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postulated an uninterrupted series of triumphs, whereas a of the conquered provinces of Kulm, Kujavia, Masovia and single reverse was likely to be fatal to it. Thus the frightful Great Poland. The firmness and humanity which he displayed disaster of Nördlingen (September 6th, 1634; see SWEDEN: in this new capacity won the affectionate gratitude of the History) brought him, for an instant, to the verge of ruin, and inhabitants, and induced the German portion of them, notably compelled him, for the first time, so far to depart from his policy | the city of Thorn, to side with the Swedes against the Poles. of independence as to solicit direct assistance from France. But, During Charles's absence in Denmark (1657), Oxenst jerna, in well aware that Richelieu needed the Swedish armies as much the most desperate circumstances, tenaciously defended Thorn as he himself needed money, he refused at the conference of for ten months, and the terms of capitulation ultimately obCompiègne (1635) to bind his hands in the future for the sake tained by him were so advantageous that they were made the of some slight present relief. In 1636, however, he concluded basis of the subsequent peace negotiations at Oliva, between a fresh subsidy-treaty with France at Wismar, The same year Poland and Sweden, when Oxenstjerna was one of the chief he returned to Sweden and took his scat in the Regency. His plenipotentiaries of the Swedish regency. During the domina. presence at home overawed all opposition, and such was the lion of Magnus de la Gardie he played but a subordinate part general confidence inspired by his superior wisdom that for the in affairs. From 1662 10 1666 he was governor-general of Livonia. next nine years his voice, especially as regarded foreign allairs, In 1674 he was sent to Vienna to try and prevent the threatened was omnipotent in the council of state. He drew up beforehand outbreak of war between France and the empire. The conthe plan of the Danish War of 1643-1645, so brilliantly executed nexions which he formed and the sympathies which he won here by Lennart Torstensson, and had the satisfaction of severely had a considerable influence on his future career, and resulted crippling Denmark by the peace of Brömsebro (1645). His in his appointment as one of the Swedish envoys to the congress later years were embittered by the jealousy of the young Queen of Nijmwegen (1676). His appointment was generally regarded Christina, who thwarted the old statesman in every direction. as an approximation on the part of Sweden to Austria and He always attributed the exiguity of Sweden's gains by the peace Holland. During the congress he laboured assiduously in an of Osnabrück to Christina's undue interference. Oxenstjerna anti-French direction; a well-justified distrust of France was, was opposed at first to the abdication of Christina, because he indeed, henceforth the keynote of his policy, a policy diametricfeared mischief to Sweden from the unruly and adventurous ally opposed to Sweden's former system. In 1680 Charles XI. disposition of her appointed successor, Charles Gustavus. The entrusted him absolutely with the conduct of foreign affairs, extraordinary consideration shown to him by the new king on the sole condition that peace was to be preserved, an office ultimately, however, reconciled him to the change. He died which he held for the next seventeen years to the very great at Stockholm on the 28th of August 1654.
advantage of Sweden. His leading political principles were See Axel Oxenstjernas skriften och brefvexling (Stockholm, 1888 friendship with the maritime powers (Great Britain and Holland) et seq.); A. de Marny, Oxenstjerna et Richelieu à Compiègne (Paris, and the emperor, and a close anti-Danish alliance with the 1878). 2. COUNT JOHAN AXELSSON (1611-1657), son of the foregoing, of the regents during the minority of Charles XII. The martial
house of Holstein. Charles XI. appointed Oxenstjerna one completed his studies at Upsala in 1631, and was sent by his father on a grand tour through France, the Netherlands and proclivities of the new king filled the prudent old chancellor Great Britain. He served under Count Gustavus Horn in the with alarm and anxiety. His protests were frequent and Thirty Years' War from 1632, and was subsequently employed energetic, and he advised Charles in vain to accept the terms
of by his father in various diplomatic missions, though his instruc
peace offered by the first anti-Swedish coalition. Oxenstjerna tions were always so precise and minute that he was little more
has been described as a shrewd and subtle little man, of gentle than the executor of the chancellor's wishes. He was one of the disposition, but remarkable for his firmness and tenacity of commissioners who signed the truce of 1635 with Poland, and character.”
