciously defended Thorn as he himself needed money, he refused at the conference of for ten months, and the terms of capitulation ultimately obCompiègne (1635) to bind his hands in the future for the sake tained by him were so advantageous that they were made the of some slight present relief. In 1636, however, he concluded basis of the subsequent peace negotiations at Oliva, between a fresh subsidy-treaty with France at Wismar, The same year Poland and Sweden, when Oxenstjerna was one of the chief he returned to Sweden and took his scat in the Regency. His plenipotentiaries of the Swedish regency. During the domina. presence at home overawed all opposition, and such was the lion of Magnus de la Gardie he played but a subordinate part general confidence inspired by his superior wisdom that for the in affairs. From 1662 10 1666 he was governor-general of Livonia. next nine years his voice, especially as regarded foreign allairs, In 1674 he was sent to Vienna to try and prevent the threatened was omnipotent in the council of state. He drew up beforehand outbreak of war between France and the empire. The conthe plan of the Danish War of 1643-1645, so brilliantly executed nexions which he formed and the sympathies which he won here by Lennart Torstensson, and had the satisfaction of severely had a considerable influence on his future career, and resulted crippling Denmark by the peace of Brömsebro (1645). His in his appointment as one of the Swedish envoys to the congress later years were embittered by the jealousy of the young Queen of Nijmwegen (1676). His appointment was generally regarded Christina, who thwarted the old statesman in every direction. as an approximation on the part of Sweden to Austria and He always attributed the exiguity of Sweden's gains by the peace Holland. During the congress he laboured assiduously in an of Osnabrück to Christina's undue interference. Oxenstjerna anti-French direction; a well-justified distrust of France was, was opposed at first to the abdication of Christina, because he indeed, henceforth the keynote of his policy, a policy diametricfeared mischief to Sweden from the unruly and adventurous ally opposed to Sweden's former system. In 1680 Charles XI. disposition of her appointed successor, Charles Gustavus. The entrusted him absolutely with the conduct of foreign affairs, extraordinary consideration shown to him by the new king on the sole condition that peace was to be preserved, an office ultimately, however, reconciled him to the change. He died which he held for the next seventeen years to the very great at Stockholm on the 28th of August 1654.

advantage of Sweden. His leading political principles were See Axel Oxenstjernas skriften och brefvexling (Stockholm, 1888 friendship with the maritime powers (Great Britain and Holland) et seq.); A. de Marny, Oxenstjerna et Richelieu à Compiègne (Paris, and the emperor, and a close anti-Danish alliance with the 1878). 2. COUNT JOHAN AXELSSON (1611-1657), son of the foregoing, of the regents during the minority of Charles XII. The martial

house of Holstein. Charles XI. appointed Oxenstjerna one completed his studies at Upsala in 1631, and was sent by his father on a grand tour through France, the Netherlands and proclivities of the new king filled the prudent old chancellor Great Britain. He served under Count Gustavus Horn in the with alarm and anxiety. His protests were frequent and Thirty Years' War from 1632, and was subsequently employed energetic, and he advised Charles in vain to accept the terms

of by his father in various diplomatic missions, though his instruc

peace offered by the first anti-Swedish coalition. Oxenstjerna tions were always so precise and minute that he was little more

has been described as a shrewd and subtle little man, of gentle than the executor of the chancellor's wishes. He was one of the disposition, but remarkable for his firmness and tenacity of commissioners who signed the truce of 1635 with Poland, and character.

See F. F. Carlson, Sveriges historic under Konungarne af Pfalziska in 1639, much against his father's will, was made a senator.

huset (Stockholm, 1883. 1885); O. Sjögren, Karl den elfte och Along with Salvius he represented Sweden at the great peace Svenska folket (Stockholm, 1897); and Négociations du comle congress of Osnabrück, but as he received his instructions direct d'Avaux pendant les années 1693, 1097--1098 (Utrecht, 1882, &c.). from his father, whereas Salvius was in the queen's confidence,

(R. N. B.) the two “ legates" were constantly at variance. From 1650

OXFORD, EARLS OF, an English title held successively by to 1652 he was governor-general of Pomerania. Charles X.

the families of Vere and Harley. The three most important earls made him earl marshal.

of the Vere line (see VERE) are noticed separately below. The 3. GABRIEL GUSTAFSSON (1587-1640), brother of (1), was

Veres held the earldom from 1142 until March 1703, when it from 1612 to 1618 the chief adviser of Duke John, son of became extinct on the death of Aubrey de Vere, the 20th earl. King John III., and Gustavus Adolphus's competitor for the In 1711 the English statesman Robert Harley (see below) was Swedish throne. After the duke's death he became, virtually, I created earl of Oxford; but the title became extinct in this the locum-tenens of the chancellor (with whom he was always family

on the death of the 6th earl in 1853. on the most intimate terms) during Axel's frequent absences

