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often ineffectual urgency to pass water. The patient took, from early morning, as much of the citrated Borate of Magnesia as would stand on the point of a knife every two hours. Astonishingly soon, the pain and urgency diminished, and had completely disappeared by evening, and at night quiet sleep ensued. On examining the urine, I found a brown cylindrical stone, one line long and half a line broad.

The second case was that of an old official, who for a long time had a fixed pain in the region of the left kidney, which had been taken for rheumatism. After the passage of some grains of gravel, there was no doubt left as to the disease. After the homoeopathic use of Nux vomica, he drank soda-water and Wildung water copiously, whereby the pain was diminished, but still continued to be perceptible. The discharge of urine was less, sometimes difficult, and nothing of the nature of a calculus passed. After the fourteenth day, I gave him the stone-powder of citrated Borate of Magnesia, a knife-pointful to be taken three times a day. On the third day the urine was copious, passed easily and brought away a little brown stone; on the fourth two small renal calculi passed. The pain in the kidneys kept diminishing, and on the seventh had gone off entirely. On the following days, some small stones again passed. But, as nothing further took place, his health continued quite good, and the prescribed quantum of the medicine was used up, no more was given. Four weeks have passed since, and no symptoms have reappeared.

These happy results are so evident, that I can, on the fullest conviction, prescribe the citrated Borate of Magnesia. It is to be procured from the apothecary, Dr. Kayser, at Miihlhausen.—Med. Central Ztg., 1866, 23.

Abstract of Minutes of Proceedings of Sixtieth Meeting of Liverpool Homoeopathic Medico-Chirurgical Society, held May 2nd, 1866.

The President being unwell, no address was delivered; but Mr. Willans read a paper on Stricture of the Urethra. He confined his remarks principally to permanent stricture, whose locality, he said, was generally about three or four inches from the orifice. The proper treatment, he thought, was dilatation with a metallic bougie, carefully introduced and carefully withdrawn, about every third day, and left in two or three minutes each time, not more, gradually increasing the size up to No. 10 or 12. The hest medicines, he thought, were Cannabis, Cantharis, Pulsatilla, and Belladonna.

The treatment of stricture being principally surgical, Dr. Drysdale had not had much experience; but he believed stricture to be at the bottom of most cases of chronic gleet, and in such cases should be sought for, in order that surgical treatment may be combined with the medical treatment. He was sure surgical cases progress much more rapidly when assisted by homoeopathic medical treatment. He remembered once seeing a case in which stricture produced an intermittent fever, which being treated with Quinine was made worse, but was rapidly cured by proper treatment of the stricture. He had found Clematis, as recommended by Hahnemann, very useful, and he would recommend Thuja.

Dr. Stokes had not had any experience with stricture under homoeopathy.

Dr. Simmons said that at Guy's Hospital the bougie was sometimes left in the urethra for several hours—he had known it for twenty-four—for the purpose of setting up mucous discharge and bringing on absorption by pressure.

Dr. Nankivell mentioned that Mr. Holt treated stricture by passing through it first a No. 1 split catheter, and then passing inside this larger ones up to No. 10, thus forcibly splitting up the stricture; and that he had published some two hundred successful cases.

Dr. O'Neil agreed with Mr. Willans that that the bougie should be left in the urethra only a short time. Dr. Burnett had not had much experience with stricture. Dr. Hayward thanked Mr. Willans for bringing this subject before the Society, because he believed stricture was much more frequently the cause of the chronic cases of gleet so troublesome to physicians than is generally supposed, and that it always required the introduction of the bougie. He remarked that it would be more definite to name the particular part of the urethra (as spongy or membranous) in indicating the locality of stricture, than by naming the number of inches from the orifice. As to the cause of stricture, he believed that syphilis alone was sufficient, without gonorrhoea and the use of injections. He agreed with the treatment recommended by Mr. Willans, except

VOL. XXIV, NO. XCVIII. OCTOBER, 1866. Y Y

that he would use an elastic bougie in preference to a metallic one for the safety and convenience of passing. The plan of passing adopted by him was, gently pressing an oiled and warmed elastic bougie against the stricture, and at the same time grasping the urethra just in front of the stricture, and drawing it forwards and upwards, and gently twisting the bougie, or turning it on its axis, forming a screwing pressure. He has been able to pass bougies by this plan frequently when he could not by any other. The medicines he used were Mercurius and Sulphur.

Dr. Simmons drew the attention of the Society to the very excellent Homoeopathic Directory lately published under the editorship of Dr. Bayes, and suggested that homoeopathic practitioners should each purchase several copies and distribute them amongst the allopathic practitioners of their neighbourhood, with the object of making them acquainted with the fact that there are a considerable number of regularly qualified medical men practising homoeopathy from a conviction of its truthfulness.