See F. F. Carlson, Sveriges historic under Konungarne af Pfalziska in 1639, much against his father's will, was made a senator.
huset (Stockholm, 1883. 1885); O. Sjögren, Karl den elfte och Along with Salvius he represented Sweden at the great peace Svenska folket (Stockholm, 1897); and Négociations du comle congress of Osnabrück, but as he received his instructions direct d'Avaux pendant les années 1693, 1097--1098 (Utrecht, 1882, &c.). from his father, whereas Salvius was in the queen's confidence,
(R. N. B.) the two “ legates" were constantly at variance. From 1650
OXFORD, EARLS OF, an English title held successively by to 1652 he was governor-general of Pomerania. Charles X.
the families of Vere and Harley. The three most important earls made him earl marshal.
of the Vere line (see VERE) are noticed separately below. The 3. GABRIEL GUSTAFSSON (1587-1640), brother of (1), was
Veres held the earldom from 1142 until March 1703, when it from 1612 to 1618 the chief adviser of Duke John, son of became extinct on the death of Aubrey de Vere, the 20th earl. King John III., and Gustavus Adolphus's competitor for the In 1711 the English statesman Robert Harley (see below) was Swedish throne. After the duke's death he became, virtually, I created earl of Oxford; but the title became extinct in this the locum-tenens of the chancellor (with whom he was always family
on the death of the 6th earl in 1853. on the most intimate terms) during Axel's frequent absences
OXFORD, EDWARD DE VERE, 17TH EARL 'Or (1550-1604), from Sweden. 'He was also employed successfully on numerous
son of John de Vere, the 16th earl, was born on the 12th of April diplomatic missions. He was most usually the intermediary
1550. He matriculated at Queen's College, Cambridge, but bet ween his brother and the riksdag and senate. In 1634 he
he temoved later to St John's College, and was known as Lord was created lord high steward. His special department, Svea Bolebec or Bulbeck until he succeeded in 1562 to the earldom Hofret,” the supreme court of justice, was ever a model of and to the hereditary dignity of great chamberlain of England. efficiency, and he frequently acted as chancellor and lord high As one of the royal wards the boy came under the care of Lord treasurer as well.
Burghley, at whose house in London he lived under the tutorship See Gabriel Gustafssons bref till Riks Konsler Axel Oxenstierna, of his maternal uncle, Arthur Golding, the translator of Ovid. 1011-1040 (Stockholm, 1890).
His violent temper and erratic doings were a constant source 4. Count Bengt or BENEDICT GABRIELSSON (1623-1702), of anxiety to Burghley, who nevertheless in 1571 gave him was the son of Axel Oxenstjerna's half-brother, Gabriel Bengtsson his eldest daughter, Anne, in marriage. Oxford more than (1586-1656). After a careful education and a long residence once asked for a military or a naval command, but Burghley abroad, he began his diplomatic career at the great peace con- hoped that his good looks together with his skill in dancing and gress of Osnabrück. During his stay in Germany he made the in feats of arms would win for him a high position at court. acquaintance of the count palatine, Charles Gustavus, aster- His accomplishments did indeed secure Elizabeth's favour, but wards Charles X., whose confidence he completely won. Two he ofiended her by going to Flanders without her consent in years after the king's accession (1654), Oxenst jerna was sent 1574, and more seriously in 1582 by a duel with one of her gentleto represent Sweden at the Kreistag of Lower Saxony. In
Thomas Knyvet. Among his other escapades was a futile 1655 be accompanied Charles to Poland and was made governor
ile. in the Vere line.