OXFORD, EDWARD DE VERE, 17TH EARL 'Or (1550-1604), from Sweden. 'He was also employed successfully on numerous

son of John de Vere, the 16th earl, was born on the 12th of April diplomatic missions. He was most usually the intermediary

1550. He matriculated at Queen's College, Cambridge, but bet ween his brother and the riksdag and senate. In 1634 he

he temoved later to St John's College, and was known as Lord was created lord high steward. His special department, Svea Bolebec or Bulbeck until he succeeded in 1562 to the earldom Hofret,” the supreme court of justice, was ever a model of and to the hereditary dignity of great chamberlain of England. efficiency, and he frequently acted as chancellor and lord high As one of the royal wards the boy came under the care of Lord treasurer as well.

Burghley, at whose house in London he lived under the tutorship See Gabriel Gustafssons bref till Riks Konsler Axel Oxenstierna, of his maternal uncle, Arthur Golding, the translator of Ovid. 1011-1040 (Stockholm, 1890).

His violent temper and erratic doings were a constant source 4. Count Bengt or BENEDICT GABRIELSSON (1623-1702), of anxiety to Burghley, who nevertheless in 1571 gave him was the son of Axel Oxenstjerna's half-brother, Gabriel Bengtsson his eldest daughter, Anne, in marriage. Oxford more than (1586-1656). After a careful education and a long residence once asked for a military or a naval command, but Burghley abroad, he began his diplomatic career at the great peace con- hoped that his good looks together with his skill in dancing and gress of Osnabrück. During his stay in Germany he made the in feats of arms would win for him a high position at court. acquaintance of the count palatine, Charles Gustavus, aster- His accomplishments did indeed secure Elizabeth's favour, but wards Charles X., whose confidence he completely won. Two he ofiended her by going to Flanders without her consent in years after the king's accession (1654), Oxenst jerna was sent 1574, and more seriously in 1582 by a duel with one of her gentleto represent Sweden at the Kreistag of Lower Saxony. In

Thomas Knyvet. Among his other escapades was a futile 1655 be accompanied Charles to Poland and was made governor

men,

ile. in the Vere line.

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plot to rescue from the Tower Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Oxford, and Maud (d. 1413), daughter of Sir Ralph de Ufford Norfolk, with whom he was distantly connected. In 1579 he (d. 1346), and a descendant of King Henry III. He became insulted Sir Philip Sidney by calling him a “puppy on the 9th earl of Oxford on his father's death in 1371, and married tennis-court at Whitehall. Sidney accordingly challenged Philippa (d. 1412), daughter of his guardian Ingelram de Couci, Oxford, but the queen forbade him to fight, and required him earl of Bedford, a son-in-law of Edward III., quickly becoming to apologize on the ground of the difference of rank between very intimate with Richard II. Already hereditary great the disputants. On Sidney's refusal and consequent disgrace chamberlain of England, Oxford was made a member of the Oxford is said to have schemed to murder him. The earl sat privy council and a Knight of the Garter; while castles and on the special commission (1586) appointed for the trial of Marylands were bestowed upon him, and he was constantly in the queen of Scots; in 1589 he was one of the peers who tried company of the young king. In 1385 Richard decided to send Philip. Howard, earl of Arundel, for high treason; and in 1601 his friend to govern Ireland, and Oxford was given extensive he took part in the trial of Essex and Southampton. It has rights in that country and was created marquess of Dublin for been suggested that Oxford was the Italianated Englishman | life; but although preparations were made for his journey he ridiculed by Gabriel Harvey in his Speculum Tuscanismi. On did not leave England. Meanwhile the discontent felt at his return from a journey to Italy in 1575 he brought back various Richard's incompetence and extravagance was increasing, one inventions for the toilet, and his estate was rapidly dissipated of the contributory causes thereto being the king's partiality in satisfying his extravagant whims. His first wise died in 1988, for Oxford, who was regarded with jealousy by the nobles and and from that time Burghley withdrew his support, Oxford who made powerful enemies about this time by divorcing his being reduced to the necessity of seeking help among the poor wife, Philippa, and by marrying a Bohemian lady. The king, men of letters whom he had at one time or another befriended. however, indifferent to the gathering storm, created Vere duke He was himself a'lyric poet of no small merit. His fortunes of Ireland in October 1386, and gave him still more extensive were partially retrieved on his second marriage with Elizabeth powers in that country, and at once matters reached a climax. Trentham, by whom he had a son, Henry de Vere, 18th earl of Richard was deprived of his authority for a short time, and Oxford (1593-1625). He died at Newingto near London, on Vere was ordered in vain to proceed to Ireland. The latter was the 24th of June 1604.

