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PRACTICAL QUESTIONs. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. 7] d. what is that per yard? £ s. d. or, 9)4 3 7 2
2. If 11 tons of hay cost 231. 0s. 2d. what is that pe. tun? Ans. Co 1s. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy cost 4, 15s. 6d. what is that per gallon? Ans. 7s. 11d. 24rs. 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost 11, 16s. 9d. what is that per pound? Ans. 5; d. 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 11s. 2s, how muc a pair do they stand me in? - Ans. 4s. 7d. 6. If a reckoning of 51. 8s. 10 d. be paid equally among 13 persons, what do they pay apiece? Ans. 8s. 4d. 7. A piece of cloth containing 24 yards, cost 18, 6. what did it cost per yard? Ans. 15s. 3d S. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a gu. lon? Ans, 10s. 8d. 9. If I cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s. what is it per pound Ans. 7d. 10. If a man spend 711. 14s. 6d. a year, what is that per calendar month? Ans. £5 10s. God. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 150,000l. a year what is that a day? Ans. C110 19s. 2d.
12. A privateertakes a prizeworth 12465 dollars, of whicl the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the remainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 it number; how much is each sailor's part? Ans. $2493cts. 13. Three merchants A, B, and C, have a ship in com pany. A hath #, Bi, and C+, and they receive for freigh 2281. 16s. 8d. It is required to divide it among the own ers according to their respective shares. Ans. A's share E143 0s. 5d. B's share £57 4s. 2d ro's share C28 12s. 1d. A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it
divided into one hundred shares; of which the captain is to have 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; to midsipmen, each 2; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors, who are 105 in number.
Ans. Captain's share $753 50cts. ; lieutenant's, $342 50 cos.; a midshipman's, $137, and a sailor's, $35 SS.
- - REDUCTION, TEACHES to bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value. Reduction is either Descending or Ascending. Descending, is when great names are brought into small, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.—This is done by Multiplication. Ascending, is when small names are brought into great, is shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is perormed by Division. REDUCTION DESCENDING. Rule-Multiply the highest denomination oven by so many of -- not loss as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you ave brought it down as low as your question requires.
Proof. Change the order of the question, and divide your last oduct by the last multiplier, and so on.
24798 farthings. Note. In multiplying by 20, I added in the 15s.-by 12 neod—and by 4 the 24rs, which must always be done in ----------2. In 311 11s. 10d. Iqr, how many farthings? Ans. 30329.
3. In 46l. 5s. 11d. 34 rs, how many o Ans. 44447. 4. In 611.12s. how many shillings, pence, and farthingAns. 1232s. 14784d. 591364rs. 5. In 841. how many shillings and pence? Ans. 1680s. 201604 6. In 18s. 9d, how many pence and farthings? Ans. 225d. 9004's. 7. In 3121.8s. 5d. how many half-pence? Ans. 149962. 8. In 846 dollars, at 6s. each, how many farthings? Ans. 243648. 9. In 41 guineas, at 28s. each, how many pence? Ans. 13776. 10. In 59 pistoles, at 22s, how many shillings, pence and farthings? Ans. 1298s. 15576d. 62304 qrs. 11. In 37 half-johannes, at 48s, how many shillings, six pences, and three-pences? Ans. 1776s. 8552 six-pences, 7104 three-pences. 12. In 121 French crowns, at 6s. 8d. each, how many pence and farthings? Ans. 9680d. 38720grs. REDUCTION ASCENDING. Rule.-Divide the lowest denomination given, by so many of than name as make one of the next higher, and so on through all the de nominations, as far as your question requires. Proof. Multiply onversely by the several divisors. exa-PLEs. 1. In 224765 farthings, how many pence, shillings and pounds? Farthings in a penny-4)224765
Pence in a shilling =12)5619.1 1 qr.
Shillings in a pound =20)468.27a. £234 2s. 7d. I gr. Ans. 56191d. 4682s. 234. Note. The remainder is always of the same name as the dividend. 2. Bring 30329 farthings into pounds. Ans. £31 11s. 16d. Iqr.
10. In 24396 pence, how many shillings, pounds, a 1d pistoles? Ans. 2033s. E101.13s. and 92 pistoles. 9s. over. 11. In 252 moidores, at 36s, each, how many guineas a
o-s, each 1 Ans. 324. 12. In 1680 Dutch guilders, at 2s. 4d. each, how many pistoles at 22s. each? Ans. 178 pistoles, 4s.
13. Borrowed 1248 English crowns, at 6s. 8d. each, how many pistareens, at 14, d. each, will pay the debt? Ans. 6885 pistareens, and 73d. 14. In 50l., how many shillings, nine-pences, six-pences, four-pences, and pence, and of each, an equal number? 12d.--9d.--6d.--4d.--1d.-32d. and £50= 12000d.--32–375 Ans. Examples in Reduction of Federal Money. 1. Reduce 2745 dollars into cents. 2745 dollars Here I multiply by 100, the cents in
100 a dollar; but dollars are readily brought into cents by annexing two ciphers, Ans. 27.4500 and into mills by annexing three ci.
phers. Also, any sum in Federal money may be written down as a whole number, and expressed in its lowest denomination; for, when dollars and cents are joined together as a whole number, without a separatrix, they will show how many cents the given sum contains; and when dollars, cents, and mills, are so joined together, they will show the whole number of mills in the given sum-Hence, properly speaking, there is no reduction of this money; for cents are readily turned into dollars by cutting off the two right hand figures, and mills by pointing off three figures with a dot; the figures to the left hand of the dot, are dollars; and the figures cut off are cents, or tents and mills. 2. In 345 dollars, how many cents, and mills? Ans. 34500 cos. 345000 mills. 3. Reduce 48 dols. 78cts. into cents. Ans. 4878 4. Reduce 25 dols. Scts, into cents. Ans. 2508 5. Reduce 54 dols. 36 cts. 5 m. into mills. Ans. 54.365 ti. Reduce 9 dols, 9 cts, 9 m, into mills. Ans, 9099