plot to rescue from the Tower Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Oxford, and Maud (d. 1413), daughter of Sir Ralph de Ufford Norfolk, with whom he was distantly connected. In 1579 he (d. 1346), and a descendant of King Henry III. He became insulted Sir Philip Sidney by calling him a “puppy on the 9th earl of Oxford on his father's death in 1371, and married tennis-court at Whitehall. Sidney accordingly challenged Philippa (d. 1412), daughter of his guardian Ingelram de Couci, Oxford, but the queen forbade him to fight, and required him earl of Bedford, a son-in-law of Edward III., quickly becoming to apologize on the ground of the difference of rank between very intimate with Richard II. Already hereditary great the disputants. On Sidney's refusal and consequent disgrace chamberlain of England, Oxford was made a member of the Oxford is said to have schemed to murder him. The earl sat privy council and a Knight of the Garter; while castles and on the special commission (1586) appointed for the trial of Marylands were bestowed upon him, and he was constantly in the queen of Scots; in 1589 he was one of the peers who tried company of the young king. In 1385 Richard decided to send Philip. Howard, earl of Arundel, for high treason; and in 1601 his friend to govern Ireland, and Oxford was given extensive he took part in the trial of Essex and Southampton. It has rights in that country and was created marquess of Dublin for been suggested that Oxford was the Italianated Englishman | life; but although preparations were made for his journey he ridiculed by Gabriel Harvey in his Speculum Tuscanismi. On did not leave England. Meanwhile the discontent felt at his return from a journey to Italy in 1575 he brought back various Richard's incompetence and extravagance was increasing, one inventions for the toilet, and his estate was rapidly dissipated of the contributory causes thereto being the king's partiality in satisfying his extravagant whims. His first wise died in 1988, for Oxford, who was regarded with jealousy by the nobles and and from that time Burghley withdrew his support, Oxford who made powerful enemies about this time by divorcing his being reduced to the necessity of seeking help among the poor wife, Philippa, and by marrying a Bohemian lady. The king, men of letters whom he had at one time or another befriended. however, indifferent to the gathering storm, created Vere duke He was himself a'lyric poet of no small merit. His fortunes of Ireland in October 1386, and gave him still more extensive were partially retrieved on his second marriage with Elizabeth powers in that country, and at once matters reached a climax. Trentham, by whom he had a son, Henry de Vere, 18th earl of Richard was deprived of his authority for a short time, and Oxford (1593-1625). He died at Newingto near London, on Vere was ordered in vain to proceed to Ireland. The latter was the 24th of June 1604.
then among those who were accused by the king's uncle Thomas His poems, scattered in various anthologies—the Paradise of of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and his supporters in November Dainty Devices, England's Parnassus, Phoenix Nesi, England's 1387; and rushing into the north of England he gathered an Helicon--and elsewhere, were collected by Dr A. B. Grosart in vol. iv. of the Fuller Worthies Library (1876).
army to defend his royal master and himself. At Radcot Bridge
in Oxfordshire, however, his men fled before the troops of OXFORD, JOHN DE VERE, 13TH EARL OF (1443-1513), was Gloucester, and Oxford himself escaped in disguise to the Nethersecond son of John, the 12th earl, a prominent Lancastrian, lands. In the parliament of 1388 he was found guilty of treason who, together with his eldest son Aubrey de Vere, was executed and was condemned to death, but as he remained abroad the in February 1462. John de Vere the younger was himself sentence was never carried out. With another exile, Michael attainted, but two years later was restored as 13th earl. But his de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, he appears to have lived in Paris loyalty was suspected, and for a short time at the end of 1468 until after the treaty between England and France in June 1389, he was in the Tower. He sided with Warwick, the king-maker, when he took refuge at Louvain. He was killed by a boar whilst in the political movements of 1469, accompanied him in his hunting, and left no children. In 1395 his body was brought exile next year, and assisted in the Lancastrian restoration of from Louvain to England, and was buried in the priory at 1470-1471. As constable he tried John Tiptoft, carl of Worcester, Earl's Colne, Essex. who had condemned his father nine years before. At the See T. Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, edited by H. T. Riley battle of Barnet, Oxford was victorious in command of the (London, 1863-1864); J. Froissart, Chroniques, edited by S. Luce Lancastrian right, but his men got out of hand, and before and. G. Raynaud (Paris, 1869-1897); H. Wallon, Richard 11. they could be rallied Warwick was defeated. Oxford escaped Paris, 1864); and W. Stubbs, Constitutional History, vol. ii. (Oxford, to France. In 1473 he organized a Lancastrian expedition, OXFORD, ROBERT HARLEY, Ist EARL' Of (1661-1724), which, after an attempted landing in Essex, sailed west and English statesman, commonly known by his surname of Harley, seized St Michael's Mount in Cornwall. It was only after a eldest son of Sir Edward Harley (1624-1700), a prominent landfour months' sicge that Oxford was forced to surrender in
owner in Hercfordshire, and grandson of the celebrated letterFebruary 1474. He was sent to Hammes near Calais, whence, writer Lady Brilliana Harley (c. 1600-1643), was born in Bow ten years later, in August 1484, he escaped and joined Henry Street, Covent Garden, London, on the 5th of December 1661. Tudor in Brittany. He fought for Henry in high command at
His school days were passed at Shilton, near Burford, in OxfordBosworth, and was rewarded by restoration to his title, estates shire, in a small school which produced at the same time a lord and hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain. At Stoke on the high treasurer (Harley), a lord high chancellor (Simon Harcourt) 16th of June 1486 he led the van of the royal army. In 1492 and a lord chief justice of the common pleas (Thomas Trevor). he was in command in the expedition to Flanders, and in 1497 The principles of Whiggism and Nonconformity were instilled was foremost in the defeat of the Cornish rebels on Blackheath. into his mind at an early age, and if he changed the politics of Bacon (Hist. of Henry VII. p. 192, ed. Lumby) has preserved his ancestors he never formally abandoned their religious opinions. a story that when in the summer of 1498 Oxford entertained the
At the Revolution of 1688 Sir Edward and his son raised a troop king at Castle Hedingham, he assembled a great number of his of horse in support of the cause of William III., and took possesretainers in livery; Henry thanked the earl for his reception, sion of the city of Worcester in his interest. This recommended but fined him 15,000 marks for the breach of the laws. Oxford Robert Harley to the notice of the Boscawen family, and led was high steward at the trial of the earl of Warwick, and one of to his election, in April 1689, as the parliamentary representative the commissioners for the trial of Sir James Tyrell and others of Tregony, a borough under their control. He remained its in May 1502. Partly through ill-health he took little part after member for one parliament, when he was elected by the conwards in public affairs, and died on the roth of March 1513. He stituency of New Radnor, and he continued to represent it until was twice married, but left no children.
his elevation to the peerage in 1711. Oxford is frequently mentioned in the Paslon Letters, which From the first Harley gave great attention to the conduct of include twenty written by him, mostly to Sir John Paston the younger. See The Paston Letters, ed. J. Gairdner;"Chronicles of public business, bestowing especial care upon the study of the London, ed, C. L. Kingsford (1905); Sir James Ramsay, Lancaster
forms and ceremonies of the blouse. His reputation marked and York; and The Political History of England, vols. iv. and v. him out as a fitting person to preside over the debates of the (1906).
(C. L. K.) House, and from the general election of February 1701 until the OXFORD, ROBERT DE VERE, oth Earl of (1 362-1392), dissolution of 1705 he held with general approbation the office English courtier, was the only son of Thomas de Vere, 8th earl of
* Le in the Harley line.
of speaker. For a part of this period, from the 18th of May unexpected event, his popularity was restored at à bound.