then among those who were accused by the king's uncle Thomas His poems, scattered in various anthologies—the Paradise of of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and his supporters in November Dainty Devices, England's Parnassus, Phoenix Nesi, England's 1387; and rushing into the north of England he gathered an Helicon--and elsewhere, were collected by Dr A. B. Grosart in vol. iv. of the Fuller Worthies Library (1876).

army to defend his royal master and himself. At Radcot Bridge

in Oxfordshire, however, his men fled before the troops of OXFORD, JOHN DE VERE, 13TH EARL OF (1443-1513), was Gloucester, and Oxford himself escaped in disguise to the Nethersecond son of John, the 12th earl, a prominent Lancastrian, lands. In the parliament of 1388 he was found guilty of treason who, together with his eldest son Aubrey de Vere, was executed and was condemned to death, but as he remained abroad the in February 1462. John de Vere the younger was himself sentence was never carried out. With another exile, Michael attainted, but two years later was restored as 13th earl. But his de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, he appears to have lived in Paris loyalty was suspected, and for a short time at the end of 1468 until after the treaty between England and France in June 1389, he was in the Tower. He sided with Warwick, the king-maker, when he took refuge at Louvain. He was killed by a boar whilst in the political movements of 1469, accompanied him in his hunting, and left no children. In 1395 his body was brought exile next year, and assisted in the Lancastrian restoration of from Louvain to England, and was buried in the priory at 1470-1471. As constable he tried John Tiptoft, carl of Worcester, Earl's Colne, Essex. who had condemned his father nine years before. At the See T. Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, edited by H. T. Riley battle of Barnet, Oxford was victorious in command of the (London, 1863-1864); J. Froissart, Chroniques, edited by S. Luce Lancastrian right, but his men got out of hand, and before and. G. Raynaud (Paris, 1869-1897); H. Wallon, Richard 11. they could be rallied Warwick was defeated. Oxford escaped Paris, 1864); and W. Stubbs, Constitutional History, vol. ii. (Oxford, to France. In 1473 he organized a Lancastrian expedition, OXFORD, ROBERT HARLEY, Ist EARL' Of (1661-1724), which, after an attempted landing in Essex, sailed west and English statesman, commonly known by his surname of Harley, seized St Michael's Mount in Cornwall. It was only after a eldest son of Sir Edward Harley (1624-1700), a prominent landfour months' sicge that Oxford was forced to surrender in

owner in Hercfordshire, and grandson of the celebrated letterFebruary 1474. He was sent to Hammes near Calais, whence, writer Lady Brilliana Harley (c. 1600-1643), was born in Bow ten years later, in August 1484, he escaped and joined Henry Street, Covent Garden, London, on the 5th of December 1661. Tudor in Brittany. He fought for Henry in high command at

His school days were passed at Shilton, near Burford, in OxfordBosworth, and was rewarded by restoration to his title, estates shire, in a small school which produced at the same time a lord and hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain. At Stoke on the high treasurer (Harley), a lord high chancellor (Simon Harcourt) 16th of June 1486 he led the van of the royal army. In 1492 and a lord chief justice of the common pleas (Thomas Trevor). he was in command in the expedition to Flanders, and in 1497 The principles of Whiggism and Nonconformity were instilled was foremost in the defeat of the Cornish rebels on Blackheath. into his mind at an early age, and if he changed the politics of Bacon (Hist. of Henry VII. p. 192, ed. Lumby) has preserved his ancestors he never formally abandoned their religious opinions. a story that when in the summer of 1498 Oxford entertained the

At the Revolution of 1688 Sir Edward and his son raised a troop king at Castle Hedingham, he assembled a great number of his of horse in support of the cause of William III., and took possesretainers in livery; Henry thanked the earl for his reception, sion of the city of Worcester in his interest. This recommended but fined him 15,000 marks for the breach of the laws. Oxford Robert Harley to the notice of the Boscawen family, and led was high steward at the trial of the earl of Warwick, and one of to his election, in April 1689, as the parliamentary representative the commissioners for the trial of Sir James Tyrell and others of Tregony, a borough under their control. He remained its in May 1502. Partly through ill-health he took little part after member for one parliament, when he was elected by the conwards in public affairs, and died on the roth of March 1513. He stituency of New Radnor, and he continued to represent it until was twice married, but left no children.

his elevation to the peerage in 1711. Oxford is frequently mentioned in the Paslon Letters, which From the first Harley gave great attention to the conduct of include twenty written by him, mostly to Sir John Paston the younger. See The Paston Letters, ed. J. Gairdner;"Chronicles of public business, bestowing especial care upon the study of the London, ed, C. L. Kingsford (1905); Sir James Ramsay, Lancaster

forms and ceremonies of the blouse. His reputation marked and York; and The Political History of England, vols. iv. and v. him out as a fitting person to preside over the debates of the (1906).

