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“ A woman that is like a German clock."-Act III. Sc. 1.
In a book called The Artificial Clockmaker, 1714, we find the follow.
ing remarks: "Clock-making was supposed to have had its beginning in
Germany within less than these two hundred years. It is very probable
that our balance clocks or watches, and some other automata, might have
had their beginning there.” Little worth remark is to be found till to-
wards the 16th century, and then clock-work was revived or wholly in-
vented anew in Germany, as is generally thought, because the ancient
pieces are of German work. The mechanism of these clocks was ex-
tremely complicated, and consequently they frequently wanted repairing.

STEETES.
where is the bush
That we must stand and play the murderer in."

Act IV. Sc. 1. How familiar the amusement of deer-shooting once was to ladies of quality, may be known from a letter addressed by Lord Wharton to the earl of Shrewsbury, dated from Alnewick, Aug. 14, 1555. “I besiche yor lordeshipp to tay ke some sporte of my litell grounde there, and to command the same even as yor lordshippes owne. My ladye may shote with her cross bowe," &c.-STEEVENS.

Here, good my glass."—Act IV. Sc. 1. To understand how the princess has her glass so ready at hand in a common conversation, it must be remembered, that in those days it was the fashion among the French ladies to wear a looking glass, as Bayle coarsely represents it, on their bellies ; that is, to have a small mirror set in gold hanging at their girdle, by which they occasionally viewed their faces, or adjusted their hair.— JOHNSON. But, sir, I assure ye, it was a buck of the first head,

i was a pricket."-Act IV. Sc. 2. In the Return from Parnassus, 1606, we find the following account of the different appellations of deer, at their different ages :-* I caused the keeper to sever the rascal deer from the bucks of the first head. Now, sir, a buck is, the first year, a fawn ; the second year, a pricket; the third year, a sorrell; the fourth year, a soare ; the fifth, a buck of the first head ; the sixth year, a compleate buck. Likewise your hart is, the first year, a calf; the second year, a brochet; the third year, a spade; the fourth year, a stag; the sixth year, a hart. A roebuck is, the first year, a kid; the second year, a gird; the third year, a hemuse; and these are your special beasts for chase."-STEEVENS.

He comes in like a perjure.”—Act IV. Sc. 3. Perjury was punished by affixing a paper to the breast, expressing the crime. Holinshed says of Wolsey, " He so punished a perjurie with open punishment, and open papers wearing, that in his time it was less used." Again, in Leicester's Commonwealth :-" The gentlemen were all taken and cast into prison, and afterwards were set down to Ludlow, there to wear papers of perjury."-STEEVENS.

Like Muscovites, or Russians, as I guess."— Act V. Sc. 2. A mask of Muscoviles was no uncommon recreation at court, long before Shakspeare's time. In the first year of King Henry VIII, at a banquet made for the foreign ambassadors in the parliament chamber at

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Westminster:~"came the lorde Henry, earle of Wiltshire, and the lorde Fitzwater, in twoo long gounes of yellowe satin traversed with white satin, and in every ben of white was a bend of crimson satin, after the fashion of Russia or Ruslande, with furred hattes of grey on their hedes, either of them havyng an hatchet in their handes, and bootes with pykes turned up." Hall's Henry VIII.—RITSON.

Belter wits have worn plain statute-caps.”—Act V. Sc. 2. Woollen-caps were enjoined by act of parliament, in the year 1571, the 15th of Queen Elizabeth. “ Besides the bills passed into acts this parliament, there was one which I judge not amiss to be taken notice of: it concerned the queen's care for employment for her poor sorts of subjects. It was for continuance of making and wearing woollen-caps, in behalfe of the trade of cappers; providing that all above the age of six yeares (except the nobility and some others) should, on sabbath-days and holy-days, wear caps of wool, knit, thicked, and dressed in England, upon penalty of ten groats.”—STRYPE's Annals of ELIZABETH.

Lord have mercy on us !"—Act V. Sc. 2. This was the inscription put on the doors of houses infected with the plague. So in Sir Thomas Overbury's Characters, 1632:-“ Lord have mercy on us may well stand over their doors, for debt is a most dangerous city pestilence."--JOHNSON.

And if these four worthies in their first show thrive,
These four will change habits, and present the other five.

Act V. Sc. 2. Shakspeare here alludes to the shifts to which the actors were reduced in the old theatres, one person often performing two or three parts.

