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sified to their deserving!' And if desert of heaven be not here acknowledged,” quoth the bishop, “I understand no English.” “About what matter speaks he now ?" quoth the duke to Mr. Cosin, as he then stood next him turning to the place that was cited; who answered, that it was about no matter at all, but about a word only, as his Grace should hear. My lord of Rochester and the dean of Carlisle replied, that the diversifying of every man's state to their deserving, was no more in Mr. Mountague's sense, than the rewarding of every man according to his work, which are the very words of the Scripture; that men were not brought to heaven propter opera, but per opera, as the school distinguisheth. “In Mr. Mountague's sense ?! ” quoth my lord of Lichfield, so you may excuse any popery whatsoever. Here is a plain assertion of popish merit; if his meaning were otherwise, why was it not expressed ?” “It is expressed before,quoth Mr. Cosin,“ (p. 208), and the whole thirteenth chapter is written of purpose to express his meaning; where his own words

are, that the deserving which he means is no more but this, Verily there is a reward for the righteous; and for any popish sense or meaning of the word, he disclaims it in express terms, (p. 203.) The Jesuits use the word mereri contrary to the ancient Fathers' meaning, and contrary to the natural origination and sense thereof; which was but 'to procure, to incure, to obtain ;' as was shewed out of Tacitus, and my lord of Rochester alleged out of the Fathers that mereri they used for obtinere; and whereas (1 Tim. i. (13.]) St. Paul saith sed misericordiam consecutus, quia ignorans feci, St.Cyprian reads it, quia misericordiam merui. And here merui could not be any desert; because ignorance, though it may excuse, can be no merit.” “Howsoever ye may qualify it,” saith my Lord Say, "the word Deserving is very offensive unto a right believer and a sound Protestant, who cannot but be scandalized when he shall read it in one of our own authors.” “I will answer you for that," quoth my lord duke; “let it be applied to the wicked and to their torCONF. ments, which are the words immediately going before, and I.

· The passage alluded to appears to be the following, which occurs in connexion with the text cited above. Si peccatorum remissam consecutus est, et sanctificatus est, et templum Dei

factus est,

quæro cujus Dei? Opp. p. 133, edit. Baluz.

m See Gagger, p. 155; Ussher's Answer to a Jesuit, p. 500. edit. 1625.

there will be no offence in it at all.” “For my part," quoth my lord chamberlain, “I think this a very slight objection, specially against a man that had so clearly professed his mind before against popish Merit.” And hereupon the bishop of Lichfield turned over his papers for a fifth objection.

V. And the fifth objection was, that Mr. Mountague had in plain terms denied the Oath of Supremacy, in his Gag, (p. 68,) where the Gagger objecting to us, that we hold a woman may be supreme governess of the Church in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as temporal, as Queen Elizabeth was, Mr. Mountague gives him the lie for it, and says no Protestant ever thought so. “And I think,” quoth the bishop of Lichfield, “that this saying of his is not far from treason."

The lords being somewhat troubled at this objection, desired to see the place, and forthwith Mr. Cosin delivering the book to the duke, and shewing withal that Mr. Mountague had not blamed the Gagger for the words recited, but for leaving out other words, that should have gone along with them, as, “supreme governess over all persons in all causes," the kingly power in causes merely ecclesiastical having always reference unto the supreme power over their persons that are to manage and perform them ;—my lord duke, turning himself to the bishop of Lichfield with the book in his hand, read as followeth : “My lord, I pray hear. Can your small understanding put no difference betwixt over all, and in all ? betwixt persons and causes ? over all persons in all causes, is one thing; over all persons and all causes, is far another thing. Over each, or over causes without persons, looketh your way;

but causes with persons, over the parties in their proceedings, is no such exorbitance. And I wonder,” quoth the duke, “ that you will make such large accusations and prove nothing."

The bishop replied, that he stood to Mr. Mountague's first words, which were very offensive. “Nay," quoth my lord chamberlain and the earl of Carlisle, "you must give a man leave to finish his answer before you pass a censure upon the same. Mr. Mountague in the words immediately ensuing saith as much as you, or any man, can require him to say.

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In p. 69, his words are these, (and my lord chamberlain read them,)—“We say princes have supreme power in earth, under God, over all persons in all causes whatsoever, within their dominions, even in causes merely ecclesiastical, to compel them to do their duties by the civil sword, et que sequuntur.“So that this accusation," quoth my lord duke, "might have been spared, for we are all of Mr. Mountague's mind, and if you be not so, my lord of Lichfield, you are much to blame.” “Nay," quoth the bishop, “I am very glad that things are thus answered and solved, I seek not to destroy the man; but if it please your Grace, I will proceed to another objection.” “Let it be to some purpose then," quoth the duke, “for hitherto nothing hath been said that is of any moment;" and to this saying most of the lords agreed.