(C. L. K.) House, and from the general election of February 1701 until the OXFORD, ROBERT DE VERE, oth Earl of (1 362-1392), dissolution of 1705 he held with general approbation the office English courtier, was the only son of Thomas de Vere, 8th earl of

* Le in the Harley line.

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of speaker. For a part of this period, from the 18th of May unexpected event, his popularity was restored at à bound.
1704, he combined with the speakership the duties of a principal A French refugee, the ex-abbé de la Bourlie (better known by the
secretary of state for the northern department, displacing in that name of the marquis de Guiscard), was being examined before the
office the Tory earl of Nottingham. In 1703 Harley first made privy council on a charge of treachery to the nation which had
use of Defoe's talents as a political writer, and this alliance with befriended him, when he stabbed Harley in the breast with
the press proved so successful that he afterwards called the genius a penknife (March 8, 1911). To a man in good health the
of Swift to his aid in many pamphlets against his opponents in wounds would not have been serious, but the minister had been
politics. While he was secretary of state the union with Scotland for some time indisposed--a few days before the occurrence Swift
was effected. At the time of his appointment as secretary of had penned the prayer “ Pray God preserve his health, every-
state Harley had given no outward sign of dissatisfaction with thing depends upon it"-and the joy of the nation on his re-
the Whigs, and it was mainly through Marlborough's good covery knew no bounds. Both Houses presented an address.to
opinion of his abilities that he was admitted to the ministry. the crown, suitable response came from the queen, and on
For some time, so long indeed as the victories of the great English Harley's reappearance in the Lower House the speaker made an
general cast a glamour over the policy of his friends, Harley oration which was spread broadcast through the country. On
continued to act loyally with his colleagues. But in the summer of the 23rd of May 1711 the minister became Baron Harley of
1707 it became evident to Godolphin that some secret influence Wigmore and earl of Oxford and Mortimer; on the 29th of
behind the throne was shaking the confidence of the queen in her May he was created lord treasurer, and on the 25th of October
ministers. The sovereign had resented the intrusion into the 1712 became a Knight of the Garter. Well might his friends
administration of the impetuous earl of Sunderland, and had exclaim that he had a grown by persecutions, turnings out, and
persuaded herself that the safety of the church depended on the stabbings.”
fortunes of the Tories. These convictions were strengthened With the sympathy which this attempted assassination had
in her mind by the new favourite Abigail Hill (a cousin of the evoked, and with the skill which the lord treasurer possessed
duchess of Marlborough through her mother, and of Harley on for conciliating the calmer members of either political party,
her father's side), whose soft and silky ways contrasted only too he passed through several months of office without any loss of
favourably in the eyes of the queen with the haughty manners reputation. He rearranged the nation's finances, and continued
of her old friend, the duchess of Marlborough. Both the duchess to support her generals in the field with ample resources for
and Godolphin were convinced that this change in the disposition carrying on the campaign, though his emissaries were in com-
of the queen was due to the sinister conduct of Harley and his munication with the French king, and were settling the terms of
relatives; but he was for the present permitted to remain in his a peace independently of England's allics. After many weeks of
office. Subsequent experience showed the necessity for his dis- vacillation and intrigue, when the negotiations were frequently
missal and an occurrence supplied an opportunity for carrying on the point of being interrupted, the preliminary peace was
out their wishes. An ill-paid and poverty-stricken clerk, William signed, and in spite of the opposition of the Whig majority in
Gregg, in Harley's office, was detected in furnishing the enemy the Upper House, which was met by the creation of twelve new
with copies of many documents which should have been kept peers, the much-vexed treaty of Utrecht was brought to a con-
from the knowledge of all but the most trusted advisers of the clusion on the 31st of March 1713. While these negotiations
court, and it was found that through the carelessness of the head were under discussion the friendship between Oxford and St
of the department the contents of such papers became the John, who had become secretary of state in September 1710,
common property of all in his service. The queen was thereupon was fast changing into hatred. The latter had resented the rise
informed that Godolphin and Marlborough could no longer serve in fortune which the stabs of Guiscard had secured for his
in concert with him. They did not attend her next council, colleague, and when he was raised to the peerage with the
on the 8th of February 1708, and when Harley proposed to title of Baron St John and Viscount Bolingbroke, instead of
proceed with the business of the day the duke of Somerset drew with an earldom, his resentment knew no bounds. The royal
attention to their absence, when the queen found herself forced favourite, whose husband had been called to the Upper House
(February 11,) to accept the resignations of both Harley and as Baron Masham, deserted her old friend and relation for his
St John.

