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small, and the situation itself so un- sult? Not that those courts should dignified, that few lawyers of respect- be abolished on the contrary, they ability could bear to lose so much recommend that they should be kept of interest and character as the up “on account of" (as the preface acceptance of this situation might to the report observed) “ the cheap. suppose. The English judge held his ness and expedition with which jussituation free and independent of the tice was administered in them.” They Crown; he discharged the duties of had' pointed out, indeed, some parti. his high office without dependence cular defects, and Mr Warren was upon those by whom he was appoint preparing to bring in a bill to remedy ed. The situation of the Welsh judge these, and only waited the result of was, on the contrary, dependent and the present motion. obscure, the administration of justice The motion was supported by Mr vague and uncertain. The defects of Creevey and Lord John Russell; also the Irish courts had been ably point. by Mr Wynn, who observed, that the ed out by Lord Colchester, who had committee had not reported on the observed, that the present English propriety of Welsh judges being ala judges would indeed be unequal to lowed to sit in the House. In consuch an addition of business, but that sequence of the lamented death of the purpose might be answered by Mr Ponsonby, the chairman of the three additional ones, to assist at the former committee, together with other Old Bailey, and go occasionally to circumstances, the effect and bearing the northern circuit.

of the evidence taken before it had These observations excited no small never been laid before the House. indignation in Mr Warren, the Chief Colonel Wood said, that though Mr Justice of Chester, who then filled his Ponsonby had begun the inquiry with seat in the House. It was too much strong prejudices against the Welsh for the honourable member to say that system, he had finally thought it inall the Welsh judges were obscure expedient that it should be entirely and ignorant. Did the honourable done away with. One great inconmember mean to say that he (Mr venience was, that many of the witWarren) was obscure? He should nesses could not speak English, and hope not. But had the honourable when put into the box their first angentleman ever heard that Sir Wm. swer was, dem Sassenach. The disGrant was one of those who had held tance and state of the roads would the situation which he himself had render it highly inconvenient to the the honour to fill? He presumed not. judges, the present Chief Justice, for Had the honourable member ever instance, to travel the Welsh circuit. heard that Justice Mansfield, that Sir He thought the alteration of their ju. Vicary Gibbs, that Lord Kenyon, that dicature would excite great dissatisthe present Chief Justice Dallas, and faction through the principality. other distinguished characters, had Mr Wrottesley confirmed the statefilled the same situation ? It was not ments of Colonel Wood; but Mr J. known, perhaps, to some members, Allan stated his impression to be dethat a committee had been appointed cidedly different. The only merits in 1817 on the subject of the Welsh he had heard ascribed to the system courts and the Welsh judges; and, of Welsh judicature, were its superior after the examination of several dis- cheapness and dispatch. Upon the tinguished individuals, they made point of cheapness, it might indeed their report--and what was the re- be said that the items, the details of legal expenses, were cheap; but if that was honourable in society; a ju they would take any town or district dicature to which, if he might believe of Wales, they would find that the the greater part of the evidence which total sum expended there in litiga had been offered on the subject, tha tion would very far exceed that of part of the country was most warmly any town or district of the same ex- attached. He objected, however, to tent in England,-a circumstance the wording of the motion, by which which arose, no doubt, from the ten- the committee were instructed to condency which the cheapness of laws sider the propriety of abolishing the had to excite litigation. It was as a Welsh judicature, and the best mean: member of this principality he now by which the same could be effected.' claimed for his countrymen that they He would suggest the words of the should be admitted to all the advan- original motion for a committeetages of the British constitution-ad- “ To inquire into, and report to the vantages which they could not be House, their observationstouching the said to possess while they had infe- administration of justice in Wales.' rior judges, an inferior bar, and in- At the same time, his Lordship strong ferior attornies.