MALONE. “ Some Dick."-Act V. Sc. 2. Out-roaring Dick was a celebrated singer, who with William Wimbars, is said by Henry Chettle, in his Kind Harts Dreame, to have got twenty shillings a day by singing, at Braintree fair, in Essex.-MALONE.

Pageant of the nine worthies."—Act V. Sc. 2. Among the Harleian MSS. we find the following: -“The order of a Showe intended to be made, Aug. 1, 1621. First, Two woodmen, &c., St. George fighting with the Dragon. The nine Worthies in complete armor with crounes of gould on their heads, every one having his esquires to beare before him his shield and penon of armes, dressed according as these lords were accustomed to be, 3 Assa ralits, 3 Infidels, 3 Christians. After them, a Fame, to declare the rare virtues and noble deedes of the 9 worthye women."-STEEVENS.

It was enjoined in Rome for want of linen.”—Act V. Sc. 2. A Spaniard fell in a duel. As he lay expiring, a friend approached, and offered his services. The dying man made but one request, which was, not to suffer his body to be stript, but to bury him in the habit he had on. The friend promised compliance, the Spaniard expired in peace; but curiosity prevailed over good faith; the body was stript, and found to be wilhout a shirl.- WARBURTON.

VOL. I.-47

MERCHANT OF VENICE.

He lends out money gralis, and brings down
The rate of usance here with us in Venice.

Act I. Sc. 3. " It is almost incredyble what gaine the Venetians receive by the usury of the Jewes, both privately and in common. For in everie citie the Jewes kepe open shops of usurie, taking gaiges of ordinarie for xv in the hundred by the yere; and if at the yere's end the gaige be not redeemed, it is forfeite, or at the least dooen away to a great disadvantage, by reason whereof the Jewes are out of measure wealthie in those parts."

Thomas's HISTORY OF Italy, 1561.

But let us make incision for your love,
To prove whose blood is reddest, his or mine."

Act II. Sc. I. Red blood has been considered a proof of courage. Bartholomew Glanville says, “ Reed clothes ben layd upon deed men, in remembrance of their hardyness and boldness, whyle they were in theyr bloudde.” On which, his commentator, Batman, remarks: --" It appeareth in the time of the Saxons, that the manner over their dead was a red cloath, as we now use blacke. The red of valiauncie, and that was over kings, lords, knights, and valyant souldiours.”—Douce.

" Nay more; while grace is saying, hood mine eyes,
Thus with my hat, and sigh, and say, Amen."

Act II. Sc. 2 It should be remembered, that in Shakspeare's time, they wore their hats on during the time of dinner.-Malone.

My nose fell a bleeding on Black-Monday last.”—Act II. Sc. 5. Black Monday is Easter Monday, and was so called on this occasion. In the 34th of Edward III., (1360,) the 14th of April, and the morrow after Easter day, King Edward, with his host, lay before the city of Paris; which day was full dark of mist and hail, and so bitter cold, that many men died on their horses' backs with the cold. Wherefore, unto this day, it hath been called the Blacke Monday."-Stowe.

" It was my turquoise.”—Act III. Sc. 1. A turquoise is a precious stone found in the veins of the mountains on the confines of Persia to the east, subject to the Tartars. It was said of this stone, that it faded or brightened in its colour, as the health of the wearer increased or grew less. So Edward Fenton, in his Secret Wonders of Nature, 1569, says, “ The Turkeys doth move when there is any perill prepared to him that weareth it." --STEEVENS.

Snaky golden locks.”—Act III. Sc. 2. Periwigs were universally worn in Shakspeare's age. This will be best shown by an extract from an old pamphlet, entitled The Honestie of this Age, by Barnabe Riche, 1615. — • My lady holdeth on her way, perhaps to the tire-maker's shop, where she shaketh her crownes to bestow upon some new fashioned attire, upon such artificial deformed periwigs, that they were fitter to furnish a theatre, or for her that in a stage play should represent some hag of hell, than to be used by a Christian woman. These attire-makers, within these fortie years, were not knowne by that name; and but now very lately they kept their lowsie commodity of periwigs, and their monstrous attires, closed in boxes; and those women that used to weare them would not buy them but in secret. But now they are not ashamed to set them forth upon their stalls, such monstrous moppowles of haire, so proportioned and deformed, that but within these twenty or thirty yeares would have drawne the passers-by to stand and gaze, and to wonder at them."-MALONE.