more vivacious rival. The Jacobites found that, although the
Harley went out of office, but his cousin, who had now become lord treasurer was profuse in his expressions of good will for their
Mrs Masham, remained by the side of the queen, and contrived cause, no steps were taken to ensure its triumph, and they no
to convey to her mistress the views of the ejected minister. longer placed reliance in promises which were repcatedly made
Every device which the defeated ambition of a man whose and repeatedly broken. Even Oxford's friends began to com-
strength lay in his aptitude for intrigue could suggest for basten- plain of his habitual dilatoriness, and to find some excuse for
ing the downfall of his adversaries was employed without scruple, his apathy in ill-health, aggravated by excess in the pleasures
and not employed in vain. The cost of the protracted war with of the table and by the loss of his favourite child. By slow
France, and the danger to the national church, the chief proof of degrees the confidence of Queen Anne was transferred from
which lay in the prosecution of Sacheverell, were the weapons Oxford to Bolíngbroke; on the 27th of July 1714 the former
which he used to influence the masses of the people. Marlborough surrendered his staff as lord treasurer, and on the ist August
himself could not be dispensed with, but his relations were dis- the queen died.
missed from their posts in turn. When the greatest of these, On the accession of George I. the defeated minister retired
Lord Godolphin, was ejected from office, five commissioners to to Herefordshire, but a few months later bis impeachment was
the treasury were appointed (August 10, 1710), and among decided upon and he was committed to the Tower on the 16th
them figured Harley as chancellor of the exchequer. It was the of July 1715. After an imprisonment of nearly two years the
aim of the new chancellor to frame an administration from the prison doors were opened in July 1717 and he was allowed to
moderate members of both parties, and to adopt with but slight resume his place among the peers, but he took little part in public
changes the policy of his predecessors; but his efforts were affairs, and died almost unnoticed in London on the 21st of May
doomed to disappointment. The Whigs refused to join in an 1724. He married, in May 1635, Edith, daughter of Thomas
alliance with the man whose rule began with the retirement from Foley, of Willey Court, Worcester. She died in November
the treasury of the finance minister idolized by the city merchants, 1691. His second wife was Sarab, daughter of Simon Middleton,
and the Tories, who were successful beyond their wildest hopes at of Edmonton. His son Edward (1689-1741), who succeeded
the polling booths, could not understand why their leaders did to the title, married Henrietta (d. 1755), daughter and beiress
not adopt a policy more favourable to the interests of their party. of Jobs Holles, duke of Newcastle; and his only child, a daughter
The clamours of ibe wilder spirits, the country members who met Margaret (1715-1785), married William Bentinck, and duke of
at the “ October Club," began to be re-echoed even by those Portland, to whom she brought Welbeck Abbey and the London
wbo were attached to the person of Harley, whoa, through an property which she inherited from her mother. The earldom

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then passed to a cousin, Edward, 3rd earl (c. 1699-1755), and Ranked on one side by a branch of the Thames. From the castle eventually became extinct with Alfred, the 6th earl (1809-1853). the southern wall ran east, along the modern Brewers' Street;

Harley's statesmanship may seem but intrigue and finesse, the south gate of the city was in St Aldate's Street, where it is but his character is set forth in the brightest colours in the poems joined by this lane, and the walls then continued along the north of Pope and the prose of Swift. The Irish dean was his discrimin. side of Christ Church meadow, and north-east ward to the east ating friend in the hours of prosperity, his unswerving advocate gate, which stood in High Street near the junction of Long in adversity. The books and manuscripts which the ist earl Wall Street. Oxford had thus a strong position: the castle of Oxford and his son collected were among the glories of their and the Thames protected it on the east; the two rivers, the age. The manuscripts became the property of the nation in walls and the water-meadows between them on the south and 1753 and are now in the British Museum; the books were sold east; and on the north the wall and a deep ditch, of which to a bookseller called Thomas Osborne in 1742 and described vestiges may be traced, as between Broad and Ship Streets. in a printed catalogue of five volumes (1743-1745), Dr Johnson An early rivalry between the universities of Oxford and writing an account of the library. A selection of the rarer pam. Cambridge led to the circulation of many groundless legends phlets and tracis, which was made by William Oldys, was printed respecting their foundation. For example, those which