ly censured the personal reflection · Lord Castlereagh had always sup- which had been made upon indivi. posed that the subject had undergone duals, and denied that the appoint: the most elaborate examination, and ments were made by government that every possible inquiry had been with any view except the efficient dis. made. Now, however, it appeared charge of the situations. that the labours of that former com- Mr Barham stated his impression mittee had terminated under circum- that Mr Ponsonby had never mate stances less satisfactory, certainly, rially altered his opinion on the sub than they would have been, if, after ject. He remembered his remarkable hearing all the evidence to be brought expression, "it would be better for al on the subject, and with the addi. to get into the great boat." Many o tional advantage of hearing the man- the Welsh judges were highly re ner in which it was given, they had spectable, but there were too many gone on to make a report which should of a different character. He belie have been of that clear and ample na. ved the wish of the inhabitants wa ture which generally resulted from almost unanimous to be placed on thi the labour of a committee. He had same footing as England. no objection, if the House felt so dis- The Chancellor of the Excheque posed and he fairly owned he felt and Mr W. Parnell strongly defend himself disposed to have the ques- ed the character of the Welsh judges tion further investigated ; but he Mr Campbell, after some discus should wish that to be done without sion, agreed to Lord Castlereagh? prejudice to the existing judges, who amendment, and the motion for were distinguished by every quality committee was carried.

CHAPTER VI.

THE QUEEN-ARRIVAL.

Delicate situation of the Queen.-She quits.Journey through France.-Intera

vier with Lord Hutchison at St Omers.She crosses the Channel, and arrives in London.Popular enthusiasm in her favour.King's Message to Parliament.Debates in both Houses.-Delay.Unsuccessful Negociation. -Resolutions moved by Mr Wilberforce Rejected by the Queen.

AFTER the disappointment of suc- its passions had been excited, might cessive attempts to involve the state have supposed, that nothing merely in anarchy, the nation began to personal to royalty, nothing which breathe, and sanguine hopes were did not directly tend to the benefit entertained that the new reign would and relief of the nation itself, could flow on in a more tranquil and uni- have caused any strong agitation. form tenor. The present, however, Experience only could shew that these was, on the contrary, the era of a principles still possessed so great a convulsion, which, if less perilous, force, and could serve even as a focus was more violent and universal than to collect all the energies of popular any which Britain had experienced faction. Not even those who were for ages preceding. We approach most to profit by the circumstance with pain to a subject, on which the could previously anticipate it. From passions of men were so highly in the moment, indeed, of the recent flamed, and where there appears so accession, it was perceived that the little room for praise on either side; relations between the two greatest but where, on the contrary, we may personages in the state must be of find something to blame in every delicate and difficult adjustment, and thing that was said and done by al likely to involve the executive in semost every person. The event, how. rious embarrassment. The feelings of ever, makes too great a figure in the respective political parties were history, and afforded too ample a dis- shewn by the ample and exulting play of the genius and character of terms in which the one dilated upon the nation, to be passed over without the subject, and by the niggard and full notice.

cautious responses of the other. Both He who had observed the temper foresaw a struggle, though neither of of the British public for some time them that terrible struggle which acprevious, and the objects by which tually ensued. VOL. XIII. PART 1.