Like culler's poetry.—Act V. Sc. 1. Knives were formerly inscribed, by means of aqua fortis, with short sentences in rhyme. In Decker's Satiromastix, we have the following allusion to this custom :-“ You shall swear by Phæbus, who is your poet's good lord and master, that hereafter you will not hire Horace to give you poesies for rings, or handkerchers, or knives, which you understand not."-REED.

AS YOU LIKE IT.

.In the forest Arden."-Act I. Sc. 1. Ardenne is a forest of considerable extent in French Flanders, lying near the Meuse, and between Charlemont and Rocroy.--MALONE.

" Is but a quintain, a mere lifeless block.—Act I. Sc. 2. The quintain was a stake driven into a field, upon which were hung a shield and other trophies of war, at which they shot, darted, or rode, with a lance. When the trophies and shield were all thrown down, the quintain remained.-GUTHRIE.

" Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,

Wears yet a precious jewel in his head." —Act II. Sc. 1. * There is found in the heades of old and great toades, a stone, which they call borax or stelon: it is most commonly found in the head of a hee toade, of power to repulse poysons, and that it is a most soveraigne medicine for the stone."—WONDERS OF NATURE, 1569.

“ You shall know whether the tode stone be the right and perfect stone or not. Hold the stone before a toad, so that he may see it; and if it be a ryght and true stone, the tode will leape towarde it, and make as though he would snatch it. He envieth so much that man should have that stone."- Lupton's NoTABLE THINGS.

To the which place a poor sequesler'd stag
Did come to languish-

and big round tears,
Cours'd one another down his innocent nose

In piteous chase."-Act II. Sc. 1. The stag is said to possess a very large secretion of tears. “When the hart is arered, he fleethe to a river or ponde, and roreth, cryeth and weepeth when he is taken.”—“ When the hart is sick, and hath eaten inany serpents for his recoverie, he is brought into so great a heat that

he hasteth to the water, and there covereth his body unto the very eares
and eyes, at which time distilleth many teares, from which the bezoar
stone is engendered."-BATEMAN and Douce.
I was never so be-rhymed since Pythagoras' time, that I was an Irish

rat.”—Act III. Sc. 2.
Rosalind is a very learned lady. She alludes to the Pythagorean doc-
trine, which teaches that souls transmigrate from one animal to another,
and relates that in his time she was an Irish rat, and, by some metrical
charm, was rhymed to death. The power of killing rats with rhymes,
Donne mentions in his Satires, and Temple in his Treatises. Dr. Grey
produces a like passage from Randolph :-

my poets
Shall with a satire, steeped in gall and vinegar,
Rhyme them to death, as they do rats in Ireland." JOHNSON

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Garagantua's mouth.”—Act III. Sc. 2. Garagantua is the giant of Rabelais. Johnson.

But I answer you right painted cloth.—Act III. Sc. 2. This alludes to the fashion in old ta pestry hangings, of mottos and moral sentences from the mouths of the figures worked or painted in them.

THEOBALD. Then your hose should be ungarter'd." — Act III. Sc. 2 Inattention to personal appearances was one of the established symptoms of being in love. So in the Fair Maid of the Exchange, by Her. wood, 1637 : “ Shall I, that have jested at love's sighs, now raise whirl. winds? Shall I, that have fouted ah me's once a quarter, now practice ah me's every minute? Shall I defy hal-bands, and tread garters and shoe-strings under my feet? Shall I fall to falling bands, and be a ruf fian no longer? I must; I am now Cupid's liegeman, and have read all these informations in the book of his statutes." —MALONE.

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Something browner than Judas's.”— Act III. Sc. 4. Judas was constantly represented in old paintings or tapestry, with red hair and beard. So in the Insatiate Countess, 1613: _“I ever thought by his red beard he would prove a Judas."-STEEVENS.

The common executioner

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Falls not the axe upon the humbled neck."-Act III. Sc. 5. There is reason to believe, that during Elizabeth's reign the punishment of decapitation was occasionally inflicted by an instrument resembling the French guillotine. The Earl of Morion, when condemned as an accomplice in the murder of Darnley, seems to have suffered in this way. The criminal's head and neck being laid on a block, the axe, which was suspended over him, was released from the cord which confined it, by the executioner, and fell with sufficient force to separate the head from the body. " I will weep for nothing, like Diana in the fountain." — Act IV. Sc. 1.

An allusion to the Cross in Cheapside; the religious images, with which it was ornamented, being defaced (as we learn from Stow) in

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