History. in eight volumes (1744-1746), with a preface by Johnson. The connected Oxford with “ Brute the Trojan,” King best edition is that of Thomas Park, ten volumes (1808-1813). In Mempric (1009 B.c.), and the Druids, are not found before the the recollection of the Harleian manuscripts, the Harleian library 14th century. The town is as a fact much older than the uniand the Harleian Miscellany, the family name will never die. versity. The historian, John Richard Green, epitomizes the

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The best life of Harley is by E. S. Roscoe (1902). relation between the two corporations when he shows that Articles relating to him are in Engl. Hisl. Rev. xv. 238-250 (Deroe and Harley, by Thomas Bateson): Trans. of the Royal Hist. Soc.

Oxford had already seen five centuries of borough life before xiv. N.S. 69.12! (development of political parties temp. Q. Anne a student appeared within its streets. . . . The university found by W. Frewen Lord): Edinburgh Review, clxxxvii. 151-178, cxcii. Oxford a busy, prosperous borough, and reduced it to a cluster 457-488 (Harley papers). For his relations with St John see Walter of lodging-houses. It found it among the first of English municiconsult the Journal io Stella and Sir Henry Craik's Life of Suift of some of the commonest rights of self-government has only been Sichel's Bolingbroke (1901-1902, 2. vols.); for those with Swift; palities, and it so utterly crushed its freedom that the recovery (2nd ed., 1894, 2 vols.).

(W. P. C.). OXFORD, a city, municipal and parliamentary borough, village may have existed on the peninsula between Thames and

brought about by recent legislation.” A poor Romano-British the county town of Oxfordshire, England, and the seat of a famous university.' Pop. (1901) 49.336. It is situated on the Cherwell, but no Roman road of importance passed within river Thames, 51 m. by road and 63: m. by rail W.N.W. of London.

3 m. of it. In the 8th century an indication of the existence of It is served by the main northern line of the Great Western rail: Oxford is found in the legend of St Frideswide, a holy woman way, and by a branch from the London & North-Western system who is said 10 have died in 735, and to have founded a nunnery at Bletchley; while the Thames, and the Oxford canal, running been discovered (though not at Oxford) bearing thc name Oksna

on the site of the present cathedral. Coins of King Alfred have north from it, afford water communications. The ancient nucleus of the city stands on a low gravel ridge between the Thames and

forda or Orsnaforda, which seems to prove the existence of a mint its tributary the Cherwell, which here flow with meandering

at Oxford. It is clear, at any rate, that Oxford was already courses and many branches and backwaters through flat meadows important as a frontier town between Mercia and Wessex when Modern extensions of Oxford cross both rivers, the suburbs of the first unquestionable mention of it occurs, namely in the Osney and Botley lying to the west, Grandpont to the south, and English Chronicle under the year 912, when Edward the Elder St Clement's to the east beyond the Cherwell. To the north

“took to himself "' London and Oxford. The name points to is a large modern residential district. The low meadow land is

ford for oxen across the Thames, though some have connected bounded east and west by well-wooded hills, rising rather

the syllable "ox-" with a Celtic word meaning "water," comabruptly, though only to a slight elevation, seldom exceeding paring it with Ouse, Osney and Exford. The first mention of the soo ft. Several points on these hills command celebrated views, of its trade in the Abingdon Chronicle, which mentions the toll

townsmen of Oxford is in the English Chronicle of 1013, and that such as that from Bagley Hill to the S.W., or from Elsfield to the N.E., from which only the inner Oxford is visible, with its paid from the with century to the abbot of Abingdon by boats collegiate buildings, towers and spires--a peerless city.

Notices during that century prove the

passing that town. Main roads from east to west and from north to south inter-growing importance of Oxford. As the chief stronghold in the sect near the centre of ancient Oxford at a point called Carfax,: upper Thames valley it sustained various attacks by the Danes, and form four principal streets, High Street (east), Queen Street being burned in 979, 1002 and 1010, while in 1013 Sweyn took (west), Çornmarket Street (north) and St Aldate's (south). bostages from it. It had also a considerable political importance, Cornmarket Street is continued northward by Magdalen Street, Danish thanes Sigfrith and Morkere were treacherously killed

and several gemots were held here, as in 1015, when the two and near their point of junction Magdalen Street is intersected by a thoroughfare formed, from west to east, by George Street, by the Mercian Edric; io 1020, when Canute chose Oxford as Broad Street, Holywell Street and Long Wall Street, the last of English; in 1036, when Harold I. was chosen king, and in 1065.