H

It is not, we presume, denied by guard against the necessary tendency either party, that impressions very of their own agents to represent their unfavourable to the Queen had been information in colours that might be received from abroad, and were ge- most satisfactory to their employers. nerally credited among the higher Whether all these considerations were circles. These impressions, accord- dulyweighed,may appearin the course ing to one party, were derived from of future proceedings. Meantime, it the uniform consent of every one who appears that ministers believed themhad possessed any opportunities of selves, from the result of those injudging ; while, according to others, quiries, to have derived a full proof they were studiously circulated by of criminal and degrading conduct, enemies, who scrupled at no means, such as would fully justify any exhowever criminal, to gratify their ani. tremity to which they might chuse to mosity. According to these reports, proceed. The resolution formed, and however, this unfortunate lady was re- which, with this conviction, cannot presented to have renounced not the be considered as very violent, appears reality only, but even the appearance, to have been, to leave the Queen unof the virtues becoming her sex and molested in a private station, and rank. It was in these circumstances even to supply her with the means of that measures were taken by ministry supporting the rank, and tasting the to establish and condense the facts indulgences, to which she had been belonging to this subject, so as to accustomed, but to withhold every bring them to proof when the occa- thing which belonged to the state sion should require. Upon this prin- and dignity of Queen. Should any ciple was formed the Milan Commis- attempt be made to claim these, that sion, the object of so much discussion mass of evidence was kept in readiand criticism. There is necessarily ness to burst forth, which, it was supa something odious in inquisitorial prac- posed, would speedily level in the tices, especially when carried on dust all her pretensions. against a female standing in an un- . The first public indication of this protected situation. At the same system was given by the exclusion of time, any party which has a right to the Queen's name from the liturgy. carry on legal proceedings against By the most considerate well-wishers another, seems to have a clear right to the cause of royalty, this measure to employ agents to collect evidence met only with half approval. This in its own favour. The character of did not appear the occasion or the the English agents employed has not manner in which humiliation ought been impeached ; it has only been to have been inflicted. It was an inwondered, of some of them, that they sult of such a nature, that, unless the should engage in an employment so Queen was prepared to submit to little congenial to men of nice and every thing, could not fail to bring lofty feelings. At the same time, in on a violent collision. the case of such witnesses as were to There was nothing either in the be got, it was very necessary to guard, past or present conduct of this royal lest their answers to such powerful personage tending to authorise such inquirers should be dictated rather an expectation. Without delay, she by a consideration of what would be dispatched a letter to the Earl of agreeable, than of what was true. It Liverpool, demanding that her name beloved also ministers to be on their should be inserted in the liturgy; that instructions should be sent to all mi- to Villeneuve, she was met by Aldernisters and consuls abroad to pay her man Wood and Lady Anne Hamilton, the respect due to the Queen of Eng. who came to welcome her, and to atland, and that a palace should be pro- tach themselves to her fortunes. Here vided for her at home. No answer, a consultation was held ; the result at least no satisfactory answer, being of which was, that a courier was disreceived to these demands, no hesita- patched to London with three letters ; tion was felt in resolving to proceed one to Lord Liverpool, requiring that independently, and in defiance of go- a palace should be immediately prevernment ; and early in May, the pared for her reception; another to Queen began to put herself in motion Lord Melville, with the demand that towards England.

a yacht should be ready on the 3d In England, meanwhile, no symp- June to convey her to the British toms yet appeared of the tempest shore; a third to the Duke of York, which was about to explode. Even containing a recapitulation of both the most zealous promoters of faction demands, and a general complaint of were still unconscious of the mighty the manner in which she had been instrument which was soon to be in treated. The messenger was desired their hands. The movements of the to bring the answers to St Omer's, Queen were announced only by ob- whither the Queen meant to proceed scure paragraphs in the corners of with the utmost expedition. Accordthe newspapers, which, a few weeks ingly the party left Villeneuve on the after, were to treat every other sub- 29th May, and passing through Meject as unworthy of being placed in lun to avoid Paris, posted with such competition. So great seemed the rapidity, that on the 1st June they national tranquillity, that no hesita- arrived at St Omer's. tion was felt in announcing the coro- Ministers were probably taken connation, which it was well understood siderably by surprise with an event, that the King alone was to share. The which, though impending, had hithernecessary orders were issued to the to been considered 'as distant. The respective tradesmen ; places were demand of a yacht, which was the secured for viewing the procession; most immediate, was evaded, by Lord the table of the Privy Council was Melville stating, in a note to Lady covered with petitions from those to Anne Hamilton, that in consequence whom usage assigned either stations of his Majesty's absence from town, or perquisites in this splendid cere- his orders could not be taken on the mony, and the minds of all men subject. No time, however, was lost seemed solely engrossed by this ap- in adopting the most vigorous meaproaching pageantry.

sures to avert the threatened landThe Queen, meantime, was pro- ing. With this view they solicited ceeding steadily in her destined pur- the mediatorial services of Lord Hutpose. On the 17th April, she gave an chinson, who had been once much entertainment to her Italian friends, attached to her Majesty, and was now and took leave of them at her villa, a confidential friend of the King. To near Pesaro. Her motions were then him they communicated the terms on little noticed; but she proceeded, we which they were willing to come to believe, by way of Turin to Geneva. an accommodation, and which were Towards the end of May we find her founded on the basis stated above. at Dijon, whence proceeding forward Lord Hutchinson was accompanied

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