And the next objection was, that Mr. Mountague had opposed the doctrine of the Church of England in the nineteenth Article, where the words are, that the Church of Rome hath erred not only in their living and manner of ceremonies, but also in matters of faith. But Mr. Mountague would make men believe the contrary in his Gagger, (p. 50,) where his words are,—(“and they are written in Latin,” quoth the Bishop, “that his popery might not be too apparent,)-et quamvis præsens hæc Ecclesia Romana et tamen eodem fundamento doctrinæ et firma semper constitit.” “They are none of his words," quoth the dean of Carlisle, “they are Cassander's n." "Yea," quoth the bishop, “but he says moderate men will confess as much on both sides, and himself is one of those moderators as well as Cassander, it seems, who are nothing else but openers of gaps to let in popery." “Well,” quoth the duke, “what saith the Article?” “It saith," quoth the bishop, “that the Church of Rome hath erred in matters of Faith." “ And what saith that passage in Mr. Mountague?“It saith," quoth the bishop, “that the Church of Rome, though it hath erred in manners and dis


(In the margin of the first draught occurs this passage, written by dean White, · The words of Cassander are, in eodem fundamento sacramentorum, a Deo institutorum. Now, the Roman Church may have persisted in the same


foundation of Sacraments instituted by God, and yet err in their superstructure, or addition of new Sacraments, and in additions to those Sacraments which are ordained by God.']



"I con

CONF. cipline, yet in matters of Faith it hath always continued

firm.” “Matters of Faith?” said Mr. Cosin, “I beseech
your lordship read over the words again.” And when his
lordship had read them, he found the words to be funda-
mento fidei, which all matters of Faith are not.
fess," quoth the bishop, “this is the best answer that can
be made unto it.” “I pray,” quoth the duke, “make me
to understand that.” And when it was a little explained
unto him,—“But what say you,” quoth the bishop, “to
the words following, whereby the Church of Rome is said
to have continued right in the doctrine of the Sacraments.
Doth not the Church of Rome make seven Sacraments, and
the Church of England but two ?” “Two only, as generally
necessary to salvation," quoth Mr. Cosin, out of the Cate-
chism ; "and in that sense there are many in the Church
of Rome that hold no more. In a larger acceptation the
Church of England hath been accustomed to call Confirma-
tion, and many other rites and ceremonies, by the name of
Sacraments.” “That it never did," quoth the bishop; "shew
me any place to that effect.” And hereupon was the Common-
Prayer Book called for; and first, the words of the Act read
which are prefixed before the book, where the minister is en-
joined to the administration of the Lord's Supper, and to
each other of the Sacraments; which each other' must needs
be understood of more than one; and after, the rubric at the
end of the Communion was turned to, where the words are,
that every parishioner (who must be supposed to be baptized
already) must communicate thrice in the year, and also re-
ceive the Sacraments, which Sacraments are some rites that
Baptism and the Supper of the Lord is not, for they were
named before, and these come after, with an also,' over and
above the other two. Whereat my lord of Lichfield being
a little troubled, as having never observed the place before,
he wished that Mr. Mountague were there to answer for him-
self, for otherwise they should never come to an end. “Yea,”
quoth my lord chamberlain, “we should desire to hear him
speak above all others.

* May it please your lordship,” quoth Mr. Cosin, “I had order left me this morning by Mr. Mountague to send for him of purpose, whensoever you pleased to meet; and had he supposed your lordships would have met so suddenly, he would surely have attended you.” “That may be helped,” quoth the duke; "you shall send for him to be here on Tuesday next, at which time we will all be ready in this place again, and spend the whole afternoon in conference, to make an end of all.” The lords consented to the time appointed, and every man began to rise, the duke smiling, and the lord chamberlain shaking his head at the needless accusations which had been made; "and surely," saith the duke, “if these be the greatest matters you be grieved with, I can see no reason but Mr. Mountague should be defended."

“Well,” quoth my Lord Say, “the chiefest matter is yet behind, which is about falling from grace, and the definitions of the divines in the Council of Dort.” “If ye have any mind to that,” said the dean of Carlisle, “I shall be ready to confer with you.” The lords being willing to stay a while longer, my lord of Lichfield told Dr. White that he could never defend that opinion of falling from grace.” “No;" quoth the dean, “I pray, my lord, answer me, doth your lordship hold that a man may continue in foul and wilful sin ; as for instance, fall in love with another man's wife, and live in adultery with her a long time, two, three, four, five months together, and yet all this while continue in the state of

“That man was never justified,” quoth the bishop. “But suppose he were justified, take any justified man you will, may he not fall into these sins, and for a time continue in them?“Well, you are at David's case," quoth the bishop. “He may, then,” says the dean; "he may fall from grace, and thus I prove it. He that hath no remission of sins is not justified; he that is not justified, is not in the state of saving grace; but he that lives and continues in sin during that time, and until he actually forsakes his sin, hath no remission of it; ergo, he that lives and continues in sin during that time, wanting remission of sin and justification, is not in the state of saving grace.” Quoth the bishop, “He is not actually justified, but yet he is just in the sight of God.” Quoth the dean, “ Justification is only actual, according to the protestant tenet; therefore if a man is not actually justified, he is not justified at all; for protestants believe no habitual justification, because every habit is a

grace ?

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