the scene of the confirmation of " Edgar's law " by Danes and which sweeps south to join High Street not far from Magdalen But Oxford must have suffered heavily about the time of the Bridge over the Cherwell. This thoroughfare is thus detailed, Conquest, for according to the Domesday Survey (which for because it approximately indicates the northern and north: Oxiord is unusually complete) a great proportion of the “ man. eastern confines of the ancient city. The old walls indeed (of sions” (106 out of 297) and houses (478 out of 721) were ruined which there are many fragments, notably a very fine range in New College garden) indicate a somewhat smaller area than that under the strong band of the Norman sheriff Robert d'Oili

or unoccupied. The city, however, had already a market, and defined by these streets. Their line, which slightly varied, as excavations have shown, in different ages, bent south-westward | (c. 1070-1119) it prospered steadily. He made heavy exactions from Cornmarket Street, where stood the north gate, till it reached from him Port Meadow, the great meadow of 440 acres which is

on the townsfolk, though it may be noted that they withheld the enceinte of the castle, which lies at the west of the old city, still a feature of the low riverside tract north of Oxford. But 1 See also UNIVERSITIES.

This word, which occurs elsewhere in England, means a place d'Oili did much for Oxford, and the strong tower of the castle where four roads meet. Its ultimate origin is the Latin quadrifurrus, and possibly that of St Michael's church are extant relics of bis four-forked. Earlier English forms are carfuks, carrefore. The building activity. His nephew, another Robert, who held the modern French is carrefour.

castle after him, founded in 1129 the most notable building that 'In the common speech of the university some streets are never spoken of as such, but, 6.8., as "the High.' the Coro" (i.e. Corn. * In his essay on "The Early History of Oxford," reprinted from market), the Broad." St Aldate's is pronounced St Olds, and Stray Sludies, in Studies in Oxford History, by the Oxford Historical the Cherwell (pronounced Charwell) is called " the Char."

Society (1901).

Oxford has lost. This was the priory (shortly afterwards the become chancellor in 1630. Vestiges of these exaggerated
abbey) of Osney, which was erected by the branch of the Thames powers (as distinct from the more equable division of rights
next west of that by which the castle stands. In its finished between the two corporations which now.obtains) long survived.
slate it had a splendid church, with two high towers and a great For example, it was only in 1825 that the ceremony of reparation
range of buildings, but only slight fragments may now be traced. enforced on the municipality after the Si Scholastica riots was
About 1130 Henry I. built for himself Beaumont Palace, the discontinued.
site of which is indicated by Beaumont Street, and the same king During the reign of Mary, in 1555, there took place, on a spot
gave Oxford its first known charter (not still extant), in which in Broad Street, the famous martyrdom of Ridley and Latimer.
mention is made of a gild merchant. This charter is alluded to Cranmer followed them to the stake in 1556, and the three are
in another of Henry II., in which the citizens of Oxford and commemorated by the ornate modern cross, an early work of
London are associated in the possession of similar customs and Sir G. G. Scott (1841), in St Giles Street beside the church of
liberties. The most notable historical incident connected with St Mary Magdalen. A period such as this must have been in
the city in this period is the escape of the empress Matilda from many ways harmful to the university, but it recovered prosperity
the castle over the frozen river and through the snow to Abingdon, under the care of Elizabeth and Wolsey. During the civil war,
when besieged by Stephen in 1142.