The Society concurred in the suggestion; Dr. Hayward remarking that he had already distributed half a dozen.

Homoeopathic Life Insurance.

We have received the first number of a monthly publication issued by the Hahnemann Life Insurance Company of Cleveland, Ohio. This is an insurance office for those under homoeopathic treatment only. We give an extract from an address of its actuary, Dr. Dake, in the number before us, from which our readers will be enabled to learn its aims and the principles on which it is to be conducted:—

In the month of September last, after some consultation held in the city of Pittsburg, it was agreed by Prof. S. R. Beckwith, of Cleveland, and myself, that we would at once set about the organisation of a Life Insurance Company that should make a discrimination in its applicants, assuring those who are patrons of homoeopathy at rates of premium considerably less than those who may be the subjects of allopathic treatment.

In pursuance of our mutual pledge, our plans were laid before a number of gentlemen of large financial abilities in the city of Cleveland, and a sufficiency of capital at once secured to enable us to obtain a liberal charter under the laws of Ohio. Fixing the sum of our capital stock at $200,000—an amount necessary to open to our agencies all the States as well as the Canadas—we permitted parties in Cleveland and vicinity to subscribe, not to exceed three-fourths thereof, reserving at least §50,000 to be taken by the friends of homoeopathy in other parts of the country. Finding, however, that the offering of our subscription list to parties abroad was not rightly understood, and that it might lead to doubts as to our inherent or domestic soundness, we allowed the balance to be taken in Ohio. Before the close of October, our institution, known as "The Hahnemann Life Insurance Company," was organised for business.

As its representative, I have visited the chief cities of the country, presenting its purposes and plans to the members of the homoeopathic profession, and am happy to report that our efforts have been met with favour on every hand.

Owing to the diversity of laws in the several States regulating life insurance, and a lack of necessary experience and energy in the early management at our Home Office, we have been delayed much beyond our expectation in the establishment of agencies in all parts of the country. I am pleased, however, to announce to you that we have fully complied with the requirements of New Tork, Massachusetts, and other States, and are now prepared to operate everywhere as fast as competent agents can be obtained.

With regard to the soundness of our institution, I wish to add that it is perfectly satisfactory, and unsurpassed; there being not only a paid-up cash capital of $200,000, but also the personal obligations, under the laws of Ohio, of our stockholders for as much more in case of the exhaustion of the entire capital by losses.

Our board embraces some of the ablest financial managers in the country, while in the office of secretary we have an experienced life-insurance officer, in administrative ability unsurpassed, and scarcely equalled anywhere.

With this brief history and outline of our institution, permit me to assure you that the ruling motive which occasioned its origin was a determination to have a sound and liberal company that should not only provide for the widows and orphans of the dead in the usual manner, but one that should also save the patrons of our superior healing art from paying the unjust higher rates of premium required of those under less certain and more hazardous modes of medical treatment.

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The underwriter in fire insurance examines not only the interior heating apparatus of the building he is called upon to insure, but also carefully surveys its connections and surroundings, in order to fix his rate of premium thereon.

The underwriter in marine insurance examines not only the hull, machinery, outfit, and cargo of the vessel he is about to insure, but he also carefully inquires as to the waters in which the craft will sail and the ports she will enter, in order to judge of the dangers she may encounter and the rate of premium he is to demand.

The underwriter in life insurance inquires into the physical history and condition of one applying for a Policy nor does he neglect to ascertain the residence and occupation as well as the character and habits of the applicant. If he has lost both parents at an early age with consumption, or if he be drunken and dissolute, he cannot be insured. If he be a powder manufacturer, a pilot, an engineer or fireman, he can be insured only by paying an extra rate of premium.

Since it has thus been deemed important to examine every element or item of risk by fire, storms, hereditary taint, accidents, and habits, we are unable to see why the results and hazards of medical treatment should not be also taken into consideration.

I have no hesitation in saying, that where one man is blown up with gunpowder, twenty are killed outright by destructive doses of drugs; where ten die by alcoholic stimulants, at least twenty others die by narcotic and irritant medicines, prescribed, as the doctors say, "secundum artem;" and for all who perish by going below the southern boundary of Tennessee, or beyond the Rocky Mountains, more than an equal number fall short their period of expectation for the want of appropriate remedial agents when sick.

From an extensive gathering of medical and mortuary statistics, I am fully satisfied there is at least 10 per cent. less mortality among the sick under homoeopathic treatment than among those under allopathic.

In fact, I am convinced that no medication at all is better than allopathic, with all the light that collateral branches or science have shed upon its pathway from the days of Hippocrates down.

In making up our rates of premium, I have found it necessary to go back to the proper starting-point, and with the advice and assistance of Prof. Elizur "Wright, of Boston, to make up a new

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