more vivacious rival. The Jacobites found that, although the
then passed to a cousin, Edward, 3rd earl (c. 1699-1755), and Ranked on one side by a branch of the Thames. From the castle eventually became extinct with Alfred, the 6th earl (1809-1853). the southern wall ran east, along the modern Brewers' Street;
Harley's statesmanship may seem but intrigue and finesse, the south gate of the city was in St Aldate's Street, where it is but his character is set forth in the brightest colours in the poems joined by this lane, and the walls then continued along the north of Pope and the prose of Swift. The Irish dean was his discrimin. side of Christ Church meadow, and north-east ward to the east ating friend in the hours of prosperity, his unswerving advocate gate, which stood in High Street near the junction of Long in adversity. The books and manuscripts which the ist earl Wall Street. Oxford had thus a strong position: the castle of Oxford and his son collected were among the glories of their and the Thames protected it on the east; the two rivers, the age. The manuscripts became the property of the nation in walls and the water-meadows between them on the south and 1753 and are now in the British Museum; the books were sold east; and on the north the wall and a deep ditch, of which to a bookseller called Thomas Osborne in 1742 and described vestiges may be traced, as between Broad and Ship Streets. in a printed catalogue of five volumes (1743-1745), Dr Johnson An early rivalry between the universities of Oxford and writing an account of the library. A selection of the rarer pam. Cambridge led to the circulation of many groundless legends phlets and tracis, which was made by William Oldys, was printed respecting their foundation. For example, those which
History. in eight volumes (1744-1746), with a preface by Johnson. The connected Oxford with “ Brute the Trojan,” King best edition is that of Thomas Park, ten volumes (1808-1813). In Mempric (1009 B.c.), and the Druids, are not found before the the recollection of the Harleian manuscripts, the Harleian library 14th century. The town is as a fact much older than the uniand the Harleian Miscellany, the family name will never die. versity. The historian, John Richard Green, epitomizes the
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The best life of Harley is by E. S. Roscoe (1902). relation between the two corporations when he shows that Articles relating to him are in Engl. Hisl. Rev. xv. 238-250 (Deroe and Harley, by Thomas Bateson): Trans. of the Royal Hist. Soc.
Oxford had already seen five centuries of borough life before xiv. N.S. 69.12! (development of political parties temp. Q. Anne a student appeared within its streets. . . . The university found by W. Frewen Lord): Edinburgh Review, clxxxvii. 151-178, cxcii. Oxford a busy, prosperous borough, and reduced it to a cluster 457-488 (Harley papers). For his relations with St John see Walter of lodging-houses. It found it among the first of English municiconsult the Journal io Stella and Sir Henry Craik's Life of Suift of some of the commonest rights of self-government has only been Sichel's Bolingbroke (1901-1902, 2. vols.); for those with Swift; palities, and it so utterly crushed its freedom that the recovery (2nd ed., 1894, 2 vols.).
(W. P. C.). OXFORD, a city, municipal and parliamentary borough, village may have existed on the peninsula between Thames and
brought about by recent legislation.” A poor Romano-British the county town of Oxfordshire, England, and the seat of a famous university.' Pop. (1901) 49.336. It is situated on the Cherwell, but no Roman road of importance passed within river Thames, 51 m. by road and 63: m. by rail W.N.W. of London.