however, Oxford, as a city, suddenly acquired a new prominence
It is about this time that an indication is first given of organized as the headquarters of the Royalist party and the meeting place
teaching in Oxford, for in 1133 one Robert Pullen is said to have of Charles I.'s parliament. This importance is not incomparable
instituted thcological lectures here. No earlier facts are known with that which Oxford possessed in the Mercian period. How-
concerning the origin of the university, though it may, with ever the frontier shifted, between the districts held by the
probability be associated with schools connected with the king and by the parliament, Oxford was always close to it.
ecclesiastical foundations of Osney and St Frideswide; and the It was hither that the king retired after Edgehill, the two batiles
tendency for Oxford to become a centre of learning may have of Newbury and Naseby; from here Prince Rupert made his
been fostered by the frequent presence of the court at Beaumont. dashing raids in 1643. In May 1644 the earl of Essex and Sir
A chancellor, appointed.by the bishop of Lincoln, is mentioned William Waller first approached the city from the east and
in 1214, and an early instance of the subordination of the town south, but failed to enclose the king, who escaped to Worcester,
to the university is seen in the fact that the townsfolk were returning after the engagement at Copredy Bridge. The final
required to take oaths of peace before this official and the arch- investment of the city, when Charles had lost every other
deacon. It may be mentioned here that the present practice of stronghold of importance, and had himself escaped in disguise,
appointing a non-resident chancellor, with a resident vice- was in May 1646, and on the 24th of June it surrendered to
chancellor, did not come into vogue till the end of the 15th Fairfax. Throughout the war the secret sympathies of the citizens
century. In the 13th century a number of religious orders, were Parliamentarian, but there was no conflict within the walls.
which here as elsewhere exercised a profound influence on The disturbances of the war and the divisions of parties, however,
education, becamc established in Oxford. In 1221 came the had bad effects on the university, being subversive oi discipline
Dominicans, whose later settlement (c. 1260) is attested by and inimical to study; nor were these effects wholly removed
Blackfriars Street, Preacher's Bridge and Friars' Wharf. In during the Commonwealth, in spite of the care of Cromwell,
1224 the Franciscans settled near the present Paradise Square. who was himself chancellor in 1651-1657. The Restoration
In the middle of the century the Carmelites occupied part of the led to conflicts between students and citizens. Charles II. held
present site of Worcester College, but their place here was taken the last Oxford parliament in 1681. James II.'s action in forcing
by the Benedictines when, about 1315, they were given Beaumont his nominees into certain high offices at last brought the univer-
by Edward II., and removed there. The Austin Friars settled sity into temporary opposition to the crown. Later, however,
near the site of Wadham College; for the Cistercians Rewley Oxford became strongly Jacobite. In the first year of Gcorge I.'s
Abbey, scanty remains of which may be traced near the present reign there were serious Jacobite riots, but from that time the
railway stations, was founded c. 1280. During the same century city becomes Hanoverian in opposition to the university, the
the political importance of Oxford was maintained. Several feeling coming to a head in 1755 during a county election, which
parliaments were held here, notably the Mad Parliament of 1258, was ultimately the subject of a parliamentary inquiry. But
which enforced the enactment of the Provisions of Oxford. George III., visiting Oxford in 1785, was well received by both
Again, the later decades of the 13th century saw the initiation parties, and this visit may be taken as the termination of the
of the collegiale system. Merton, University and Balliol were purely political history of Oxford. Details of the history of the
the earliest foundations under this system. The paragraphs university may be gathered from the following description of
below, dealing with each college successively, give the dates and the colleges, the names of which are arranged alphabetically.
circumstances of foundation for all. As to the relations between All Souls College was founded in 1437 by Henry Chicheley (9.0.),
the university and the city, in 1248 a charter of Henry III. archbishop of Canterbury, for a warden, 40 fellows, 2 cha ns,
aflorded students considerable privileges at the expense of and clerks. The charter was issued in the name of

Colleges.
townsfolk, in the way of personal and financial protection. Henry VI., and it has been held that Chicheley wished,
Moreover, the chancellor already possessed juridical powers; by founding the college, to expiate his own support of the
even over the townsfolk he shared jurisdiction with the mayor. disastrous wars in France during the reign of Henry V. and the
Not unnaturally these peculiar conditions engendered rivalry ensuing regency. Fifty fellowships in all were provided for by
between “ town and gown ; rivalry led to violence, and after the modern statutes, besides the honorary fellowships to which
many lesser encounters a climax was reached in the riot on St men of eminence are sometimes elected. Some of the fellowships
Scholastica's and the following day, February 10th and with, are held in connexion with university offices; but the majority
1354/5. Its immediate cause was trivial, but the townsmen are awarded on examination, and are among the highest honours
gave rein to their long-standing animosity, severely handled the in the university offered by this method. The only under.
scholars, killing many, and paying the penalty, for Edward III. graduate members of the college are four bible-clerks,' so that
gave the university a new charter enhancing its privileges. The college occupies a peculiar position as a society of graduates.
Others followed froin Richard II. and Henry IV. A charter The college has its beautiful original front upon High Street ;
given by Henry VIII. in 1523 at the instigation of Wolsey the first quadrangle, practically unaltered since the foundation.
conferred such power on the university that traders of any sort is one of the most characteristic in Oxford. The chapel has a
might be given its privileges, so that the city had no jurisdiction splendid reredos occupying the whole easiern wall, with tiers of
over them. In 1571 was passed the act of Elizabeth which figures in niches. After the original figures had been destroyed
incorporated and reorganized the universities of Oxford and during the Reformation the reredos was plastered over, but
Cambridge. In 1635 a charter of Charles I. confirmed its privi.

Here and in some other colleges this title is connected with the
leges to the university of Oxford, of which William Laud had | duties of reading the Bible in chapel and saying grace in hall.

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