3 m. of it. In the 8th century an indication of the existence of It is served by the main northern line of the Great Western rail: Oxford is found in the legend of St Frideswide, a holy woman way, and by a branch from the London & North-Western system who is said 10 have died in 735, and to have founded a nunnery at Bletchley; while the Thames, and the Oxford canal, running been discovered (though not at Oxford) bearing thc name Oksna
on the site of the present cathedral. Coins of King Alfred have north from it, afford water communications. The ancient nucleus of the city stands on a low gravel ridge between the Thames and
forda or Orsnaforda, which seems to prove the existence of a mint its tributary the Cherwell, which here flow with meandering
at Oxford. It is clear, at any rate, that Oxford was already courses and many branches and backwaters through flat meadows important as a frontier town between Mercia and Wessex when Modern extensions of Oxford cross both rivers, the suburbs of the first unquestionable mention of it occurs, namely in the Osney and Botley lying to the west, Grandpont to the south, and English Chronicle under the year 912, when Edward the Elder St Clement's to the east beyond the Cherwell. To the north
“took to himself "' London and Oxford. The name points to is a large modern residential district. The low meadow land is
ford for oxen across the Thames, though some have connected bounded east and west by well-wooded hills, rising rather
the syllable "ox-" with a Celtic word meaning "water," comabruptly, though only to a slight elevation, seldom exceeding paring it with Ouse, Osney and Exford. The first mention of the soo ft. Several points on these hills command celebrated views, of its trade in the Abingdon Chronicle, which mentions the toll
townsmen of Oxford is in the English Chronicle of 1013, and that such as that from Bagley Hill to the S.W., or from Elsfield to the N.E., from which only the inner Oxford is visible, with its paid from the with century to the abbot of Abingdon by boats collegiate buildings, towers and spires--a peerless city.
Notices during that century prove the
passing that town. Main roads from east to west and from north to south inter-growing importance of Oxford. As the chief stronghold in the sect near the centre of ancient Oxford at a point called Carfax,: upper Thames valley it sustained various attacks by the Danes, and form four principal streets, High Street (east), Queen Street being burned in 979, 1002 and 1010, while in 1013 Sweyn took (west), Çornmarket Street (north) and St Aldate's (south). bostages from it. It had also a considerable political importance, Cornmarket Street is continued northward by Magdalen Street, Danish thanes Sigfrith and Morkere were treacherously killed
and several gemots were held here, as in 1015, when the two and near their point of junction Magdalen Street is intersected by a thoroughfare formed, from west to east, by George Street, by the Mercian Edric; io 1020, when Canute chose Oxford as Broad Street, Holywell Street and Long Wall Street, the last of English; in 1036, when Harold I. was chosen king, and in 1065.
the scene of the confirmation of " Edgar's law " by Danes and which sweeps south to join High Street not far from Magdalen But Oxford must have suffered heavily about the time of the Bridge over the Cherwell. This thoroughfare is thus detailed, Conquest, for according to the Domesday Survey (which for because it approximately indicates the northern and north: Oxiord is unusually complete) a great proportion of the “ man. eastern confines of the ancient city. The old walls indeed (of sions” (106 out of 297) and houses (478 out of 721) were ruined which there are many fragments, notably a very fine range in New College garden) indicate a somewhat smaller area than that under the strong band of the Norman sheriff Robert d'Oili
or unoccupied. The city, however, had already a market, and defined by these streets. Their line, which slightly varied, as excavations have shown, in different ages, bent south-westward | (c. 1070-1119) it prospered steadily. He made heavy exactions from Cornmarket Street, where stood the north gate, till it reached from him Port Meadow, the great meadow of 440 acres which is
on the townsfolk, though it may be noted that they withheld the enceinte of the castle, which lies at the west of the old city, still a feature of the low riverside tract north of Oxford. But 1 See also UNIVERSITIES.
This word, which occurs elsewhere in England, means a place d'Oili did much for Oxford, and the strong tower of the castle where four roads meet. Its ultimate origin is the Latin quadrifurrus, and possibly that of St Michael's church are extant relics of bis four-forked. Earlier English forms are carfuks, carrefore. The building activity. His nephew, another Robert, who held the modern French is carrefour.
castle after him, founded in 1129 the most notable building that 'In the common speech of the university some streets are never spoken of as such, but, 6.8., as "the High.' the Coro" (i.e. Corn. * In his essay on "The Early History of Oxford," reprinted from market), the Broad." St Aldate's is pronounced St Olds, and Stray Sludies, in Studies in Oxford History, by the Oxford Historical the Cherwell (pronounced Charwell) is called " the Char."
Oxford has lost. This was the priory (shortly afterwards the become chancellor in 1630. Vestiges of these exaggerated
however, Oxford, as a city, suddenly acquired a new prominence
Here and in some other colleges this title is connected with the